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ELBOTBOTimBi ADO PitiaTBai,>bu>hia. 


THE family of the late Dr. Charles Hodge have been assured, 
by those in whose judgment they have the most reason to con- 
fide, that a memoir of his life should be prepared. This was ren- 
dered probable by the fact that, although his life had been a quiet 
one, varied by few external events of general interest, yet it had 
been one of very remarkable literary activity, and of protracted 
and extended influence, involving an intimate association with 
many of the most interesting characters and events of the cen- 
tury. The totality of the phenomenon, including personality and 
achievement, was unquestionably very remarkable. It matters not 
whether the effect is to be attributed in the largest measure to 
natural, gracious, or providential endowments, the study of the 
causes combining to produce such an effect must be instructive. 
Behind every cause, whatever its nature, is the beneficent effi- 
ciency of God, and to him will be all the praise. 

The subscriber undertook the work because he could secure the 
agency of none of those who would be more competent. That 
he is a son is an advantage, in so far as the relation secures 
special opportunities of information, and the strongest motives to 
diligence. It need, on the other hand, occasion no embarrass- 
ment, as he does not purpose to intrude upon others his opinions 
of, or his affection for his Father, but simply to gather and present 
materials through which his Father and his work may speak for 
themselves, and the opinions of the most competent among his con- 
temporaries may be impartially reflected. 

At the repeated and earnest solicitation of his children, my Father 
jotted down during the last year of his life some reminiscences of 



his childhood and youth, and of his early friends. These I have re- 
corded in the first and second chapters of this Memoir, preserving 
his order and language in the first person, but interpolating addi- 
tional matter of the same kind, culled from the reminiscences of 
my Father's only brother, the late Dr. Hugh L. Hodge, of Philadel- 
phia, dictated to his daughter-in-law, Mrs. Harriet Woolsey Hodge, 
during the winters of '70 and '71- I have preferred rather to fuse the 
new material with that of my Father, than to keep them mechanically 
distinct, and have marked the words of my uncle as his only in a few 
instances, when the propriety of doing so will be evident. 

The other sources from which these memorials are drawn are : — A 
diary kept during his residence in Germany, from March, 1827, to 
May, 1828 : — meager notices of events and dates, preserved in con- 
nection with his daily record of the weather : — his published writings 
and his extant manuscripts: — ^his own letters, preserved by his 
mother, brother, and friends: — ^the letters of his correspondents: — 
estimates of his character and services, published during his life and 
since his decease, and especially the printed records of his Semi- 
centennial Celebration, April 24th, 1872. 

The state of his letters and papers is accurately represented by 
what he said in response to an application from a daughter of one 
of his oldest friends : " Through my long life I have never destroyed 
and never preserved letters." With much care many interesting 
relics have been recovered from the mass, while doubtless much just 
as valuable remains undiscovered. 

I am particularly indebted to my Father's pupils in Ireland and 
Scotland — Prof. Robert Watts, D. D., of Belfast, and Mr. Charles A. 
Salmond, of Arbroath, and to Rev. Professor Benjamin B. Warfield, 
and the Rev. Drs. Henry A. Boardman and Wm. M. Paxton, of 

Princeton, N. J., August 19, 1880. A. A. Hodge. 




Ancestry, Childhood, Mother, Brother, Teachers and Companions . . 1-19 



Proiession of religion — Revival — Class-mates and Teachers .... ao-38 




Study in Philadelphia — Journeys to Silver Lake and Virginia — Seminary life 
and friends — and letters to Mother and Brother 39-^7 



Correspondence with Dr. Alexander, and with his Mother and Brother — Visit 
to New Haven, Boston and Andover — His licensure, teaching in the 

Seminary, and preaching at Lambertville and Ewing 68-91 







His election as Professor — Marriage — Birth and baptism of children — Studies 
and commencement of the Biblical J?^/^r/(7^— Resolution to go to Eu- 
rope 92-103 




Letters to his wife, mother, and Dr. Alexander, relating to his voyage and 
residence in Paris — His journal, kept during his residence in Halle and 
Berlin — Letters from Drs. Alexander and Miller — His own letters relating 
to his visit to Switzerland, and return home via Paris, London, and 
Liverpool 104-201 



Work as a professor and preacher — Correspondence with German friends — 
Children, family relations, and recreations — Correspondence with brother 
— Death of mother — Politics - Lameness — His department of instruction 
reinforced by Mr. Hubbard and Professor J. A. Alexander— Gathering of 
professors and friends in study — The Biblical Repertory and Princeton 
Review — Its history, and estimate of its character and influence — ^The 
qualifications and success of Dr. Hodge as an editor and reviewer — His 
associates and principal contributors — His Commentary on Romans — 
His Constitutional History of the Presbyterian Church of the United 
States *..... 202-284 



The historical conditions out of which the conflict sprang^— The several parties 
in the church — The true position of the '* Princeton," or conservative 
"party" — Dr. Hodge's own statement of the principles on which he and 
his asso|piates acted— The thorough agreement of all the Princeton men 
as to principles and measures — Misconceptions corrected — Dr. Hodge's 


relation to the "Act and Testimony " — His letters to his brother and to 
Dr. Boardman . • 285 — 320 



His transfer to the chair of Systematic Theology — His method and success in 
teaching — ^The '* Way of Life" — Letters from Dr. A. Alexander, Bishop 
Johns, Ludwig; and Otto Von Gerlach — His articles in the Princeton 
Review — Slavery — Sustentation — Romish Baptism — His letters to his 
brother, and from Drs. Biggs and Johns -Friendship and correspondence 
with Dr. William Cunningham— Death of Professor Albert B. Dod — 
Marriage and departure of his children — Death of his wife — Disturbed 
health — Death of his senior colleagues 321 — 383 



A member of the Boards of the Church— Trustee of the College of New Jer- 
sey — Methods of Teaching — Second marriage — Corrpspondence with his 
brother, politics — Dancing and card-playing- The baptism of the infants 
of non-professors — Commentaries — Articles in the Princeton Review (I.) 
On the General Assemblies — The relation of the Board of Missions to the 
Presbyteries — ^The constitutionality of our Boards — Commissions — ^The 
adoption of the Confession of Faith — Religious education, and the reli- 
gious amendment of the Constitution of the United States — (II.) Free 
Agency, Inspiration, &c. — (HI.) Presbyterian Liturgies — (IV.) "The 
Princeton Review and Cousin's Philosophy ' — (V.) Review of Bishop 
McIIvaine on the Church — (VI.) His articles on the Church and Elder 
question — Correspondence with Dr. William Cunningham and Bishop 
Johns — The death of Drs. James W. and Joseph A. Alexander — Letter 
of Dr. R. L. Dabney — Election of his son, C. W. Hodge, as Professor of 
N. T. Literature, &c. — His great debate with Dr. Thorn well in the Gen* 
eral Assembly of 1861 384 — 44S 



His appearance and health — His occupations and recreation — ^The composi- 
tion of his " Systematic Theology '' — The Sabbath afternoon Conferences 
—The Civil War: correspondence with his brother — ^The assassination 


of Lincoln: correspondence with his brother— Letter to Dr. Robert 
Watts on the "Witness of the Spirit "—The relation of the Church to 
political questions, and the merits of the actual decisions by the General 
Assembly (O. S.) of questions growing out of the War — The case of the 
Rev. S. B. McPheeters, D. D. — The re-union of the Old and New School 
Presbyterians — The National Presbyterian Convention, Philadelphia, 
Nov., 1867 449-508 


APRIL 24, 1872 509-530 



FROM 1872 TO HIS DEATH, JUNE I9, 1 878. 

His appearance and habit of mind — ^The object of general love, in his fiunily, 
the Seminary, and among his students — The death off his brother, Dr. H. 
L. Hodge, of Philadelphia — Dr. William Goodell's biographical sketch 
of him — The visit of the General Assembly of 1872 to Washington — The 
Evangelical Alliance, New York, 1873 — Historical sermon, delivered at 
the re-opening of the Chap>el of the Theological Seminary in Princeton, 
September 27th, 1874 — Latest correspondence and interviews with his 
friend. Bishop Johns — ^The appointment of his assistant and successor — 
His eightieth birth-day — His writings during these last years . 531-577 



KRAXTTH, D. D 588-616 









DURING the last years of the seventeenth and the first 
of the eighteenth centuries, William Hodge, and 
Margaret, his wife, lived in the north of Ireland. They 
were the parents of four boys and two girls, of whom two 
died in early childhood, and one surviving to maturity left 
no record. The father died January 4th, 1723, and the 
mother October 15th, 1730. 

Soon after the death of their mother, the three remaining 
children, William, Andrew and Hugh, emigrated to America 
and settled in Philadelphia, where they became successful 
merchants and men of influence in the community. William 
had but one child, Mary, who in August, 1757, married Mr. 
William West, from whom are descended the Wests, Con- 
ynghams and Fraziers of Philadelphia, and the Stewarts of 
Baltimore. Hugh, the youngest of the three brothers, had 
but one child, a son bearing his own name, who graduated 
in the College of New Jersey, in Princeton, in 1773, and 
took his master's degree in course. Soon afterwards he 
1 I 


sailed for Europe, but the ship he sailed in was never heard 
of after leaving port. 

His mother, Mrs. Hannah Hodge, known for many years 
in the &mily as Aunt Hannah, was recognized in all the 
city as a mother in Israel. She was born in Philadelphia, 
January, 1721, the daughter of John Harkum, of English 
descent. Her mother, whose maiden name was D02, was 
the child of a Protestant who fled from France on account 
of the revocation of the Edict of Nantz, 1685, and afterwards 
with other French Protestants, was principally instrumental 
in founding the First Presbyterian Church, then standing 
on Market Street above Second, of which the Rev. Jedidiah 
Andrews was pastor. Although Hannah joined the church 
in 1736 or 7 she thought her true conversion occurred un- 
der the preaching of Whitefield, when her life became emi- 
nently consecrated to religious interests. When in 1743 
the Second Presbyterian was formed out of the converts of 
Whitefield, she was one of one hundred and sixty communi- 
cants originally enrolled. In 1745, she married Mr. Hugh 
Hodge, who was a deacon in the Second Church from its 
foundation to the time of his death. They had a dry-goods 
store on the north side of Market Street above Second. 
Their house was the resort of clergymen and the centre of 
religious meetings. After her husband's death. Mrs. Hodge, 
although left independent, retained the business in order 
that she might not curtail her charities. Dr. Ashbel Green, 
her pastor, afterwards President of Princeton College, en- 
tertained a sincere reverence for her, and concludes his 
memoir of her, printed in the Panoplist, vol. 2d, for the year 
ending June, 1807, with a glowing eulogium of his friend. 
"Solid sense, sterling integrity, sincere piety united with 
great humility, the love of truth and the abhorrence of hy- 
pocrisy were her chief characteristics. These gave her an 
influence among her Christian associates perhaps superior 
to that of any other individual." Her house was the home 
of several old and infirm ladies, supported in great measure 

* » . »- 


by her bounty; and here* also originated the weekly meet- 
ing for prayer and religious instruction observed still in the 
Second Church, and in most of the other Presbyterian 
Churches of the city. The house in which she lived was, 
by the will of her husband, left upon her decease to the 
Trustees of the College of New Jersey, for the education of 
candidates for the ministry. This endowment has con- 
tinued to fulfil the pious design of its founders up to the 
present time, yielding an income varying fi-om eight to 
fifteen hundred dollars annually; thus constituting with a 
few others the foundations of a system of endowments 
which has since attained magnificfent proportions. 

Aunt Hannah died December 17th, 1805, when I was 
eight years old. I was present at her funeral, and was stand- 
ing with my cousin, John Bayard, rather older than myself, 
near the open cofSn. We began to cry. We thought that 
was the right thing to do. But his mother came up, and 
giving us a little shake, said in an authoritative whisper, 
"Stop." The discovery that we were making ourselves 
ridiculous, instantly dried the fountain of tears. By such 
filaments the present generation is connected with the 

Andrew Hodge, the second in order of age of the three 
immigrant brothers, bom in Ireland, March 28th, 171 1, was 
my grand&ther. He soon became a successful merchant, 
and acquired considerable property. His wharf, and store, 
and city residence in which he spent his life, were on Water 
Street, to the south of what is now termed Delaware 
Avenue. His country seat was on Mead lane, now Mont- 
gomery Avenue, and he possessed one of the only six car- 
riages then in the city. He was active and influential in all 
the af&irs of the Church and of the community, one of the 

*" The crowd being often so grtat as to fill, not only the parlor and kitchen, 
but even the baclc garden, close up against Christ Church ground, and much to 
tiie oflfence of our Episcopal brethren, who called them ' Those conventicles held 
by Mis. Hodge.* " 


founders of and a liberal contributor to the Second Church, 
and a member of its board of Trustees to the day of his 
death. In 1739 he married Miss Jane M'CuUoch. Her 
brother Hugh was an elder in the Second Church, and a 
man of great goodness and influence, though remarkable 
for the great tenacity with which he held on to his own 
opinions. He never would consent to the assertion that the 
earth moves ; maintaining that it was contrary alike to his 
own observation and to Bible authority, as Joshua com- 
manded not the earth, but the sun to stand still. His char- 
acter is said to have been imbibed by our family, " O I there 
is Uncle M*Culloch " having become quite a .saying among 
the descendants of his sister. 

The religious excitement which attended the preaching 
of Whitefield in this country about the middle of the last 
century, gave rise to two parties in the Presbyterian Church. 
Those who approved of the revival were called New Lights, 
and those who stood aloof or opposed to it, were called Old 
Lights. The pastor of the First Church, then the only Pres- 
byterian Church in Philadelphia, together with a majority 
of the congregation were Old Lights, while a minority were 
on the other side. These latter were, at their own request, 
set off and organized into the Second Church, of which the 
celebrated Gilbert Tennent was the first pastor. Of this 
Andrew Hodge, Senior, was a Trustee, and his son-in-law. 
Col. John Bayard, and his brother-in-law, Mr. Hugh M*Cul- 
loch, were ruling elders. The Church edifice was erected 
on the corner of Third and Arch Streets. It was an oblong 
building. The shorter side on the east faced Third Street ; 
the longer side was on Arch Street. The steeple was on the 
west end, and the pulpit was on the north side. Subse- 
quently the steeple was taken down and the tower included 
in the auditorium, and the pews were turned round to face 
the pulpit, which was placed at the west end. The Church 
in after years was removed to Seventh Street, near Arch, 
where it remained during the pastorates of Rev. Drs. Cuyler 


and Shields. The shifting of the population necessitating 
another removal, a lot was purchased at the corner of 
Twenty-first and Walnut, on which has been erected one of 
the most beautiful church-buildings in the city. My grand- 
fcither's pew in the original edifice on Third and Arch Streets 
was the front one in the middle aisle to the left hand of the 
preacher. The same pew, i, e,, the same in relative position, 
has remained in the family ever since. It is now held by 
the great-grandson of the original occupant, Dr. H. Lenox 
Hodge, who is also a ruling elder in his ancestral* Church. 

These &mily details are of interest to those whom they 
concern. I wish, however, that those who come after me 
should know that their ancestors and kindred were Presby- 
terians and patriots. 

Andrew Hodge and Jane M'CuUoch were the parents of 
fifteen children, eight of whom died in infancy or early life. 
Their eldest child, Margaret, married John Rubenheim Bay- 
ard, of Bohemia Manor, Maryland, afterwards a Colonel 
in the Revolutionary army. After the war he settled in 
Philadelphia, but during the latter part of his life resided in 
New Brunswick, New Jersey. His sons were James A., 
who married the daughter of the Rev. Dr. Rodgers, New 
York ; Andrew, a merchant, and president of the Commer- 
cial Bank, Philadelphia; Samuel, clerk of the Supreme Court 
of the United States, and a resident of Princeton, New 
Jersey ; John M., who resided on the Millstone river, near 
to a village of the same name ; and Nicholas, a physician, 
who settled in Savannah, Georgia. His daughters were Jane, 
who married Chief Justice Kirkpatrick, of New Brunswick, 
N. J. ; Maria, who married Samuel Boyd, Esq., of New 
York; and Mrs. Samuel Harrison Smith, of Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

Agnes, the second child of Andrew Hodge, sr., married 
James Ashton, a twin-brother of her brother-in-law, Col. 
John R. Bayard, who was a surgeon in the revolutionary 
army, and was accidentally killed in Charleston, South Car- 


olina. Their children were John Hodge Bayard, who lived 
in Cumberland and died unmarried ; Jane, whom I remem- 
ber as a portly lady, dressed in the simple habit of a Qua- 
keress, which the stricter Methodists of that period adopted ; 
and James Ashton Bayard, jr., bom July 28, 1767. He 
practiced law in Wilmington, Delaware, and in 1787 repre- 
sented his district in the National House of Representatives. 
In 1804 he was chosen United States Senator, as successor 
to his &ther-in law, Governor Bassett, which position he re- 
tained until he was selected by President Madison as a 
Commissioner, together with Gallatin, Clay, and others, to 
negotiate a peace with Great Britain. His son, Richard H. 
Bayard, was United States Senator from 1836 to 1839, and 
again from 184 1 to 1845. His second son, the third James 
Ashton Bayard in the direct line, was United States Senator 
for many years. And again the office has been continued 
in the third generation, in the person of the present Senator, 
Thomas F. Bayard. 

A third daughter of Andrew Hodge, sr., married a gentle- 
man from the West Indies, by the name of Philips. She 
left an only child, a daughter, who died unmarried. 

A fourth daughter, Mary, married Major Hodgdon, a 
commissary in the revolutionary army. She lived to a 
great age, and left many children. 

The sons of Andrew Hodge, sr., were John, a physician, 
who died at twenty-three years of age, and William, a mer- 
chant, who residing abroad was called by acquaintances on 
the Continent, *' the handsome American." After the revo- 
lution he was employed in the secret service of his govern- 
ment, and falling under suspicion, was for a time confined in 
the Bastile, where he was well treated. He died when only 
thirty years old. Of James, the youngest son of Andrew, 
sr., it is only known that he died unmarried. Andrew, jr., 
graduated in Princeton College in the class of 1772, and 
married Ann Ledyard, half-sister of the traveler and author. 
He was a Captain in the Pennsylvania Hne during the revo- 


lution, and was present at the battle of Princeton, and used 
to boast that he had captured a cannon in " Stockton's 
woods." He lived to a great age, and left many children. I 
heard the old gentleman say that at the battle of Princeton 
a company from Delaware, formed a little in advance of his 
own, broke and ran at the first fire of the British. Its Cap- 
tain, who was rather corpulent, came puffing by crying, 
*' Run, Captain Hodge, run, Captain Hodge, we shall all be 
killed." The only answer I could get to the question " Did 
Captain Hodge run?" was a little laugh. He fell back, how- 
ever, upon his treasure trove, " the cannon in Stockton's 

Hugh, the eighth child and fourth son of Andrew Hodge, 
sr., was my &ther. He was bom in Philadelphia, August 
20, 1755, graduated in the College of New Jersey in 1773, 
and studied medicine under the eminent doctor Cadwalader. 
He was appointed Surgeon, February 7, 1776, in the third 
battalion of troops raised in the Province of Pennsylvania, 
in the service of the United Colonies. He was captured by 
the British, and held as a prisoner at Fort Washington, N. 
Y., but through the intervention of General Washington 
was liberated on parole. After engaging in mercantile pur- 
suits with his brother Andrew, he returned to the practice 
of medicine, and soon secured an influential connection. 
The tradition of his fine person and attractive manners 
lingered among the latest survivors of his generation. He 
was a prominent actor in the terrible scenes occasioned by 
the memorable epidemics of yellow fever in 1793, and after- 
wards in 1795. And through the exposure incident to his 
labors on these occasions his constitution was impaired, and 
he died after protracted sufferings July 14, 1798, at the early 
age of forty-three. His pastor, Dr. Ashbel Green, said of 
him, in his eulogium, that " as a husband, £ither, brother, 
friend and citizen, none surpassed him." 

His wife, my mother, was Mary Blanchard, of Boston. 
Her mother's name was Hunt, probably of English origin. 


Her fether, Joseph Blanchard, was a descendant of the 
French Huguenots. She was bom in Boston in 1765, and 
passed her earliest years amidst the excitements preparatoiy 
to the rebellion of the Colonies against the authority of 
Great Britain. Of course her opportunities for education 
were comparatively few, but such as they were she employed 
them well, and early manifested a great taste for reading, 
often retiring from the fire-side circle to a cold room, in the 
depth of a Boston winter, and there enveloped in a blanket, 
read and committed to memory passages from Pope and 
Dryden, which she could repeat in after life. The physician 
of her family was the celebrated Dr. Joseph Warren, after- 
wards Major-General Warren, who fell at Bunker Hill, one 
of the first of his country's martyrs. Her recollections of 
him were always very vivid, as she often sat on his lap 
listening to his enthusiastic discourse upon the exciting con- 
troversies of the day. She was the youngest of several 
children. The descendants of some of her brothers remain 
in Boston to the present time, while those of others are in 
the extreme south-west. Her brother Samuel married a 
niece of the Hon. Timothy Pickering, a Colonel in the revo- 
lutionary army, and afterward was Secretary of War, under 
Washington. Her fevorite nephew, Francis Blanchard, was 
father of the first wife of the distinguished Mr. Winthrop, of 
Boston. Her parents died when she was young, and her 
brothers and sisters, being for the most part married, she 
came to Philadelphia to reside with her brother, John Blan- 
chard, about 1785, at twenty years of age, and was intro- 
duced to our family through letters to Maj. Hodgdon. 

After a courtship, protracted by the failure of his mercan- 
tile enterprises, she was married to my father in 1790, by 
Rev. Dr. Green, and went to housekeeping in the dwelling- 
house on the west of the store-house, on Water street below 
Race, belonging to the estate of his fether, Andrew Hodge, 
sr., then recently deceased. On December 19th, their first 
child was born, a daughter, whom they named Elizabeth. 

. o.] HIS BIRTH. 9 

She was a healthy and promising child, until in Augrust, 

1793, she was suddenly carried off by yellow fever. Their 
second child was Mary, bom September ist, 1792, and their 
third child was a little boy named Hugh, bom August 24, 

1794. When her little boy was about a year old, after many 
years of absence, my mother revisited her home in Boston, 
leaving her little ones in Philadelphia. Very shortly the 
little Mary sickened with measles, of which fiict, of course, 
the mother was instantly informed. She immediately left 
Boston in the mail stage, and after traveling three days and 
three nights she arrived home to find that Mary was dead, 
and Hugh also was dying of the same disease. Thus was 
Bhe left again childless. Their fourth child, Hugh Lenox 
Hodge, was bom June 27, 1796, the year after the death of 
his litde namesake brother. The family at this time, because 
of the supposed insalubrity of Water street, removed to a 
house on the south side of Arch street above Fourth, the 
third door from Christ Church burying-ground. Here at 
midnight, in the last moments of the 27th or the first mo- 
ments of the 28th of December, 1797, I, the fifth and last 
child, was bom. Aunt Hannah used to inquire for " that 
strange named child, Charles," as it was a new name in the 
&mily. My feither died the 14th of July the next year, 
leaving my mother a widow in very limited circumstances, 
with two in&nts respectively two years and six months of 

It is no marvel that mothers are sacred in the ty^s of 
their children. The debt they owe them is beyond 
all estimate. To our mother, my brother and myself, 
under God, owe absolutely everything. To us she de- 
voted her life. For us she prayed, labored and suffered. 
My grand&ther's property yielded her for some years a 
comfortable income. But as it consisted principally of the 
Water (Arch) Street wharf, with its docks, and the ware- 
house and dwellings by which, on three sides, it was sur- 
rounded, its proceeds depended on the state of commerce. 

1 A UTOBIOGRAPHY. [ 1833, 

As the non-intercourse act and embargo which preceded 
the war of 1812, and the war itself, led to the suspension of 
commercial business, our mother's income was almost 
entirely cut oflf. This was at the time we were preparing 
for college. Instead of putting her children off her hands, 
and leaving them to provide for themselves, by sacrificing 
all she had, by the most self-denying economy, and by 
keeping boarders, she succeeded in securing for them the 
benefits of a collegiate and professional education, at her 
expense, and without loss of time. She lived long enough 
to see both her sons settled in life and heads of families. 

It is a tradition in the family that in her youth she was 
distinguished for personal beauty. A gentleman from Bos- 
ton, after age and illness had produced their inevitable 
effects, exclaimed, " Can that be Uie beautiful Mary Blanch- 
ard, of Boston?" In the ^y^^ of her children she continued 
beautiful to the end. Her large blue eyes never lost their 
light of intelligence and love. 

Although thus devoted to the support and education of 
her children, she was always active in promoting the wel- 
fare of others. Her son Hugh has recorded his recollec- 
tion of trudging by her side through the snow many 
squares to assist, with other ladies, in the distribution of 
soup and groceries to the destitute, either as donations, or 
at wholesale prices. She was one of the founders, and to 
the time of her death, an active promoter and Directress of 
the " Female Association for the Relief of Widows and 
Single Women of reduced circumstances," which still con- 
tinues, after eighty years, one of the most useful, as it was 
one of the earliest of the many benevolent institutions of 

Having been an invalid for several years, early in April, 
1832, she took a slight cold, which did not seem to be of 
any importance for two or three days. But this was unex- 
pectedly followed by pulmonary congestion and slight 
delirium, so that she expired on the fourteenth of that 

XT. 9.] HIS BROTHER HUGH. . 1 1 

month ; too soon, alas, for me to see her alive, though I 
left Princeton in response to the first note of alarm. Her 
fiineral services were conducted by her aged pastor, Dr. 
Ashbel Green, who had married her, baptized her children, 
and delivered an eulogium over the grave of her husband. 

My brother was fer more than a brother to me. Although 
only eighteen months my senior, he assumed from the first 
the office of guardian. He always went first in the dark. 
I never slept out of his arms until I was eleven or twelve 
years old. I have now (1877) distinctly before my mind 
the room in which that crisis in my life occurred. I well 
recollect how quickly, after blowing out the candle, I 
jumped into bed, and threw the cover over my head. Hav- 
ing lived through that night, I afterwards got on very well. 
No professor in Princeton was ever able to bring up and 
educate a &mily of children on his salary. My brother, 
without waiting to be asked, always helped me through. 
He seemed to regard me as himself, and my children as 
his own. Although he rose to eminence as a practitioner 
and professor of medicine, he was revered principally for 
his goodness. His life-long friend. Dr. Caspar Morris, said 
in a published letter, that he " regarded Dr. Hugh L. 
Hodge as the best man he had ever known." He left five 
sons ; three of whom are ministers in the Presbyterian 
Church, one is a minister in the Episcopal Church, and the 
fifth is a Presbyterian Ruling Elder. This is due, I firmly 
believe, to their father's prayers, and to the influence of 
their excellent mother, a daughter of the late Mr. John 
Aspinwall, of New York. 

The first school to which I went was taught by an old 
lady in Arch street. It was attended by a room full of 
little boys and girls. I afterwards went to a school in 
Fifth street, opposite Independence Square, taught by 
Andrew Brown, a worthy elder of the Second Presbyterian 
Church. His specialties were writing and arithmetic. He 
was an adept in making quill-pens, and an expert in the use 


12 A UTOBIOGRAPHY. [1809 . 

of them. His flourishes were wonderful. He must also 
have been a good teacher of arithmetic. At least I knew 
more of arithmetic then than I do now. Within a few 
months a thin folio copy-book, having my name in it, and 
dated 1807, was found among some old papers. This book 
is filled with solutions of questions in Barter, Profit and 
Loss, many of which would puzzle me to solve now. 

My next school was taught by an Irish gentleman named 
Taylor. He was a Swedenborgian. He lived in perpetual 
sunshine, always happy and always amiable. He took little 
interest in drilling his pupils in reading, writing and arith- 
metic. His favorite method of teaching was to get half a 
dozen boys around him before a large wall map of England, 
France, Italy, or some other country, pointing out its rivers, 
mountains, cities, and its ancient ruins ; descanting on the 
elements of its population ; the manners and customs of its 
people; its productions; its great men; mixing up geogra- 
phy, antiquities, history and statistics. He would linger 
around the battle-fields, describe the conflicts, taking part 
vehemently with one side against the other. He was an 
enthusiast, and infected his pupils with his spirit He used 
to flatter them ; dubbing them with the names and ranks 
of his heroes. My associates in this school have, as far as 
I know, all passed away. There were two Ralstons, two 
McCalls, two Reeds, James Hopkinson, John Brinton, and 
others [with whom the elder brother Hugh says, " Charles, 
as his manner was, through his whole life, contracted inti- 
mate friendships."] These now are all gone. 

During my early boyhood in Philadelphia, my brother 
and myself went to a drawing-school kept in a room over 
Woodward's Book-store, on the corner of Chestnut and 
Third streets. Its master was an Englishman named Cox. 
He was a character. He lived in the southern part of the 
city by himself, in a house filled from garret to cellar with 
books and odds and ends of all things curious. While 
under his instruction I executed a landscape in water colors. 

XV. 1 1.] EARL Y RELIGION. 1 3 


which now hangs in my study, and which is considered to 
possess considerable merit How the merit got there is the 
mystery. Those who know anything of the history of my 
one work of art, are aware that when painting in India ink, 
the teacher looked over my shoulder, and said, '' Charles, I 
think I could spit paint better than that." They therefore 
find it hard to believe that the merit of my landscape is due 
to native talent on my part, and not to the intervention of 
my teacher. 

Our early training was religious. Our mother was a 
Christian. She took us regulariy to church, and carefully 
drilled us in the Westminster Catechism, which we recited 
on stated occasions to Dr. Ashbel Green, our pastor. 
There has never been anything remarkable in my religious 
experience, unless it be that it began very early. I think 
that in my childhood I came nearer to conforming to the 
apostle's injunction: "Pray without ceasing," than in any 
other period of my life. As far back as I can remember, I 
had the habit of thanking God for everything I received, 
and asking him for everything I wanted. If I lost a book, 
or any of my playthings, I prayed that I might find it. I 
prayed walking along the streets, in school and out of 
school, whether playing or studying. I did not do this in 
• obedience to any prescribed rule. It seemed natural. I 
thought of God as an everywhere-present Being, full of 
kindness and love, who would not be offended if children 
talked to him. I knew he cared for sparrows. I was as cheer- 
ful and happy as the birds, and acted as they did. There 
was little more in my prayers and praises than in the wor- 
ship rendered by the fowls of the air. This mild form of 
natural religion did not amount to much. It, however, saved 
me from profanity. I cannot recollect that I ever uttered 
a pro&ne word, except once. It was when I was thirteen 
or fourteen years old. I was walking with my brother, and 

struck my foot against a stone, and said: "D n it." 

My brother was shocked, and exclaimed : " Why, Charles 1 1" 


I cannot tell why I said it I was not hurt, neither was I 
angry. It seemed to me to be an effect without a cause. I 
felt like a very, very small Paul, when he said : " It was not 
I who did it, but something dwelling in me." I am thank- 
ful that no similar experience ever occurred to me. 

In the early part of the year 1810 my brother and myself 
were sent to the classical Academy in Somerville, New Jer- 
sey. The village was on high ground, very healthy, and 
on the line of the "Swift and Sure Mail Coach Line" be- 
tween Philadelphia and New York, near the confluence of 
the Millstone and Raritan rivers, and between ten and twelve 
miles west of New Brunswick. The reason for my mother's 
preference for that school was not its celebrity, but its 
situation, only a few miles from the residence of Mr. John 
M. Bayard, who, although only our first cousin, was old 
enough to exercise parental care over us. For the first six 
months we boarded in jthe family of Mr., afterwards Judge, 
Vandevere. His oldest daughter was then an infant a few 
months old. I was sometimes allowed to carry her about 
on a pillow. After leaving Somerville, I did not see her 
until after an interval of fifty years. She was then a tall, 
thin lady, the widow of the Hon. Wm. Dayton, U. S. Sena- 
tor and Minister to France. I could hardly believe my eyes. 

I had another experience of the same kind. During my ^ 
school days at Somerville, the reigning belle of that region 
was Miss Martina Ellmendorf We boys used to collect 
around the church-door to see her in and out of her carriage. 
She subsequently married the Hon. Dr. Condict of Morris- 
town. Some forty years after leaving Somerville I dined 
at Dr. Condict's, and said to him that as I had known his 
wife when a young lady, I should be very glad to be pre- 
sented to her. He replied that she was very much of an 
invalid, and never left her room, but that after dinner he 
would introduce me. Her room was on the ground-floor; 
and when the door was opened, a tall, emaciated, mild and 
courteous lady, evidently not long for this world, rose be- 

. 13-] AT SOMER VILLE. 1 5 

fi[>re me. I could not help thinking that if identity could 
be preserved in spite of so entire a change of all that was 
outward, it might well be preserved between that aged 
believer (as she then was) and What she would be when she 
rose resplendent in the image of her Saviour. 

During the remaining eighteen months of my stay in 
Somerville, I lived in the &mily of Doctor, better known 
as General, Stryker. The beautiful country about Somer- 
ville, on the Raritan and Millstone rivers, was in a great 
measure occupied by wealthy and refined Dutch families— 
the Ellmendorfs, Van Vacters, Van Esses, the Frelinghuy- 
sens, and many others. Mr. John Frelinghuysen lived on 
the Raritan, a few miles up the river ; his younger brother, 
Frederick, lived in the village of Millstone: he was the 
fiither of the present U. S. Senator, the Hon. F. T. Freling- 
huysen. A third brother, the Hon. Theodore Frelinghuy- 
sen, so long the ornament of New Jersey, and General 
Stryker had married sisters. This led to his frequently 
visiting the iamily in which I lived. I thus became ac- 
quainted with him in my boyhood, an acquaintance which, 
in after life, ripened, on my part, into a revering friendship. 
I was one of those who were allowed to stand around his 
coffin, and gaze on his saintly countenance in the repose of 
death. His pronounced evangelical sentiments militated 
against his political success. The late Governor Seward 
was on intimate terms with Archbishop Hughes of New 
York, and called on him with the request that he would 
use his influence with the Romanists to induce them to 
vote the Whig ticket, when Clay and Frelinghuysen were 
candidates for the offices of President and Vice-President 
respectively. The Archbishop shook his head, and said : 
•* We could stand Mr. Clay ; but we cannot stand Freling- 
huysen." This was told me by a distinguished gentleman 
from New York. My informant was satisfied of the truth 
of the anecdote. 
Mr. Clay was also a praying man. The late Rev. Dr. 

1 6 AUTOBIOGRAPHY. [1810. 

Edgar of Nashville, Tenn., told me that when traveling 
through Kentucky, he spent a night with Mr. Clay at the 
house of a mutual friend. It was a cholera season. During 
the night Mr. Clay was taken alarmingly ill. Dr. Edgar 
was one of his attendants. In course of conversation Mr 
Clay, after expressing his faith, said that he never had in- 
troduced a measure into Congress, without first kneeling 
down and invoking the guidance and blessing of God. 

I began the study of Latin when I went to Somerville. 
During the first year the academy was taught by the Rev. 
Mr. Boyer, afterwards pastor of the Presb)^erian Church in 
Columbia, Penna. When he went away, the school was 
under the care of the Rev. Mr. Vredenburgh, pastor of the 
Dutch Church in the village. On one occasion the pulpit 
was filled by the Rev. Dr. Livingston, long the patriarch 
of the Reformed Dutch Church in America. He was a 
patrician as well as a patriarch : tall and elegant in person, 
careful in his dress, a model of courtesy in manners, hair 
perfectly white and reaching down to his shoulders. I 
could not believe that Abraham was more venerable in his 
appearance. The only thing I recollect of his sermon is 
that he exhorted the people to commit to memory the fif- 
teenth chapter of the First Epistle to the Corinthians. The 
exhortation took effect; for a few days after I heard Dr. 
Stryker call upon his daughters to repeat that chapter, the 
doctor himself prompting and helping them through. 

One summer Dr. Livingston invited Dr. Archibald 
Alexander to take a seat with him in his carriage for a few 
days' tour through New Jersey, to attend Bible Society 
meetings. Dr. Alexander told me that Dr. Livingston 
addressed every one he had the opportunity to speak to, 
on the subject of religion. Even the hostler, who came 
out to water the horses, was sure to receive some word of 
admonition or counsel. This was a gift which Dr. Alex- 
ander appreciated, but did not possess. During the entire 
six weeks' journey I made with him through Virginia in 


1 816, 1 never^ except once, heard him make such a personal 
address to any one. The exception did not amount to 
much. The stage had stopped for a few moments at 
Charlestown in the valley, and the driver, standing by the 
pump, called out to a companion, whom he saw going to- 
wards an open church, " Take care, don't go there, you 
may get converted." Dr. Alexander said to him, " Do you 
think that would hurt him ?" Yet, Dr. Alexander, in the 
opinion of all who knew him, was second to no one in piety 
and zeal. 

The only one of my school-mates at Somerville with 
whom I was associated in after life was the Rev. Peter 
Studdiford. During his whole ministerial life, he was pastor 
of the Presbyterian Church in Lambertville, New Jersey. 
That church rose under his care from a mere handful, to 
being one of the largest in the Synod. Dr. Studdiford, 
was distinguished for learning, wisdom and goodness in the 
most comprehensive sense of that word. 

In the early part of the year 18 12 my brother and myself 
removed to Princeton. In order to make a home for us our 
mother had removed from Philadelphia and rented a small 
fiame house in Witherspoon street, which runs directly 
north, starting in front of the College. The house is still 
standing, next door to the old session- house, since the 
parochial school. 

In order to aid in meeting her expenses mother received 
into her family as boarders several boys preparing for Col- 
lege, all of whom were either relations or connections. Our 
cousin, Alexander Hodgdon, of Philadelphia, Nicholas Bay- 
ard, son of our cousin. Dr. Nicholas Bayard, of Savannah, 
Georgia, and two young Master Wards, step-sons of Dr. 
Nicholas Bayard through his second marriage. These 
young men were the half-brothers of Jane and Margaret 
Bayard, the former of whom married the Rev. Dr. Leighton 
Wilson, and spent seventeen years as a missionary with her 

distinguished husband in western Africa. After that pro- 


tracted service she returned to this country in as perfect 
health as any of her contemporaries who had remained at 
home. A year or two after her return she said to me that 
she still hankered after Africa, Her sister Margaret mar- 
ried the Rev. Dr. Eckart. and went with him as a mission- 
ary to Ceylon, and remained there ten years, until her 
broken health compelled their return. There was no physi- 
cian resident at their station, and as cholera ofter prevailed 
among the natives. Dr. Eckart told me he always kept on 
hand a bottle containing a mixture of calomel and opium, 
and when called to a sufferer, uniformly administered a tea- 
spoonful of the combined powder. If rejected, he repeated 
the dose. If retained, a cure almost always followed. 

My brother entered the College in May, 1812, sopho- 
more half-advanced. I entered the Academy, then taught 
by the Rev. Mr. Fyler, who was afterwards the head of a 
prosperous classical school in Trenton. The Princeton 
Academy then stood between the church and the house of 
the President of the College. It was during the same season 
that Princeton Theological Seminary was founded, and Dr. 
Archibald Alexander was inaugurated its first Professor. 
That important service was performed in the old Presb)^er- 
ian church, which occupied the site of the present First 
Church, August 12, 1812. I can well remember, then a 
boy of fourteen, lymg at length on the rail of the gallery 
listening to the doctor's inaugural address and watching the 
ceremony of investiture. 

One day, during the same summer, the school- room door 
being opened. Dr. Alexander walked in. He found me 
stammering over a verse in the Greek Testament. The 
process seemed to amuse the old gentleman (just forty — 
old to a boy). He asked me what niint^ was derived from. 
I could not tell him. Mr. Fyler apologized for me by say- 
ing I had been studying Greek only a month or six weeks. 
This occurrence was the first thread of the cord which bound 
me to Dr. Alexander — a cord never broken. He never 


&iled to notice me when I crossed his path. Frequently he 
would take me with him in his gig, when he went out into 
the country to preach. On one occasion he took me to 
Flemington, a court town fifteen or sixteen miles north 
of Princeton. I was astonished at the knowledge he dis- 
played of the country through which we passed. He knew 
the character of the soil in every neighborhood; the charac^ 
ter of the people, whether of Dutch or English origin ; the 
name of all the streams, where they rose and where they 
emptied. We were hospitably entertained, from Saturday 
to Monday, in the house of Mr. Samuel S. Southard^ then 
a rising young lawyer, afterwards United States Senator 
and Secretary of the Navy. In my young days, he and the 
Hon. Theodore Frelinghuysen were the two most popular 
men in New Jersey. Mr. Southard was a handsome man, 
and very cordial in his manners. He had the happy tact 
of making every man he met feel that he was glad to see 
him, and really enjoyed his society. As he liked every- 
body, everybody liked him. 

Some years afterward (in 1825) during a meeting of the 
Trustees of the College of New Jersey, Chief Justice Kirk- 
patrick was staying with me, and Mr. Southard, then Sec- 
retary of the Navy, called to see him, and gave him a glow- 
ing account of the rapidity with which he had fitted out 
the frigate Brandywine to take Gen. Lafayette back to 
Europe. When he had finished the Chief Justice turned 
towards him and said, " Now, Mr. Southard, if any man 
should ask you which end of a ship goes first, could you 
tell him?" This was hardly fetr in the old judge; as it is 
not expected that a Secretary of the Navy should be an ex- 
pert in naval architecture. 





THE College of New Jersey was founded in the middle 
of the last century by Presbyterian ministers and laymen, 
and in large part by those belonging to the New Light 
* party, the especial friends of revivals and earnest, evangeli- 
cal piety. Their object, as expressed in the public declara- 
tions of all the parties concerned in its foundation, includ- 
ing Governor Belcher himself, was to promote the cultiva- 
tion of religion, and of a liberal education in common, 
and especially to provide an educated ministry for the 
colonies. It was founded in 1747, in Elizabeth, New 
Jersey; removed in 1748 to Newark; and in 1756 per- 
manently established at Princeton, in buildings then 
recently erected for its use. For many years the instruc- 
tion was in the hands of the President, always one of the 
most eminent ministers of the Presbyterian Church on the 
continent, assisted by two, or, at most, three tutors, who 
were young men, changing every few years. For the first 
fifty years there were never more than two professors at a 
time, in addition to the above, and often only one, and 
sometimes not one. 

From the first it had been the design of the Trustees to 

provide for the instruction of a Theological class. For this 


purpose the Rev. John Blair, of Fagg's Manor, Pa., held 
the position of Professor of Theology, from 1767 to 1769, 
and the Rev. Henry Kollock, D. D., afterwards the elo- 
quent preacher at Savannah, Georgia, held the position 
from 1803 to 1806. In the intervals this function devolved 
on the President at the time in office. After the resigna- 
tion of Professor Kollock, an effort was made to raise a per- 
manent endowment for the support of the Vice-President, 
who was also to be Professor of Theology. But in order 
to secure the location in Princeton of the first Theological 
Seminary of the Presb)^erian Church, then in contempla- 
tion, the Trustees agreed that the College should withdraw 
from the work of theological instruction as a preparation 
for the ministerial profession. The Presidents, up to the 
accession of Dr. Green, had been Jonathan Dickinson, 
Aaron Burr, Jonathan Edwards, Samuel Davies, Samuel 
Finley, John Witherspoon, and Samuel Stanhope Smith. 

I entered the Sophomore Class, September, 18 12, a date 
which marks a crisis in the history of Princeton. The 
Theological Seminary had just been founded, and Dr. Alex- 
ander, the first Professor, inaugurated August 12th, and Dr. 
Ashbel Green, the pastor and friend of my parents, now 
(September 29th,) entered upon the office of President of 
the College. The feiculty that year consisted of Rev. Dr. 
Ashbel Green, President ; the Rev. Dr. Slack, Vice Presi- 
dent and Professor of Mathematics, Natural Philosophy and 
Chemistry ; Rev. Philip Lindsley, Senior Tutor, and Mr. J. 
Flavel Clark, afterwards pastor of the Presb>'terian Church, 
Flemington, New Jersey, Junior Tutor. 

I was examined for admission by Mr. John Bergen, one 
of the retiring tutors. In 1 842 I went to Philadelphia to 
attend a meeting of the General Assembly. As I got out 
of the cars, there was a tall gentleman walking on the plat- 
form, who stopped when he saw me, and looking down on 
me, said, " I ought to know you. My name is Bergen." 
"A former tutor in Princeton College ?" I asked. " Yes," 



he replied. " Then you examined me for admission into 
College, Sophomore, 1812." " Well, I have never seen you 
since. What is your name ?" " Hodge." " Where do you 
live ?" " Princeton." " You don't tell me you are the Rev. 
Dr. Hodge, of Princeton?" "Yes, I am." Turning on his 
heel, he exclaimed, " O ! Pshaw ! I thought he was an old 
man." The poor man felt that he had been defrauded. 

In 1 86 1 Dr. Bergen and myself were again members of 
the General Assembly. In that year the celebrated Spring 
resolutions were passed. These resolutions called upon all 
Presbyterians, ministers and churches subject to the Gen- 
eral Assembly, to support the General Government in the 
civil war which had then commenced. The Northern and 
Southern Presbyterians then constituted one body. It was 
evidently proper to exhort the churches in the non-seceding 
states to support the government, for that was an acknow- 
ledged moral duty. But to address the same injunction to 
Southern Presbyterians, was to assume that their allegiance 
was primarily due to the General Government and not to 
their respective States ; and that was to assume that the 
United States constituted a nation and not a confederacy ; 
and that assumed a given interpretation of the constitution. 
As that was a political question, a large minority of the 
Assembly, as loyal as the majority, deemed that no Church- 
court had a right to decide it. Dr. Spring's resolutions, 
when first introduced, were promptly laid on the table by a 
decisive vote. But the next morning, there was such a 
burst of indignation from the secular press of Philadelphia, 
and such a shower of threatening telegrams fell upon the 
members, that the resolutions were taken up and ultimately 
passed. During the discussion, Dr. Bergen was in great 
trouble. He came to me repeatedly, and asked, "What 
shall I do ? I am opposed to these resolutions, but if I vote 
against them, I can never go home." I told him I was 
very sorry, but I could not help him. It was easy for me 
to act, as I had nothing to fear from giving a negative vote. 

«r. 15.] DR. GREEN. 23 

When his name was called in taking the final vote, he rose 
and saidy " Mr. Moderator, I want to say no, but I must 
say yes." That saved him. This was all the personal 
intercourse I ever had with Dr. Bergen. I am, therefore, 
surprised at the glow of kindly feeling of which I am con- 
scious whenever I hear his name mentioned. 

Dr. Green conducted the instruction in the Biblical De- 
partment, in Belles-Lettres, Moral Philosophy and Logic. 
We regularly had lessons in the Bible. On one occasion, 
while reciting on the Acts of the Apostles, Dr. Green asked 
me: "Was St. Paul ever at Malta?" I replied: "Yes, sir, 
he touched there on his voyage to Rome." " Pretty hard 
touch," whispered Johns (Rt. Rev. John Johns, Bishop of 
Vii^nia), who as usual was sitting next to me. Of course, 
the Apostle's shipwreck on that island flashed on my 
memory; and of course I laughed, and of course I was 
reproved. That was the kind of trouble Johns was always 
getting me into. We were also required to commit the 
Shorter Catechism to memory in Latin. The Episcopal 
students were allowed to study their own catechism. As 
that is shorter than the Westminster, many Presbyterians 
passed themselves oif for the time being as Episcopalians. 
The doctor, to be even with them, required all who took 
the Episcopal Catechism, to prepare also for examination 
the Thirty-nine Articles. We attended worship every Sab- 
bath morning in the Chapel. Dr. Green also lectured every 
Thursday evening in one of the College recitation rooms. 
These lectures were very instructive, and were attended by 
a crowded audience. 

In the department of Belles-Lettres, we studied Blair's 
Lectures; in Moral Philosophy, Witherspoon's Lectures; 
and in Logic, Andrew's Logic — a little book about as large 
as an Almanac, which we got through in four recitations. 
I am ashamed to say that this is the only book on Logic I 
ever read. Some years ago a very intelligent Catholic 
priest came to Princeton (to the village, not to the Semi- 


nary), to spend a few months in retirement and study. His 
faith in the fundamental doctrines of Romanism having been 
shaken, to avoid trouble, he came first to America, and then 
to Princeton, to seclude himself while engaged in investi- 
gating and settling the questions involved, I think I never 
saw such concentration and power as he exhibited for two 
or three months in examining the controversy between Pro- 
testants and Romanists. He never revealed his conclusion. 
I asked him many questions as to the method of instruc- 
tion observed in Maynooth, where he had been educated. 
I asked particularly what was the effect of the study of the 
so-called " Moral Theology," designed to prepare a priest 
for the duties of a confessor. He answered : " Entirely to 
destroy the moral sense." That was precisely the answer 
I expected, which is no disparagement of moral philosophy 
as a science, but only of the methods at Maynooth. So it 
is no disparagement to logic as a science or an art, to say, 
that the excessive study how to reason often impairs the 
ability to reason. The best way to make a man a good 
carpenter is not to confine his attention to his tools, but to 
set him to work. So, as has often been said, the best way 
to make a logician is to set him to study Euclid, or, as any 
old student of Princeton Seminary would say, set him to 
study Turrettin. 

Our instructor in Greek was Rev. Philip Lindsley. He 
graduated at the College of New Jersey in 1 804, in the class 
with the Hon. Theodore Frelinghuysen, the Hon. Joseph 
R. Ingersoll, and the Hon. Samuel L. Southard. Mr. South- 
ard continued his intimate friend through life. During our 
first term Mr. Lindsley was senior tutor. In the spring of 
18 1 3 he was elected Professor of Languages; afterwards he 
was chosen Vice-President ; and on the resignation of Dr. 
Green, in 1822, he was elected President of the College. 
This office he declined on impulse. He disliked some of 
the Trustees very much; and when his election was an- 
nounced to him, having them in his mind^ he promptly 


declined. I called to see him the next morning, and found 
him walking up and down his study a good deal perturbed. 
He exclaimed : " If Sam Southard (one of the Trustees) had 
been here, I would now be President of Princeton College." 
He was also offered the Presidency of Dickinson College, 
Pennsylvania, of Transylvania University, Kentucky, and of 
several other educational institutions, and finally accepted 
that of the University of Tennessee, at Nashville, where he 
spent most of the remaining active part of his life. His 
works have been collected and published in two handsome 
8vo. volumes under the editorship of the Rev. Dr. Halsey 
of Chicago. 

Prof Lindsley vras very popular with the students. He 
was rather above the medium size, erect and imposing in his 
carriage. He used to walk up and down the lecture-room, 
while hearing our recitations, with his book closed in his 
hands. He was very fond of paradox. He told our class 
that we would find that one of the best preparations for 
death was a thorough knowledge of the Greek grammar. 
This was his way of telling us that we ought to do our duty. 
It was a favorite idea of his that civilization reached its 
highest stage before the deluge ; that the arts and sciences 
have never since reached the development which they 
attained among the antediluvians. He was a very frequent 
attendant on the debating society held years ago every 
Friday evening, in the Seminary, under the presidency of 
professors. He was sure to take the wrong side ; Popery 
against Protestantism ; heresy against orthodoxy. He was 
very kind to me. I had a crooked tongue, and had been 
studying Greek only six months before entering the Sopho- 
more class, while some of my class-mates had been teaching 
Greek t^o years before coming to College. But the profes- 
sor did all he could for me, pushing me up as high as his 
conscience would permit He and old Dr. Slack succeeded 
at last in getting me up very near the top. On several 
occasions in after life, I experienced his kindness. The last 


time I saw him . was during the sessions of the General 
Assembly in Buffalo, in 1854. I have always cherished his 
memory with afTectionate regard. 

When I entered College the faculty consisted of the 
President, one professor and two tutors. Now it has a 
corps of twenty*eight or thirty instructors. The depart- 
ments then filled by one professor, are now distributed 
among eight 

Dr. Green says, in his autobiography,* that when he 
entered on his duties as president, "The several members of 
the faculty before the expiration of the vacation met in my 
study, and at my instance we agreed to set apart a day of 
special prayer, in view of the duties before us. We prayed 
once together, and then the several members spent the day 
in private prayer." This was the spirit in which his admin- 
istration was begun and continued to the end. The reli- 
gious culture of the students was always uppermost in his 
mind. He preached regularly in the chapel on Sunday 
morning, introduced the regular study of the Bible, and 
lectured every Tuesday evening. When Dr. Miller came 
to Princeton, in the summer of 1813, he, with Dr. Alex- 
ander and Dr. Green, preached in succession in the chapel 
to the students of the College and Seminary, the latter at 
that time being very few in number. Dr. Alexander soon 
began to preach regularly every Sunday evening, at first in 
the junior recitation room, the southern half of the base- 
ment of the Old Library building, (now Treasurer's Office), 
which is still standing. That room is to this day sacred in 
the eyes of the did students of the College. It was then, 
and for forty years afterwards, the birth-place of many souls. 
We were thus brought under the influence of a man, who, 
as an ' experimental ' preacher was unequalled and unap- 
proached. It was said of him, that while most other minis- 
ters preached about religion, he preached religion. He 

* The Life of Rev. Ashbel Green, D. D., written by himself and prepared for 
the press by Rev. Joseph Jones, D. D. 


recognized the bet that the religious and moral elements of 
our nature are universal and indestructible ; and that these 
elements, in Christian countries at least, are so developed 
that every man knows that there is a God on whom he is 
dependent, and to whom he is responsible ; that he is a 
sinner and deserves to be punished ; and that punishment 
is inevitable. He is therefore, all his life, through fear of 
death, subject to bondage. (Heb. 2 : 15). No matter how 
reckless and hardened the wicked may become, they can 
never free themselves from their fetters ; and, at times, the 
horror of great darkness fells upon them, and they wish 
they had never been bom. Dr. Alexander revealed such 
men to themselves; showed them how vain it was to 
struggle against the laws of nature ; that conscience was 
their master, and could neither be silenced nor sophisticated; 
that all their efforts to make themselves infidels were abor- 
tive ; that no devotion to the world, that no degradation in 
vice can obliterate the conviction that those who commit 
sin are doomed to the second death; that however calm 
may be the surfece, there is always the rumbling of an 
earthquake underneath — "a fearful looking for of judgment, 
and fiery indignation, which shall devour the adversaries." 
There was a noted man at this time in Princeton, who said, 
" He was sure Dr. Alexander must have been very wicked 
in his youtn, or he could not know so well how wicked 
men felt" 

In like manner he would detail the experience of those 
under the conviction of sin ; show how such convictions 
often came to nothing ; what was essential, and what inci- 
dental and variable in such experiences. He would take 
the serious inquirer by the hand, and tell him all about 
himself, leading him along from point to point, until the 
inquirer was left behind, and could do nothing but sit and 
weep. He knew that he was a sinner, that he needed sal- 
vation, that he could not save himself, but when told to 
come to Christ, he knew not what to do. Often, going to 


his room, he would £dl on his knees and call on his Saviour, 
and ask, "Is this coming?" or "Is this coming?" He 
never could understand what it was until it was done. It 
was easy to tell him that faith is simply letting go all other 
confidences and falling trustfully into the Saviour's arms, 
but no one knows what seeing is until he sees, or what 
believing is until he believes. 

So also more advanced Christians, whether doubting, 
tempted, desponding or rejoicing, were all subject to the 
same self-revealing process, all edified and strengthened. 
Those were memorable days. 

[His brother, Dr. Hugh L. Hodge, says: " In the spring 
of 18 1 3, the boys, our cousins, who had become our 
mother's boarders a year before, having either left town, or 
removed their lodgings to the college building, Mrs. Dr. 
Bache, of Philadelphia, and her children, became inmates 
in our family. Dr. William Bache, then deceased, was 
a grandson of the celebrated Benjamin Franklin. Mrs. 
Bache, his widow, was the sister of Dr. Caspar Wistar, 
Professor of Anatomy in the University of Pennsylvania, 
and President of the American Philosophical Society. His 
house had become the centre of the literary and scientific 
society of Philadelphia. He was in the habit of receiving 
his friends to a frugal entertainment every Saturday even- 
ing. To these re-unions, the most distinguished foreign 
visitors in the city brought introductions, and the most in- 
tellectual of the professional residents gathered. And they 
have been continued, with their essential characteristics 
unchanged to the present time, in the re-unions of what has 
ever since been known as the Wistar Club. Mrs. Bache, a 
very superior and high-toned woman, had, previous to her 
marriage, kept house for her brother for several years, dur- 
ing which time, she with her fi-iend Miss Eddy, afterwards, 
Mrs. Dr. Hosack of New York, had the great pleasure 
and advantage of attending these remarkable Saturday 
evening meetings. Her children, who now entered our 


femily, were Catharine, the youngest, a girl then of seven 
or eight, Benjamin Franklin, since the head of the Phar- 
maceutical Department of the United States Navy, Brook- 
lyn, N. Y., and Sarah, the eldest, then a girl of fourteen 
years of age, well-grown, in blooming health, handsome, 
full of imagination, and exceedingly enthusiastic, uncon- 
scious of self and absorbed in whatever claimed her atten- 
tion; a most agreeable companion. It was no wonder, 
therefore, that she soon won the love of my brother 
Charles, young as he was, an experience which nine years 
afterwards, in 1822, resulted in their marriage."] 

My brother Hugh graduated from College in the fall of 
1 8 14, one of the four to whom the first honor was assigned. 
The commencement of that year was marked by an event 
of great interest. It occurred towards the close of the war 
of 1 81 2 with the British, and soon after the brilliant victo- 
ries of Lundy's Lane and Chippewa. Major-General Win- 
field Scott, the hero of those battles, then Colonel, and 
Brigadier-General Scott, having been severely wounded in 
one of his shoulders, was making slow journeys from the 
Lakes to his home, in Virginia. He arrived in Princeton 
after the exercises began, and, though weak and emaciated, 
he accepted an invitation to enter the Church and take a seat 
on the stage with the President and Trustees of the College. 
He was received with ever}" possible demonstration of en- 
thusiasm. The degrees having been conferred, Bloomfield 
Mcllvaine, brother of Charles Pettit Mcllvaine, afterwards 
the Protestant Episcopal Bishop of Ohio, delivered the 
valedictory. After having delivered the valedictory he had 
prepared to the President, Trustees, class-mates, and un- 
der-graduates, he suddenly turned to General Scott, and 
with astonishing facility of extemporaneous conception and 
expression, he delivered an eloquent and moving eulo- 
gium. The General afterwards confessed that he " would 
not have been more taken by surprise if he had been 
suddenly attacked by a whole regiment of Britishers." 


He attempted to rise more than once, and finally was 
forced, by his emotions and physical weakness, to remain 
quiescent. He afterwards confessed to my brother that " few- 
attentions had ever given him so much, and so lasting plea- 

[On January 13th, 181 5, Charles Hodge and his friend, 
Kensey John Van Dyke, of the class below him, made a 
public confession of their fedth in Christ by joining the 
Presbyterian Church of Princeton, of which the Rev. Wm. 
C. Schenck was the pastor. The venerable Dr. John Mac- 
lean, who survives his friends, says he well remembers the 
Saturday when he was startled in the street by Edward 
Allen rushing to him with the abrupt announcement that 
" Hodge had enlisted — ^" for the war with Britain had not 
yet closed, and a sergeant with a drummer was in the vil- 
lage endeavoring to enlist recruits. " Is it possible," he 
exclaimed, " that Hodge has enlisted? " " Yes, he has en- 
listed under the banner of King Jesus ! " Dr. Maclean 
thinks that this public stand taken by these young men, 
among the youngest in the College, contributed much to 
bring to a crisis * that wonderful revival of religion which 
signalized the first half of 181 5, one of the most memorable 
in the whole history of the town.] 

It came not with observation. There was only a gradual 
change in the spirit of the College, and state of mind of the 
students — a change from indifference to earnestness, from ne- 
glect or perfunctory performance of religious duties, to fre* 
quent crowded and solemn attendance on all meetings for 
prayer and instruction. Personal religion — the salvation of 
the soul became the absorbing subject of attention. " The di- 
vine influence," said Dr. Green, in his report to the Trustees, 
•* seemed to descend like the silent dew of heaven, and in 
about four weeks there were very few individuals in the 
College edifice who were not deeply impressed with a sense 

* The same is asserted by Dr. Green in " Report to the Trustees on the Rert- 


of the importance of spiritual and eternal things. There 
was scarcely a room ; perhaps not one ; which was not a 
place of earnest, secret devotion/' 

Hynms, then, as always, were very efficacious. Luther's 
h3nnns, at the time of the Reformation, were to the German 
nation what the trumpet and the bugle are to the army. 
" Ein* feste Burg " is still the battle-song of the German 
solciier. There are some hymns which did good service in 
my young days, which have since lost favor. " Tis a point 
I long to know," " Come, humble sinner, in whose breast," 
are now regarded as too hypothetical. " I can but perish 
if I go." There is no if in the case. However this may 
be in logic, it should be remembered that there is a faith 
which saves, which cannot recognize, much less avow it- 
self. Many get to heaven who can only say, " Lord, help 
my unbelief; " for that is a cry of £iith. 


Princeton, Jan. 23, 181 5. 

My Dear Hugh : — ^The last fortnight has been productive of events 
that have excited much interest, rumors of which no doubt reached 
you ; but as rumors are seldom correct, I feel desirous of giving you 
a plain statement. An attention to religious duties, you know, has 
ever been a leading feature in the character of Charles, which has 
gradually strengthened with his years. The services of the Sunday 
previous to the fast determined him to make a public profession of 
them on the approaching sacrament, to which he was urged by his 
friend Biggs, and joined by Van Dyke. On Wednesday evening, 
C 1 D ^ J and B supped at Folet's (tavern) and gam- 
bled to a late hour. The faculty had information of it, and were 
waiting their return. Folet, alarmed for his own interest, at three in 
the morning, refused them more lights, and sent to give notice to 
those who were already acquainted with the circumstances. The 

consequence was they were all dismissed on Friday. J called to 

take leave of us, humbled to the dust with the sense of his miscon- 
duct, and his heart overflowing with gratitude to Dr. Green for the 
admonitions and kindness with which the sentence had been given. 

On Saturday J came again and requested to see me. He caught 

my hand on entering, and exclaimed that this was the happiest day 


of his life. " What, sir, are you reinstated ?" " Oh, no, madam, that 
is of little moment indeed at present. Religion has complete posses- 
sion of my mind. After a night of agony, under the deepest convic- 
tions of my guilt, the morning brought some ray of comfort. I sent 
for Biggs. He spake peace to my soul. I have been to Dr. Green » 
who received me with the tenderness of a parent, pointed out my 
path, and encourages me to persevere by the assurance of future fa- 
vor. To your dear Charles I am indebted for these impressions. In 
our walks last summer religion was often the theme, and though I 
felt nothing at the time, yet now they return forcibly upon the mind. 
I am permitted to stay some days longer, and have been in College 
conversing with my friends, I think, with some effect." 

The next day the sacrament was administered. Though it is said 
two or three students ridiculed those that had joined the Church, this 
is very doubtful. But on Monday a great change took place in Col- 
lege. A general seriousness was observed in the Refectory. The 
rooms of Biggs, Baker and others were filled with students soliciting* 
information on the subject of religion, and getting books. In the 
evening, while the Whig Society held their meeting, twenty Clios 
met in Allen's room to pray. On Tuesday the call for instruction 
was so general that Dr. Green proposed to give a lecture to those 
who chose to attend. The Senior lecture-room was full, and there 
have been prayer-meetings every evening. Blatchford and others of 
the divinity students spend a great deal of time in College, and the 
youths apply to either or all the professors indiscriminately. Johns, 
Mcllvaine, Armstrong, Newbold, Smith, Rodgers, Ogden, Stewart, 
Clarke, Henry of Albany, are among those most seriously im- 
pressed, Lyttleton and Benjamin among those more lightly touched. 
No doubt there is much sympathy in the business, and as they in- 
stinctively followed each other last winter in mischief, they are led 
in the same manner this season to good. But it is very probable 
that after the effervescence subsides, there will be a good number 
who will experience a radical change. 

You may suppose it has been a period of considerable agitation 
with me. The important step Charles has taken occasions much so- 
licitude. He was so young, I could have wished it had been deferred 
at least to the end of his College course. But you know his impor- 
tunity, and when duty and feeling urged him forward, I could not 
throw a straw in the way. He has raised expectations which I fer- 
ventiy hope may be realized. On Thursday he spoke his speech on 
Conscience, and did himself justice,* Mr. Davis and Henry, two 

* This is the only instance to be found in her correspondence when she makes 
any such admission. She had a htgb conception of Charles' talents, but a very 


divinity students of superior attainments and polished manners, pay 
him flattering attention. They no doubt count upon him as one of 
their number. This revival, as it is called, will no doubt reach the 
city with much exaggeration. I write, therefore, to give you a plain 
statement of facts, that you may answer explicitly if applied to for 
information. As I should be extremely sorry that any one should 
suppK>se the step Charles has taken was in consequence of a sudden 
impulse of feeling, you will be enabled to rectify any such error. 

Your affectionate mother, 

M. Hodge. 


Princeton, February, 181 5. 

Afy Dear Brother : — I would indeed be most inexcusable should I 
permit an opportunity, so direct and so long known as that which our 
dear John offers, to pass unimproved. I hardly know how to part 
from him, even for a week. I expect to meet with few in this world 
who will love me as ardently and constantly as he does. He, Biggs 
and Van Dyke, are the three in College to whom I feel most strongly 
attached, and from whom I shall hope not soon to be separated. I 
think it probable we shall all choose the same profession. Of this I 
am not certain. John, as you have probably heard already, is one 
of those who have so lately experienced the most desirable of 
changes. When gay and thoughtless, though also affectionate and 
kind, I loved him. How then shall I feel towards him when we 
hope to be enlisted under the same banner, to have the same end in 
life and the same hope in death. The step which your brother has 
taken, accompanied by dear Kinsey, you are already acquainted 
with. And why not my dearest brother too? Oh! that you, that 
Atkinson, that all, were here to see what has been done ! for I can- 
not but think that all who see the present state of the College must 
also feel that this is indeed the harvest, the accepted time, the day 
of salvation. Oh ! my brother ! though it is only your little Toby 
who is writing to you, yet he loves you ; he knows how many inesti- 
mable qualities you possess, and shudders at the thought of your 

dissatisfied estimate of his diligence, ambition, or power of concentrated and sus- 
tained effort. Her tendency was to self* repression, and to the expectation of dis- 
appointment. His natural disposition was easy, and to the gratification of his 
tastes. Sense of duty and love for the cause of Christ were the springs of his sub- 
sequent life -long labors. But up to the day of her death, when he had been pro* 
fessor for ten years, the mother lamented that Charles would '' never do himself 

34 A UTOBIOGRAPHY. [«8i 5- 

wanting the one thing needful. You must not, you do not, at lestst I 
hope you will not, want it. I remember what you said of the " pious 
physician.'* I cannot tell you how it made me feel. I was rejoiced ; 
for I knew that " he that seeketh findeth,*' and that "he that asketh. 


You have probably heard exaggerated accounts of the revival, as 
must be expected on such occasions. I believe that there are about 
thirty who are really changed. Almost all the College attend the 
prayer-meeting, which is held every evening at eight o'clocjj, in. 
Newbold*s room. Dr. Green lectures to us m the senior recitation, 
room every Tuesday evening, and Dr. Alexander on Friday eve- 
nings. These meetings also are attended by almost all the students. 
If you were to see me kiss Richards, you must think that a great 
change had taken place. 

There are a thousand things I would tell you, but I must refer yoii 
to our dear brother Johns. It being half-past twelve at night is a suf- 
ficient reason for my bidding you good-night. 

Your Brother. 

There were one hundred and five students in the College 
during the winter of 1814-15, of whom twelve had been 
previously professors of religion, and were very useful in 
promoting that revival. Most of them were much older 
than the majority of their associates. Of this number were 
Daniel Baker, afterwards the celebrated evangelist;* 
Thomas J. Biggs, subsequently professor in the Lane Theo- 
logical Seminary; Isaac W. Piatt, long pastor of the church 
in Bath, New York ; Robert Steele, the life-long pastor of 
the church in Abington, Penna.; John De Witt, life-long 
pastor of the church in Harrisburgh, Penna. Of the re- 
maining ninety-three students then in College, fully one- 

* Young men are sometimes disposed to determine present duty by their antici- 
pations of the future. Mr. Baker told me that he expected to spend his life in 
preaching the gospel in the mountains of Virginia ; and therefore would not need 
a thorough theological training. On this account he declined to enter the Theo- 
logical Seminary. In less than a year after leaving College he was married and 
licensed, and entered on his work. The first thing we heard of him, was that he 
was called to be the pastor of an important Church in Savannah ,* then he was 
called to Washington, where he had Senators and Congressmen for his hearers. 
He subsequently discovered that God had called him to be an itinerant, and as 
such, he was eminently successfiiL 


half gave to their fellow-men, in their after life, every 
evidence of having become true believers during this revi- 
vaL In the light of God, the number was probably greater. 
Among these were John Johns, afterwards Episcopal Bishop 
of Virginia; Charles P. M'llvaine, afterwards Episcopal 
Bishop of Ohio ; James V. Henry, pastor of Presbyterian 
Church at Sing-Sing, N. Y. ; Symmes C. Henry, pastor of 
Church at Cranbury, N. J. ; Ravaud K. Rodgers, pastor of 
Church at Bound Brook, N. J. ; Wm. J. Armstrong, after- 
wards Secretary of the American Board of Commissioners 
for Foreign Missions; Benjamin Ogden, pastor of Church at 
Pennington; John Maclean, afterwards President of the 
College of New Jersey ; Charles C. Stewart, Missionary to 
the Sandwich Islands, and George H. Woodruff and John 
Rodney, afterwards Episcopal ministers; Benjamin W. 
Richards, afterwards Mayor of Philadelphia, &c., &c. 
Bishop Johns, together with William James, Charles Stew- 
art, and others, made his first profession of religion in the 
First Presbyterian Church, Princeton, July 7, 18 15. He 
afi:erwards removed his connection to the Episcopal Church, 
attended by his &mily in New Castle, Delaware. 

Many of my College associates subsequently rose to dis- 
tinction. Judge Haines, of Ohio; William Pennington, 
Governor of New Jersey, and Speaker of the House of 
Representatives in Congress; James McDowell, Governor 
of Virginia ; Richard H. Bayard, U. S. Senator, and Minis- 
ter to Belgium ; Henry Carrington and John Blair Dabney, 
of Virginia. These last were inseparables ; room-mates, 
with all their books marked " Carrington and Dabney." 
Mr. Dabney became a prominent lawyer, but in middle life 
took orders in the Episcopal Church. Philip R. Fendall * 
was one of the first honor men of our class, and attorney of 

*One day a dozen of us were standing on the front steps of the College, and 
Fendall was exerclang his wit on those around him, when one of the crowd said, 

• Fendall, why don't you cut C ?" The prompt reply was, " What is the 

use of cutting mush ?" C was so amiable that even that gash healed by the first 


the District of Columbia. Persifer F. Smith became a 
general in the U. S. Army. He was a great favorite, and 
exuberant in humor. If you heard laughter in any part of 
the building, you might be sure that Smith was at the 
bottom of it He was greatly distinguished in both the 
Florida and Mexican wars. After the Florida war he was 
driving in Philadelphia (his native city) with a party of 
friends, and the question came up, " What was the cause of 
the great difficulty attending the war against the Semi- 
noles ?" . One of the party turned to the General and said, 
" Smith, you were there, what do you think was the cause 
of the trouble ?" He replied, " I do not know, but I reckon 
it was the Indians." His constitution was undermined by 
malaria in Mexico, and he died in 1858, while in command 
of the post at Fort Leavenworth. John Johns, Bishop of 
Virginia; Charles P. M'llvaine, Bishop of Ohio, and John 
Maclean, President of the College of New Jersey, have 
been my intimate, life-long friends. Besides these there 
were a considerable number who have become judges, or 
members of congress, or distinguished as lawyers, physi- 
cians, or ministers of the gospel. 

There were two of my college associates, who are en- 
shrined in my memory as remarkable illustrations of the 
power of goodness, that is, of holiness ; these were Charles 
B. Storrs and John Newbold. The former was the son of 
the Rev. Richard S. Storrs, of Longmeadow, Mass., and 
uncle of the distinguished Dr. Richard S. Storrs, of Brook- 
lyn, N. Y. I remember him principally, as a member of 
Whig Hall,* where everybody deferred to him. He was 
intelligent, cultivated, gentle, courteous, unassuming, and 
eminently devout. It was his piety which made him what 
he was. It was the halo that surrounded him, and which 
secured for him the affectionate deference with which he was 
always treated His health was delicate, and he left college 

* A permanent secret Literary Society of the College. 


before graduation. After studying theology at Andover, 
he removed to Ohio, and became president of the Western 
Reserve College. He died in the house of his brother, the 
Rev. Dr. Richard S. Storrs, of Braintree, Mass., in 1833, at 
the early age of thirty-nine. 

I never saw him after he left Princeton, and therefore was 
the more interested in the following tribute to his memory, 
taken from the New York Times, January 24th, 1878. 
" Many of the old readers of the (Boston) Herald may re- 
member the beautiful poem of Mr. Whittier, to the late 
President of the Western Reserve College, Charles B. 
Storrs, a man of high culture and great intellectual powers. 
The late Judge Humphrey, of Hudson, Ohio, said Dr. 
Storrs was the most eloquent man he ever heard. Presi- 
dent Storrs was an out and out anti-slavery and temperance 
man. In his advocacy of these two great causes, he knew 
no such words as felter or compromise. Slavery and in- 
temperance were wrong, and they must be put down. Dr. 
Storrs of this city, a nephew of President Storrs, who in- 
herits the intellectual force of his uncle, and is a man of rare 
culture, perhaps unequalled by any man in the American 
pulpit to-day, told me not long ago, * that when his uncle. 
President Storrs, was sick unto death, and his mother was 
watching him with the greatest and tenderest care, anxious 
for his life, said to him, ' Your brother, the doctor, says, 
' You must take a little brandy,' he turned his sparkling 
^y^s to his sister, and in tones of voice almost silenced by 
the touch of death, said, in slow and measured words: 'No; 
I cannot take it I must be true to the principle.' These 
were the last words he ever spoke, and his great soul went 
up to God, who gave it" 

John Newbold was a native of Philadelphia, and a mem- 
ber of the Episcopal Church. I do not remember to have 
ever known a man who was so absorbed in the things un- 
seen and eternal. He seemed to take no interest in the 
things of this life, except so far as they were connected 


with duty, or with the interests of religion. His conversa- 
tion was in heaven. No one went to him to talk politics, 
or to discuss the relative merits of their fellow-students. 
But if any were in darkness or trouble, they would go to 
him for instruction or consolation. He had far more in- 
fluence than any other man in the Seminary (which he 
joined immediately after leaving college). If an irritating^ 
discussion at any time arose, as soon as Newbold entered 
the room there was a calm. Or if it happened, to any two 
of the students, as it did to Paul and Barnabas, " that a 
sharp contention,'* arose between them, so that they "parted 
asunder," he was sure to bring them together and fuse 
them into one by his love. He was tall and long-limbed, 
and rather awkward, though a thorough gentleman. His 
face was plain ; and would have been homely, had it not 
been irradiated by the beauty of holiness. His heart was 
set on going as a missionary to Persia or India. As at that 
time there was no foreign missionary organization in this 
country, connected with the Episcopal Church, he induced 
Dr. Alexander to offer his services to the Church Mission- 
ary Society in England. He was, however, cut down by a 
rapid consumption, and died before entering the ministry. 
For a series of years, I acted on the purpose of not allowing 
his memory to die out in the Seminary. Therefore, once 
at least in three years (an academic generation with us) I 
held him up as an example ; I wished to cause the students 
to see how much good can be done, by simply being good, 

[Here ends the autobiographical notes. These, also, 
were the very last sentences that Dr. Hodge ever wrote, 
with the exception of two or three short family letters. A 
fit and characteristic closing of the vast volume of writing 
which for fifty years had flowed from his pen.] 

He graduated from college, September, 1815. John Johns 
and Philip R. Fendall shared the first honor, and Charles 
Hodge and Alexander Wurtz shared the second ; Charles 
Hodge delivered the valedictory oration. 




HIS preparation for College, especially in the Greek lan- 
guage, had been imperfect, and the effort which had 
been required to raise him to the high position in the class 
which he occupied at the time of his graduation, had deci- 
dedly taxed his physical strength. His moliier, therefore* 
required him to return to her home in Philadelphia, and 
^)end there a year in general reading, and seeking the 
recuperation of his health, before he should commence his 
direct preparation for a profession. Of this year, very 
naturally, but few memorials remain. He spent the winter 
as proposed, in Philadelphia, following a course of general 
reading, but the pain and weakness in his chest became the 
cause of serious uneasiness. After the spring opened he 
spent several months with his cousin, Mrs. Harrison Smith, 
at her husband's country seat, in the neighborhood of 
Washington city, D. C. He afterwards related that Mrs. 
Smith made him drink, frequently, new milk mixed with 
honey, a prescription at once pleasant to his taste, and 
strengthening to his chest. 

His cousin Jane, eldest daughter of Andrew Hodge, jr., 
and Nancy Ledyard, had, some years previously, married 
Dr. Robert H. Rose, an intelligent Scotch gentleman of 



great cultivation and taste, who had become the owner of 
a large tract of land in Susquehanna county, near the 
north-eastern corner of Pennsylvania. In that day the 
country to the north of Easton, at the forks of the Dela- 
ware, was, with the exception of the Wyoming valley, for 
the most part a wilderness, broken only here and there by 
clearings and humble homesteads. But Dr. Rose built on 
the banks of the beautiful Silver Lake a residence, which, 
more than almost any other then existing in the Middle 
States, took the place and fulfilled the offices of a country 
residence of an English nobleman. It was built of wood, 
yet of large proportions, and adapted to the entertainment 
of many guests, thirty at a time often staying with him for 
days or weeks, as suited their convenience. A large 
library, fine pictures and works of art, beautiful conserva- 
tories and gardens, and the eminent social gifts of the host, 
made the place a centre of attraction, and an astonishing 
oasis of civilization in the "back-woods." 

Early in July of this year, young Charles paid a visit to 
this hospitable house, making the journey from Philadel- 
phia in company with his aunt, Mrs. Nancy Hodge. From 
Silver Lake he wrote several letters to his mother, two of 
which remain, which are given to the reader partly because 
they are among the earliest traces that survive of the pen of 
Dr. Hodge, afterwards so prolific. 


Silver Lake, July 11, 1816. 
My Dear Mother :—^ on most probably will have heard of our safe 
arrival here, long before this reaches you. It was just after sun- 
down on Sunday evening when we came in sight of the Lake. We 
were much less fatigued than you would expect by our four days of 
constant riding and, part of the time, of constant jolting. The thirty 
miles we came on horseback affected aunt more than all the rest of 
the journey. A considerable part of the road between this and the 
city is dreary enough ; scarcely any thing to be seen but fields filled 
with old stumps, and, in places on fire last spring, whole woods of 


leafless and limbless trees. There are, however, some landscapes 
more beautifid and extensive than any I can remember ever to have 
seen. From a mountain near Easton there is a prospect as rich and 
widely extended as your imagination can well conceive. You see 
before you a fertile valley, through which the Lehigh and Delaware 
flow, and in which they meet. Easton is situated on the point of 
land formed by their junction, and beyond you perceive the long 
ridge of the Blue mountains, covered with the richest foliage. The 
whole of the ride from Tunckhannock, about thirty miles, is very de- 
lightful. ♦ ♦ » ♦ ♦ 

They are all very kind, and have every thing about them they 
could wish. The place fully answers my expectations, and will be 
delightful when the country is more cultivated. » ♦ * The lake 
proves an abundant source of amusement, and also of healthy exer- 
cise, as we often paddle about in the old canoe. We catch here the 
salmon trout, of which the Doctor is very proud, as he thinks they are 
to be found no where in the State but in his tract. He told me that 
if I turned out to be as clever a fellow as my brother Hugh, he 
should like to make a backwoodsman of me. * * * I feel the want 
of my other pair of cloth pantaloons very much. Cousin and the 
Doctor have repeatedly asked me to spend the summer here, but my 
want of clothes, and the impossibility of getting them» if nothing else, 
would prevent it. ***** 

You would think it strange, perhaps, if I were to close my letter 
without saying a word about my health, but I have little to say on 
that subject. I eat here, I believe, in one day as much as I did in a 
week in the city. My breast is sometimes painful, but not often, and 
my back is well enough if I do not stoop much. 

The good people here desire their love to you. 

My dear mother*s affectionate son, 

C. Hodge. 


Silver Lake, July 27, 18 16. 

My Dearest Mo/Aer .-—Poxtly from being pretty constantly em- 
ployed during the past week, but principally, I fear, from my pro- 
crastinating disposition, it is Saturday morning (instead of Monday 
or Tuesday, as I intended) before I am seated to fulfil my promise 
of writing to you before our return. As there is now no flattering to- 
morrow for me to look forward to, it must be done to-day. 

I feel, my dear mother, fully sensible that the present is one of the 
most important periods of my life, viewing it as one in which the 


choice of a profession is to be made. Having left us to act freely in 
this respect, you are aware of the one on which, even for some years 
past, I have been conditionally determined. It is the one, I know, in 
which, generally speaking, there b the least prospect of earthly hap- 
piness, since there are so many deprivations and inconveniences to 
which those who embrace it must submit, as they must be ever so 
much more at the disposition of others than of themselves. Yet I 
feel that it is the only one in which I could be happy, believing it to 
be the path of my duty. 

Considering, therefore, my choice of a profession as made, the 
next most important points to determine are the proper time and 
place of preparation for its duties. And here, my dear mamma, I 
leave myself entirely at your disposal, not, however, without urging 
my own wishes, and endeavoring to convince you of their pro- 

Had I been permitted to act as my own dictator, my feelings would 
have led me, agreeably to the advice of friends as inexperienced as 
myself, to have entered the Seminary immediately after leaving Col- 
lege. From this improper step my mother saved me. Since that 
time, however, a year has passed, and I feel anxious to be engaged 
in serious study, fearing that if kept back for another year, the time 
will be even worse than lost. For I believe it impossible for any 
young man whose principal business it is to pursue an object as in- 
definite as general information, to make his progress in any measure 
co-equal to the value of his time. For you know that it is necessary 
for the powers of the mind to be more or less concentrated in order 
to produce effects. The acquisition of this kind of knowledge must 
be the gradual and secondary work of a whole life, rather than the 
main object of any particular period. Besides general reading as a 
business must be injurious, as it has a tendency to render the mind 
incapable of attention to severer and less interesting studies. But 
should you consider that another year thus spent is absolutely neces* 
sary, do you think the present the most proper time ? Would it not 
be better to wait until after the three or four years of professional 
studies, when the mind will be more matured, the habits of sftudy and 
attention more firmly fixed, the stock of information increased, and ' 
the capacity for improvement in every way enlarged ? For my own 
part, I am convinced that the benefit of a year devoted to reading at 
that period would be nearly quadruple that of an equal period at the 
present. You remember that Dr. Alexander told us that if I were to 
spend a fourth year in reading under his (or their) direction, my pro- 
gress would be greater than during all the other three together. 

With respect to the most advantageous place for the prosecution 


of my studies, I think, my dear mother, you cannot hesitate between, 
on the one hand, a place in which I can enjoy the tuition of men of 
talents and information, whose time and attention are devoted to the 
improvement of their pupils, with the advantage of good libraries, of 
the company of persons of my own age engaged in the same pur- 
suits, of being in a class, of constant recitations and lectures, and 
especially the advantage of a debating society attended by the pro- 
fessors of College and Seminary — and on the other hand, a place 
in which I must be under a private gentleman who is almost entirely 
occupied with other concerns, and in which I shall be destitute of 
nearly all the above-mentioned advantages. 

I trust you cannot suppose that I am influenced in what I say by a 
childish fondness for Princeton. I am far from being sanguine in 
my expectations of happiness there. The College filled with strangers 
will not be the source of pleasure it was when it contained so many 
of my dear and affectionate friends, and I know that my situation 
must be far less pleasant in many other respects than it was when 
you were there, I am ever, my dear mother, your affectionate 


During the month of October of this year, young Charles 
had the great pleasure and advantage of accompanying Dr. 
Alexander in a tour through Virginia, among the scenes of 
the Doctor's earlier ministry. It was accomplished chiefly 
in stages and on horseback. It extended over a line of 
about 600 miles from Philadelphia and back again ; from 
Philadelphia to Baltimore ; thence to Harper's Ferry; where 
the Potomac breaks through the Blue ridge ; thence up the 
great valley thirty miles wide, reaching from the heart 
of Pennsylvania to the" heart of Carolina and Tennessee, to 
Lexington, in Rockbridge county, where Dr. Alexander was 
bom and educated ; thence back to Staunton, and through 
Rockfish Gap, by Monticello and Charlottesville, and thence 
to Fredericksburg, where they attended the sessions of the 
S3mod of Virginia ; and thence to Washington, Baltimore, 
and home. 

Our father used in after years to recount to his children, 
with great interest, the scenes of that memorable journey, 
and the happiness of that blessed companionship. He told 


of the remarkable evidence given of the fervent and univer- 
sal affection entertained for Dr. Alexander, and the enthu* 
siasm of his reception. Of how often when under the ex- 
citement of his cordial greeting, the Doctor, shut up to the 
alternatives of laughing or crying, would be shaken with a 
nervous laugh, while shaking hands by the half-hour, and 
with hundreds of old friends. Of how the inspiration of the 
old scenes and of the familiar faces lifted the Doctor to his 
original elevation of extemporaneous and dramatic eloquence, 
from which he had declined since he had formed the habit 
of reading his sermons, as a city pastor in Philadelphian. 
Especially he referred with unabated wonder to two sermons 
preached by the doctor on this journey. Once, when he 
preached on the sacrifice of Isaac by his father Abram, he so 
minutely described and enacted the scene, that the entire au- 
dience were thrilled and rent as though they were actually 
present at the impending tragedy. Again, when he preached 
on the judgment of the quick and dead by the Son of Man, 
he so keenly apprehended the event as real, and so graphic- 
ally described it, that at the crisis, when the trumpet sounded, 
and the great white throne began to descend, the entire 
congregation, by one impulse, rose, and bent to the windows, 
that they might see Him, and take their places among the 
multitudes thronging to meet Him. 

But one letter pertaining to this journey remains. 


Staunton, Va., Oct. lo, 1816. 

My Dear Mother : — I am now upwards of three hundred miles dis- 
tant from you, and from almost all those who feel an interest in me. 
It often makes me feel melancholy to look on the map and see the 
very spot where my friends are, and then reflect what a space there 
is between us. I can in every hour of the day guess where you all 
are situated, and what you are most probably doing ; but you can 
only think of me as somewhere or other far from you, engaged in 
scenes which your imagination cannot call before you. I expect 
therefore that you are oftener in my thoughts than I am in yours, at 


least I can better bring you all before me from being acquainted with 
the places you constantly frequent. 

The first opportunity I had of writing was on Friday evening after 
a iati^ing ride from Baltimore to Fredericktown, the hurried 
letter which I suppose you received a week ago. This last mentioned 
place we left between two and three o'clock on Saturday morning, 
when the moon, being full, shone with such brightness, that we could 
almost fancy it was mid-day. We rode eight miles to a place called the 
Trap, where we breakfasted just at day -break, when we had only ten 
miles to ride before we reached Harper's Ferry. During this time 
we had frequently beautiful views of the mountains, and could gen- 
erally trace the course of the Potomac by the fog which rises in the 
morning, and which enveloping the foot of the Ridge, leaves only 
the summit visible, resting apparently on the clouds. . . . After 
passing the Ferry and finding the stage was not ready, we hastened 
up the hill on the point formed by the junction of the Potomac and 
Shenandoah, to Jefferson's rock, and kneeling on that (for we were 
afraid to stand) we enjoyed the most beautifully grand prospect my 
eyes had ever witnessed or my imagination had ever painted. I 
shall not attempt to give you a description of the place, but only say 
that I think Jefferson less extravagant in saying that a sight of it is 
worthy a voyage across the Atlantic, than I did before I had seen it 
myself. When I return I will endeavor to give you some idea of it. 
We arrived at Winchester just at dark ; the Doctor per- 
ceiving the Presbyterian Church was open, we put our baggage in the 
tavern and went up towards it. On our way we met Mr. Hill, the 
Doctor's friend and the minister of the place, who insisted on the 
Doctor's preaching, although he had risen that day at two o'clock, 
and had ridden fifty miles over one of the worst roads in the Union. 
Here I met my old class-mate. Baker, who took me home with him, 
where I was treated very kindly by all of them (there were no less 
than half a dozen young ladies there). The next day being Sunday, 
and their communion season. Dr. Alexander preached in the morn- 
ing on the text, " Ought not Christ to have suffered these things ?" 
He was as usual most excellent and affecting. We left Winchester 
about three o'clock Monday morning, by moonlight . . . and our next 
stopping-place was Woodstock, the county-town of Shenandoah, and 
this being their court-day, the whole place was filled with the oddest- 
looking, old-fashioned German men and women I ever saw. The 
Doctor enjoyed the scene very much, and was constantly telling me 
not to laugh, while his own mouth was wide open. . . . We slept 
that night at New Market, and before three the next morning we were 
in the stage. It was exceedingly cold until the sun rose ; we rode 


forty-five miles, and arrived at Staunton about four in the afternoon. 
Here we spent Wednesday and Thursday at Dr. Waddel's, Mrs. 
Alexander's brother, who is quite a young man. I received here all 
the kindness and hospitality which I could expect or wish for even in 
Virginia. A Mr. McDowell, a friend of the Doctor, was so kind as 
to lend us each a horse ; so on Friday morning we left Staunton for 
Lexington on horseback, and arrived there between five and six. 
This ride of thirty-five miles fatigued us more than all the rest of our 
journey together. I feel much better this morning, but my limbs yet 
ache a good deal. We are to visit the Natural Bridge on Monday, 
which is about fifteen miles from this. Then we are to return to 
Staunton, and on Monday week we are to leave Staunton with the 
two Misses Waddell." They will drop me at Charlottesville for a day to 
visit Monticello. They intend to stop at the Doctor's brother-in-law^ 
where I am to rejoin them on Wednesday evening. We shall then 
proceed to Fredericksburgh, get there on Friday, and, the Synod 
meeting there, we shall stay until the beginning of the next week, for 
the Doctor to see his old friends who will be there. We shall then 
take the steamboat for Washington, then the stage to Baltimore ; 
then the steamboat to where my dear mother and brother now are. 

I have been very happy during this jaunt (except when I felt un- 
easy about the state of my funds, which has sometimes even kept 
me from sleeping.) I have met with a great deal of kindness, and 
of course like the people very much. The Doctor is the man ofmen^ 
talks a great deal about the country as we pass along, and tells me 
anecdotes of himself suggested by the sight of places where he used 
to be. I have much less pain in my breast than I had before I left 
home. I expect to return quite well. 

I remain, dear mother, 

Your son, C. H. 


On November 9th, 18 16, Charles Hodge was matriculated 
as a student in the Princeton Theological Seminary. This 
institution was founded in 1812. Dr. Archibald Alexander 
was the first professor, and sole instructor, until the acces- 
sion of the Rev. Samuel Miller, D. D., December 3d, 18 13. 
At first there were neither public buildings nor libraries. 
The houses of the professors were used as places for recita- 
tion and worship. The main Seminary edifice, supplying 


apartments for dormitories, library and public meetings, 
and recitations, and for the residence of the steward, and the 
refectory was opened for use in the autumn of 18 17, when 
only the two lower stories were finished. Charles Hodge 
was the first student who ever preached in the new Ora- 
tory, that sacred room with which his person and voice has 
been associated for sixty-one years. The residence so long 
occupied by Dr. Alexander, was built early in 1819. The 
corresponding house at the other end of the main Semi- 
nary building, occupied by Dr. Hodge for fifty-three years, 
was built during the latter part of 1824. " The matricula- 
tions of students were in 181 2, nine; in 181 3, sixteen; in 
1814, fifteen; in 18 1 5, twenty-two; in 1 8 16, twenty-six; in 
18 17, twenty-three." 

As the theological character and life-work of Dr. Hodge 
was determined by the discipline he received in this Semi- 
nary, and especially as he always affirmed that he was 
moulded more by the character and instructions of Dr. 
Archibald Alexander, than by all other external influences 
combined, I will quote at length the information given by 
the biographer of Dr. Alexander, as to the characteristics 
of the first professors, and as to their methods of instruction 
during the first years of the Institution. 

" All Dr. Alexander's life long he was free to acknow- 
ledge that his training, however laborious, had lacked much 
of the vigor and method of the schools. Theology had, 
indeed, been the study of his life. During his residence in 
Philadelphia he had gathered about him the great masters 
of Latin theology, whose works appeared in Holland, 
Switzerland, Germany, and France, in the sixteenth and 
seventeenth centuries. A rare occasion of adding to his 
stock of Dutch theology was afforded by the sale of a 
library belonging to a learned minister from Holland, the 
Rev. Mr. Von Harlinger, of Somerset. These Reformed 
divines he regarded as having pushed theological investiga- 
tion to its greatest length, and compacted its conclusions 


into the most symmetrical method. He once said to the 
writer, that on a perplexed subject he preferred Latin to 
English reading, not only because of the complete and in- 
genious nomenclature which had grown up in the dialectic 
schools of the church, but because the little effort required 
for getting the sense kept his attention concentrated. His 
penchant for metaphysical investigation urged him, from an 
early date, to make himself, acquainted with the philoso- 
phies of the periods, from which each system took its tinc- 
ture, and without which it is impossible to survey the 
several schemes from a just point of view. Thus he pe- 
rused, and generally in their sources, not only the peripatetic 
and scholastic writers, but the treatises of Des Cartes, 
Leibnitz, Wolff, and Voetius. And there was no subject on 
which he discoursed with more pleasure and success, than 
upon the exposition and comparison of these ingenious, 
though now exploded, systems. He made himself familiar 
with the Christian Fathers, both Greek and Latin, and pe- 
rused them at intervals during forty years. He did not con- 
fine himself to writers on one side. Through long years he 
was wont to seek with patience the best works in defence of 
popery; the argumentative dissertations of the extreme 
Lutherans and Dutch Remonstrants, as well as the Fratres 
Poloni, and other champions of Socinianism. It need 
scarcely be added that he was familiar with English the- 
ology, as treated both by authors of the Established Church, 
and by the great non-conformist divines. His recent travels 
in New England, and the prevailing excitement caused by 
the speculations of Hopkins and Emmons, served to keep 
him observant in regard to the phases of opinion in the 
American churches. As it respects his own conclusions, 
he has left on record the statement, that on his return from 
New England, and during his residence in Philadelphia, his 
views, which had been somewhat modified by eastern sug- 
gestions, began to fix themselves more definitely in the 
direction of the common Westminster theology. 


'•Although called primarily to be a teacher of theology, 
in its stricter acceptation, he was led both by strong native 
tastes and by convictions of reason, to give first attention to 
the criticism and interpretation of the original Scriptures. 
With the Greek, as has been intimated, he was sufficiently 
femUiar to be a competent instructor, but Hebrew literature 
was in its in&ncy in America- The works of Gcsenius 
were as yet unknown, and the learned labors of Gibbs and 
Stuart had not been given to the world. Even in New 
England the vowel points were for a time held in suspicion, 
and those who desired to penetrate their mysteries were fain 
to seek often the different and rare volumes of Buxtorf, 
Leusden, and Opitius. Conscious of his own imperfect 
knowledge, he modestly, but indefatigably, set about the 
work of inculcation. For a number of years, and with in- 
creased ability, he worked this field, until relieved by the 
services of a beloved pupil, the Reverend Charles Hodge. 
Criticism and hermeneutics was a department which had 
great charms for him, and by extensive reading, compiling 
and original investigation, he prepared to furnish a system 
of instruction, which for years he delivered as lectures, a 
number of which still remain among his papers. To this he 
added copious instructions in Biblical Archaeology, on 
which he prepared numerous discourses, and which 
remained under his control for many years. No man looked 
more reverently upon the typical Christology of the 
Levitical law ; and none of his pupils can forget the awe 
with which he approached the recesses of the expiatory 
system, or the felicitous use which he made of the altar 
and the propitiatory, in his more purely theological ex- 
position of the atonement 

** Deeply persuaded that many theological errors have 
their origin in a bias derived from false metaphysics, he set 
about the methodizing of his thoughts upon mental philo- 
sophy. The German philosophy was yet unknown among 
us, and he was never led to travel the transcendental, or 


high '' a priori road/' but treated mental phenomena on the 
inductive method, as the objects of a cautious generalization* 
While he uniformly recommended the perusal of Locke, it 
was, as he often declared, not so much for the value of his 
particular conclusions, as for the spirit of his investigation ; 
the calmness, patience and transparent honesty of that truly 
great man. He likewise expressed great &vor for Reid^ 
Beattie, Buffier, Campbell and Stewart, with whose general 
methods, as well as their views of intuitive truths and con- 
stitutional principles of reason, he was in agreement, while 
he dissented from many of their definitions, distinctions and 
tenets. From these topics he turned to the closely allied 
domain of Natural Religion. While he was far from being 
a rationalist, he was never satisfied with the tactics of those 
reasoners, who, under the pretext of exalting revelation, 
dismiss, with contempt, all arguments derived from the light 
of nature. He rendered due homage, therefore, to the 
labors of such writers as Nieuwentyt, the younger Turret- 
tin, and Paley, and spent much time in considering and 
unfolding, with nice discrimination, the various schemes of 
argument for the Being and Perfections of Grod, and the 
necessity and antecedent probability of a revelation. Con- 
nected closely with this was the discussion of Ethical Philo- 
sophy, in which he taught, from the outset, the same doc- 
trines which have been given to the world in a posthumous 

" The anxieties belonging to an attempt to lay down the 
great lines of a method for teaching the whole system of 
revealed truth, to those who were to be the ministers of the 
Church, were just and burdensome. As compared with 
those later methods which grew out of continued experi- 
ence with successive classes, they were probably more ex- 
temporaneous and colloquial ; there was more use of exist- 
ing manuals, and less adventure of original expedients. 
Dr. Alexander, herein concurring with Chalmers, conceived 
that theology was best taught by a wise union of the text 


book with the free lecture. Finding no work in Engh'sh 
which entirely met his demands, he placed in the hands of 
his pupils the Institutions of Francis Turrettin. It would 
be very unjust to suppose that the young men were charged 
with the tenets of Turrettin, to the injury of their mental 
independence. Dr. Alexander often dissented from the 
learned Genevan, and always endeavored to cultivate in 
his students the spirit and habits of original investigation. 
He very laboriously engaged in making such brief aids, in 
the way of syllabus and compendium, as might furnish to 
the student a manageable key to the whole classification. 
He prepared extensive and minute questions, going into all 
the ramifications of theology. He assigned subjects for 
origrinal dissertations, which were publicly read and com- 
mented on by both professors and students ; a near ap- 
proach to the acts held in the old university schools, under 
the scholastic moderator. To this were added the debates 
of a theological society, meeting every Friday evening, 
always on some important topic, and always closed by the 
full and highly animated remarks of the professor.. 

" The division of his department into Didactic and Po- 
lemic Theology, which the Plan of the institution made im- 
perative, gave the professor an opportunity to go over all 
the leading doctrines in the way of defence against the ob- 
jections of errorists, heretics and infidels. In doing this he 
brought to bear his remarkable stores of recondite reading. 
He gave the biography of eminent opponents, clear analyses 
of their systems, and refutations of their reasons. What 
might be considered by some an inordinate length of time, 
was devoted to the cardinal differences, such as the contro- 
versy with Deists, Arians, Socinians, Pelagians, Arminians, 
Papists and Universalists ; all being made to revolve around 
the Calvinistic system, which, upon sincere conviction, he 
had adopted." 

Dr. Samuel Miller was elected Professor of Ecclesiastical 
History and Church Government, in 1813. After his acces- 

52 ROOMS AND ROOM-MATES, [1816-19. 

sion, the entire instruction of the Seminary was divided 
between Dr. Alexander and himself. "He brought with 
him a high reputation, as a preacher and author, and a 
Christian gentleman. His name was widely known from 
his ' Retrospect of the Eighteenth Century,' and more 
recently from his defence of Presbytery, against the attacks 
of Doctors Hobart and Bowden." 

Hugh Hodge, in referring to his brother Charles' Sem- 
inary life, remarks that " now he began to discover con- 
siderable facility in acquiring knowledge, although he 
was not much of a student." This judgment must be 
understood, in view of the fact, that Hugh was eighteen 
months the elder, that he matured much more rapidly 
than his brother, and that he was himself beyond all his 
associates distinguished for the strictness of his method, 
the extent of his patience and power of self-denial, and 
the absoluteness of his devotion to his duty. The cor- 
respondence of Charles with his mother shows, that dur- 
ing his Seminary course, he attained to the habits of an 
earnest aitd successful student. He boarded and lodged at 
Mrs. Bache's during the first year of his Seminary course. 
As soon as the public building was ready for use, in the fall 
of 1 8 17, he took up his abode in it. During his junior 
year, he had for his room-mate, Thomas Jacob Bigg% after- 
wards Professor in Lane Seminary, Cincinnati. During the 
middle year, John Johns, afterwards Bishop of the Episco- 
pal Church in Virginia; and during the senior year, Thomas 
Scudder Wickes, afterwards a pastor in the state of New 
York. With all of these brethren Mr. Hodge formed inti- 
mate friendships, cherished by him with warm affection all 
their lives. But the mutual love of Charles Hodge and 
John Johns was singular, and in the experience of either of 
them, had no rival of its kind. It burned brighter and 
brighter for sixty years on earth, till now, after the briefest 
separation. Episcopalian and Presbyterian brother are to- 
gether forever. 

XT. 19.] fflGH SPIRITS. 53 

His most intimate friends among his classmates in the 
Seminary, were Johns, Mcllvaine and William Nevins. They 
were an exceedingly joyous and playful company. Dr. 
Hodge afterwards, writing of Dr. Miller, said, " Our class, 
one of the earliest, tried his patience a good deal. We 
were not bad, but boyish. One particularly, afterwards one 
of the most distinguished and useful ministers of our church, 
the late Dr. William Nevins of Baltimore, was so full of 
fun and wit, that he kept us in a constant titter. The good 
Doctor wore out his lead-pencil in thumping the desk to 
make us behave, but he was never irritated. He made 
allowance for us boys, knowing that we loved and rever- 
enced him." He often told us how Nevins* seasons of 
playfulness were followed by reaction and depression, and 
of his spending a large part of the night with him, seeking 
to restore the cheerfulness of his feiith and hope. Also, 
how after he became assistant teacher, he was once called 
upon to minister to the conscience of the eccentric, but 
highly talented George Bush, who was overwhelmed with 
fear of the desertion of God, because he had killed a mouse. 


Princeton, Jan. nth, 1817. 

My Dear Mother : — I am not quite so lazy here as I am when at 
home. Yesterday morning I rose with the prayer bell, and I have 
now been up more than an hour, and have seated myself to write 
before eight o'clock. 

Our ride from the city here was very pleasant, as the roads are 
good, and the weatHer, especially in the morning, was very agree- 
able. Elizabeth found a young lady, formerly a school-mate of hers, 
in the stage coming on to Princeton, so that she had not to depend 
on poor me for the pleasures of conversation. For my part I never 
was more sensible of the superiority of the talents of ladies for talk- 
ing than they made me. 

Your son, C. H. 



Princeton, Feb. 21st, 1817. 

My Dear Mother: — ^We, the theological students, have entered 
upon the attempt of learning singing with considerable spirit We 
have formed ourselves into a society, to be called The Musical Associ- 
ation of Princeton ; have a constitution drawn, and no less than five 
officers, President, Vice-President, two Choristers, and Secretary. 
Biggs is our Secretary. Eaton, an excellent singer from the east- 
ward, is President. We are to meet once a week, alternately on 
Monday and Wednesday evening. Ladies are to attend and enjoy 
the privilege of members on invitation. I hope it may succeed and 
be useful in improving us all in the important as well as pleasing art 
of singing. Dr. Alexander is very warmly in favor of it, and the 
ladies of his family are as zealous in the cause as we can be. 

Your son, C. H. 


Princeton, June 24th, 18 17. 

My Dear Mamma : — Here I am once more in our little study fixed 
for another session. May the blessing of heaven rest with me here, 
as the kindness of providence has followed me during my absence, 
and may the richest mercies be multiplied to you, my dear mother 
and brother. 

My love to Cousin Susan. Yours, C. Hodge. 


Princeton, July 4th, 18 17. 

My Dear Mother : — Caroline wishes to stay and hear Mr. Larnerf, 
who is to preach for us next Sabbath in the Hall. I hope they will 
conclude to remain, as I wish Miss C. to admire Princeton more than 
merely passing through would lead her to do. The better known, 
the more beloved — ^happy the person or the place of which this is 
true. And I believe, as it regards most people, it may be said with 
strict propriety of this little favored spot. 

I am very glad you can perceive an improvement in my writing. 
I feared it was too small to be noticed. I write my copy regularly. 

Your son, C. H. 



Princeton, July 15, 1817. 

Dear Mamma : — ^The Sabbath the Miss Bayards were here, Lar- 
ned* preached, as was expected, his last sermon. The Hall was 
quite crowded, there being a considerable number of strangers pre- 
sent, and curiosity or a regard for the preacher enabled many of the 
inhabitants of town to overcome their reluctance to attend our 
church. They were, however, amply repaid, for Lamed preached 
with a degree of eloquence which few could equal. The ladies bore, 
by their tears, testimony to his superior powers, and many of his fel- 
low-students, who felt as though they were never to hear him again, 
were not much less affected than the ladies themselves. He has 
gone to New York to be ordained, and then intends to spend six or 
seven weeks with his friends. It is probable he will visit most of the 
Atlantic towns between this and Savannah as an agent for collecting 
funds for the Seminary. This is the plan, should Dr. Romeyn de- 
cline going. From Savannah he proceeds to New Orleans, there to 
remain and labor for the establishment of a church in that spiritual 


Your son, C. H. 


Princeton, Dec. 13, 18 17. 

Dear Mother : — ^We are very much pressed in our studies, so that 
I begin to feel as Hugh used to do, at seeing so much more before 
me than I can accomplish. But it is not in my nature to worry my- 
self much about what I cannot help, and it is surely best to do as 
much as you can and let the rest %o, I shall arrive at this conclu- 
sion and make a practical use of it much sooner than he (Hugh) has 
done, though he says he has at length attained it. What is dearly 
bought is highly valued. I trust, therefore, he will take care not to 
lose the power of looking at what he cannot accomplish or attain, 
without feeling too great dissatisfaction with himself. 

Dr. Alexander recommended to us this morning at recitation 
nearly thirty different works, giving such a character of each as to 
excite a strong desire to read them, which must be done next week 
or lefk undone, for we then pass on to a new subject, on which we 
may expect a similar supply. One great thing, however, we learn — 

* A prodigy of early eloquence, whose name is of^en mentioned with those of 
Whitefield and Suromerfield ; be shone brightly for a few years, and then closed 
bis career in New Orleans. 


that is, where information is to be found when we shall be more at 
leisure to attend to these copious sources. And another benefit is, 
that to be constantly occupied is to be happy, provided you are con- 
vinced that the occupation is important in itself, and proper for you. 
Accordingly I never was in better spirits than I have been in, all this 
session. Up before sunrise, and not to bed ever much before twelve. 
But four evenings in the week we are occupied until nine, before we 
can get to study. 

Susan Beattie (whom perhaps you may remember), the only 
daughter of Col. Beattie,* died on Tuesday morning, between six- 
teen and seventeen years old. I do not remember ever to have been 
more shocked than I was when I heard of her death. Scarcely eight 
days before, I saw her apparently enjoying the most vigorous health. 
Her hold on life appeared firmer than that of any of her companions, 
and the prospect of length of days was to few more flattering. She 
was one of the pall-bearers for Susan Bayard, and now they lie 
mouldering together in mournful contiguity in the house of silence, 
where the intercourse of friendship never can be^ known. 

Your son, C. H. 


Princeton, March 22, 18 18. 

Dear Mother : — My duties are so numerous and constant that there 
is not an hour in the day in which I feel at liberty to attend to what 
is foreign to my present pursuits. I am happy that such is the case, 
being persuaded that it is necessary ybr mt to be pressed forward, in 
order to do all I am able to accomplish. It has the effect also of 
making my time pass by on eagle* s wings. I often think of Mr. 
Bayard's telling me that as we grow old, our years, like the circum- 
ference of an inverted tea-cup, become less and less. I should feel 
old indeed if I judged of my age by this criterion, and young indeed 
if I judged by what I have done. Rapidly as our days and years are 
flying on, how difficult is, it to realize that they are hastening to a 
close. In looking forward to the end of life, it appears no nearer 
now than it did five or six years ago ; yet it is more than probable that 
half of my race is already run, and perhaps much more than half. 
Would that I could act accordingly ! 

Your son, C. H. 

* Father of the venerable and universally beloved Rev. Charles C Beattifl^ 
D. D., LL. D., of Steubenvllle, Ohio. 



Princeton, April 2, 1818. 

My Dear Mother: — My dear brother*s letter gave me more plea- 
sure than I ever before received from anything of the kind — ^perhaps 
much more than he experienced himself, as constitutionally he is not 
as much affected by these things as I am. To be crowned at the close 
of a hard-fought course is the highest gratification pertaining to this 
world, and to see a brother crowned is even sweeter still. It has 
made me proud of him, though I think I never was more grateful for 
any blessing than for his success. To be thankful for the past, and 
to trust (yet with diligence) for the future, comprises no small part 
of our present duty. When the more important race of life is run, 
may my dear brother then receive an applauding welcome, and a 
crown of glory which fadeth not away ! 

Your son, C. H. 

Hugh had graduated with the highest honors from thef 
medical department of the University of Pennsylvania, and 
in order to secure the means for perfecting his professional 
education in Europe, he sailed as surgeon of the merchant 
ship Julius Caesar from New York for Calcutta, September 
8th, 1818. 


Princeton, Sept. 10, 1818. 

My Dear Mother : — ^Every circumstance appears to conspire to 
render the prospect before our dear treasure pleasant and flattering. 
The gentlemen he goes with are, I expect, more than usually estima- 
ble. The Captain has a high character for amiability as a man and 
skill as an officer. And the ship is new, strong, swift, and hand- 
some. We have indeed much reason for gratitude for the present 
and the past, and should therefore with cheerful confidence commend 
to God the keeping of the gift He Himself at first bestowed, and has 
thus far so graciously enriched and preserved. 

When at Rockaway, as I had never seen nor heard the sea, as 
soon as we got there, though quite dark, I went out alone to go down 
to the beach, where the roaring was really dreadful, and not being 
able to see the water, and being quite alone, surrounded by the gloom 
of darkness, I felt chilled almost with a kind of horror of the ocean, 
and could not bear the thought of my brother ever venturing on its 

58 I^FE IN SEMINARY. [1818. 

bosom. But when the sun had in the morning gilded the expanse* 

the awful was changed into the beautiful and sublime, and I wished. 

myself at sea. 

Your affectionate son, C. H. 

I have found among his papers a small roll inscribed, 
" Correspondence of C. H. and S. B., 1 8 1 7 and 1 8 1 8." These 
are the remains of an exchange of letters he kept up with 
his future wife from the first of his Seminary life until their 
marriage. As a fair specimen of this remarkable love-letter 
writing, I record the following, written fi-om Princeton, in 
18 18, day and month not given. 

^fy Dear Sarah : — Our intercourse for some time past has been, as 
far as it is carried on by writing, not only very irregular, but very tri- 
fling. What can be the reason of this ? Does a note of more than 
half a dozen lines require an effort which our feelings are inadequate 
to produce ? Or are we really so constantly employed that a fortnight 
affords no half-hour on which affection might seize to devote to an 
occupation it considers and constitutes delightful ? 

But this is not the worst of it. Where, my dear Sarah, is our reli- 
gion ? Why have we banished it from our conversation and our 
writing ? Can you recollect for weeks its being the subject of either ? 
This change I know is to be attributed in a great measure, and per- 
haps entirely, to myself. I have never been enabled in all I have 
said to you to meet the difficulties you so constantly feel. Perhaps it 
would be right, therefore, not to attempt it again, but to commend 
you simply to the grace of God and to the teachings of His Spirit. 
But I think there is one thing which has not sufficiently engaged your 
attention, and which is of great practical importance. That is, that 
faith itself is the very first duty God requires us to perform, without 
which it is impossible to please Him in any thing. All attempts there- 
fore which men so frequently make to obey before they believe, is 
proceeding in a way directly the reverse of what God has prescribed. 
All our ability to obey is obtained by faith. Nothing else will purify 
the heart. It is by faith that we become united to Christ, in whom 
all our strength resides. He then that wishes to attain to holiness 
will be disappointed after all his efforts, unless he begins by believing. 
It is to this single point then that our first and our constant efforts are 
to be directed. It is but " looking unto Jesus," as dear Armstrong 
told us yesterday. Until this act be performed we are struggling in 
our own strength, we are warring at our own charges ; but as soon as 


believe the battle becomes the Lord's, then all His attributes are 
engaged to subdue our sins and secure our salvation. And, my dear 
Sarah, the reason why persons truly pious make so little progress and 
meet with so many discomfitures is because they do not carry on the 
conflict in the right way. They endeavor to subdue their corruptions 
by arguing with themselves and bringing up motives to holiness, in- 
stead of using faith. That is, instead of throwing all upon Christ and 
pleading at the moment His promise to deliver us from sin. If we 
appeal to Him with confidence. He will never fail to appear in our 
behalf. And this is the course, my Sarah, I would recommend to 
you. Use Christ as though He were your own ; employ His strength. 
His merit, and His grace in all your trials. This is the way to honor 
Him. Fear not that He will be offended at the liberty. 

Princeton, , 1818. 

With regard to the subject of the first part of your last note, my 
dear Sarah, I have thought that a view presented some time since by 
Dr. Alexander would be of use to you. In speaking of the justice of 
God in the punishment of sin, he observed that it was the foundation 
of the whole plan of redemption ; for had there not been some abso- 
lute necessity, arising from the nature of God, that sin should be 
punished, how can we suppose that He would make the infinite sa- 
crifice of His Son, rather than permit it to pass with impunity. Be- 
sides, as God is not only Holy, but Holiness itself, and as sin is 
the direct ^opposite of holiness, it follows from the nature of things 
that God must be opposed to sin, and of course to any being whose 
moral character it constitutes. But he to whom God is opposed can- 
not dwell with Him, and would not if he could ; for the soul polluted 
by sin would find the purity of God more insufferable than the tor- 
ments of hell. But not to dwell with God is by necessity to be mise- 
raA>le. And as sin is rebellion, self-destruction, and an attempt to 
destroy the peace and happiness of the universe, can God be unjust 
to confine its perpetrators, that they may not make His holy creation 
miserable, or to punish them for their malicious opposition to all that 
is good. Thus you see, my dear Sarah, that sip and misery are in- 
separably united from the nature of things, as well as fi-om the holy 
decree of God. Pray for light, for that wisdom which comes down 
from heaven ; and for your encouragement hear Him say, " If any 
man lack wisdom, let him ask of God, who giveth liberally and up- 
braideth not." There is more to be learned by prayer than by study. 
Beware, however, how you procrastinate and where you rest. Re- 
member that every, foundation is sandy save one — ^that is, Christ. 
Blessed be the Lord forever that there is one. To Him, my love, go. 


Go now, stay not, till by the use of means you make yourself better. 
This is not the purpose for which they were intended. Wait not till 
your heart becomes penitent and humble, but go with a proud heart 
for Him to change. This is the blessing you want. Then go as you 
are, since He alone can g^ve you what you need. 

Our mother always attributed her religious life to the 
instrumentality of her young lover and husband. In Aug. 
4th, 1820, she writes: 

" I love to feel myself bound to you by indissoluble ties that not 
even the grave can change — to feel that after being cherished and 
glided by you through time, I shall, through your instrumentality, 
stand by you purified before the throne of our Heavenly Father when 
time shall be no more. Can any conception comprehend the ecstacy 
of such a moment, or any earthly happiness equal it ? Am I guilty 
of detracting from the true source and first cause of all happiness 
when I suppose that even in heaven it may be augmented by the re- 
flection that a beloved partner was the means of our attaining it ?** 

About the middle of October he attended the meeting 
of the Presbytery of Philadelphia, held in Reading, about 
seventy miles north-west from the city, and passed his exa- 
mination preparatory to licensure. He then went from 
Reading through Easton and Wilkesbarre to Silver Lake, 
from which he wrote. 


Silver Lake, Oct. 26, 18 18. 

Dear Mother : — I met with a kind reception from the Doctor and 

Cousin Jane. Every thing is very delightful in this fairy place. The 

Doctor has made several considerable improvements since I was here 

before, and he bids fair soon to raise his country seat to a full equality 

with the villas of foreign lands. 

Your son, Charles. 


New Castle, Nov. 2, 1818. 

Dear Charles: — I missed the pleasure of seeing Lamed and Breck- 
enridge. Not expecting any of my friends on that day, I had gone 
out of town. ♦ ♦ ♦ 


I do hope most sincerely, my dear brother, that you have been re- 
cruited by your jaunt to the Lake. I feel more apprehensive for you 
now I must be separated from you, than when I could be constantly 
with you. I add another expostulation to the many already given 
that you commence this session with a determination to be more at- 
tentive to your health than to your studies. Friends, duty, usefulness 
demand this of you. Go see Sarah as often as you please, if nothing 
else will keep you out of your room, and tell her you are following my 
prescription. Guinea Lane (now Witherspoon street) is more salu- 
brious than Silver Lake to some constitutions. 

Although I have not roamed much since I saw you, yet I have stu- 
died but little. Turrettin De Vocatione^ Witherspoon' s treatise on Re- 
generation, Doddridge's Series of Sermons on the same subject, Le- 
land's View of Deistical Writers, and a few reviews, and several bio- 
graphical sketches connected with church history, comprise my 

I have attended a good many societies here, and several out in the 
country. In, these last I have been prevailed upon to exhort, and 
have found more freedom than I ever expected on such occasions. 
When my own heart is affected and the people seem attentive, it is 
the most delightful thing, and I was going to say the easiest thing, in 
the world to talk to a few who have assembled to worship ; but, dear 
Giarles, it is heavy work, inexpressibly heavy, when views are dark 
and the affections languid. Very little experience on a contracted 
scale has taught me what I had often heard before, that nothing but 
sincere, deep and ardent piety will do for a minister of the gospel. 
I trust that I sincerely feel its necessity in a greater degree than here- 
tofore, and hope that this conviction is the precursor of greater com- 
munications of grace and strength than I have hitherto enjoyed. 

Dear Charles, write soon. J. J. 


Princeton, Jan. ii, 1819. 
My Dear Mother : — ^Johns communicated to us the death of our 
brother Newbold. Dr. Alexander, speaking of the event before the 
Seminary, said : " As to John Newbold, I alwstys thought that man, 
since I first knew him, one of the very best men I ever saw. I never 
knew a youth in whose piety I had greater confidence. It was not 
only genuine, but he possessed the deepest sentiments of piety. He 
had an intellect of the first order, and though the impediment in his 
utterance might have prevented his being popular as a speaker, yet 
he had a mind capable of the deepest and clearest investigation.** 
The Doctor then gave some particulars of his life and prospects. 


Such a testimony from such a man is a better legacy to friends than 
the richest bequests of princes. 


Princeton, Feb. i, 1819. 

My Dear Mother : — ^The third and last year of my continuance at 
the Seminary is so rapidly passing by, that I cannot prevent myself 
from frequently looking forward to its close, and aslcing the question — 
" Where am I to go ?" or " What am I to do ?" And it is almost time 
that an answer to this question was prepared. For it is of so great 
importance that it would be wrong to defer it so long that the decision 
should at last be made without much deliberation. Unless I am 
greatiy mistaken in my own heart, I have scarcely a wish on the 
subject save that the path I pursue may be the path of duty. Under 
Him, whose I am by particular obligations, I feel at the disposal of 
you and Dr. Alexander ; and should you agree in marking out the 
same course, I trust I should tread it with cheerful feet. It is of great 
importance to have some definite object placed before us to engage 
our minds and interest our feelings. Something at once great and 
good, on which we can dwell with complacency, to which we can feel 
consecrated, and for which we might be constandy preparing. I 
have often congratulated Nevins and Mcllvaine on their possessing 
this enviable advantage, but now their prospect is as indistinct as my 

I hope to see my good brother Johns before a great while. I wish 
you would send me by him a little bag oi gingerbread to eat after our 
long society evenings. You may smile at this coming from a man — 
but Johns will tell you it is worth being laughed at to gain so substan- 
tial a good. 


Princeton, Feb. 10, 18 19. 
My Dear Mother: — I do not feel very impatient or anxious about 
the course I am to pursue on leaving the Seminary, except that it 
will be necessary to decide before the meeting of the General Assem- 
bly, in case it should be thought expedient for me to take a mission 
either through the Western or Southern States. This is the plan 
which Davis urges. He intends to travel in the character of a mis- 
sionary over almost all the Union, and is quite anxious I should join 
him. Without my knowing it, he mentioned it to Dr. Alexander, who 

• The mission to South America to which these brethren had been designated 
had been abandoned because of the state of that country. 


it would be an excellent thing for me, especially should my 
health need establishing. But this is all his doing. For myself I 
have scarcely thought of it for a moment, and at present have no 
more plan than I had a year ago. I laughingly told the Doctor he 
must dispose of me before a great while. He asked if I would be 
willing to go where he would send me. I said " Yes." " Take care,** 
says he; "I may shock you when I come to tell you what to do.*' 
But I am not afraid of him. The dear litde man has been unwell 
two or three times this session, and as he won't take exercise, he is in 
danger of becoming quite enfeebled. 


Princeton, N. J., March 31, 1819. 
Dear Mother: — ^They have at last commenced the house for Dr. 
Alexander. It is to be built on the Seminary grounds, having its 
firont fourteen feet nearer to the road than the front of the main 
building. It b to be of brick, which will be very ugly, unless they 
intend painting it white. The dear little man will then be so near 
the Seminary, I am afraid, he will never take the least exercise. 
Walking from his study to recitation, under a pretty heavy burden of 
clothes, is now nearly all he makes out to accomplish. 


Princeton, April 21, 1819. 
My Dear Mother: — The close of session brings with it an additional 
burden of duties. During the last week mine has come upon me all 
at once, for it has happened that several extra exercises have devolved 
upon me at the same time. I have now to prepare for a difficult dis- 
cussion by Friday evening, which will keep me diligent until it is 
over. I suspect that I shall always have stimulus enough of this kind 
to make me undertake as much as my strength is able to accomplish. 
My character for diligence is better than for any thing else, I am 
afraid. One of my fellow-students, who is quite fond of me, said the 
other day I must be a fool if I did not know a great deal, for I study 
so much. This is a difficult alternative to choose between — folly and 
great knowledge. 

It became more and more evident that Dr. Alexander 
must be relieved from some portion of his onerous duties, 
and that the faculty must eventually be enlarged by the 
addition of a third professor for the Department of Biblical 
Literature and Exegesis. The Doctor's preference was to 


train one of his own students for the position. He had, in 
the first instance, made overtures to this end to Mr. Johri 
Johns, who, having graduated from the College of New- 
Jersey with the first honor in 1815, had afterwards spent 
two years in the Theological Seminary, exhibiting the same 
high qualities as a scholar and Christian. But Mr. Johns, 
one of whose parents was a Presbyterian and the other an 
Episcopalian, was at that time debating the question as to 
which denomination he should ultimately attach himself 
He in the end, with the advice of Dr. James P. Wilson, 
pastor of the First Presbyterian Church, Philadelphia, and 
assent of Drs. Alexander and Miller, decided to enter the 
ministry of the Protestant Episcopal Church, of which 
eventually he became so bright an ornament. The reason, 
on the part of the two Princeton Professors, for their part 
of the decision, was that, in their opinion, Mr. Johns, as 
providentially situated, and as characterized by his decided 
evangelical and Calvinistic sentiments, could do more good 
in the direction determined on than in the other.* 

* Bishop Johns was brought up in the bosom of a pious and highly cultivated 
&mily. His father, Judge Johns, was Chancellor of the State of Delaware. In 
his native town, Newcastle, Delaware, there were two churches, the one Episco- 
pal, of which the Rev. Mr. Clay was rector, and the other Presbyterian. Each 
of these ministers had an additional country parish; and they so arranged it 
that they never officiated in the town the same part of the day on Sunday. 
Hence it was that the same congregation went in the morning to the one church, 
and in the afternoon to the other. In Chancellor Johns' family, some of the 
children were Presbyterians, and others Episcopalians. Under these circum- 
stances, it was not surprising that the bishop, in the early part of his preparatory 
course, was undecided as to the Church in which he should minister. The late 
Rev. Dr. James P. Wilson, an eminent Presbyterian minister, before he embraced 
the ministry, was a distinguished lawyer, and an intimate friend of Judge Johns. 
It was under his advice that the bishop decided to enter the ministry of the 
Episcopal Church. " This decision," says Rev. Dr. Hodge, *' although neither 
of us at the time knew anything about it, determined my whole course in life. 
When Dr. Archibald Alexander was appointed professor in the Seminary at 
Princeton, he had under his care the departments of didactic, polemic and pas- 
toral theology, together with instruction in Hebrew. He soon found that this 
was too burdensome, and therefore determined to select some young roan on 
whom he might devolve the Hebrew department. He selected Johns. When 
he decided to enter the Episcopal Church, he took up with me. Johns was 


In the morning of May 6th, 18 19, young Charles Hodge, 
then approaching the end of his Seminary course, happened 
to call upon Dr. Alexander in the study in the wing of the 
small wooden house on Mercer Street, first door east of the 
Episcopal Churchyard, which the Doctor occupied before his 
entrance upon his permanent residence. After the business 
which brought him had been transacted. Dr. Alexander, 
without preparation, suddenly said : " How would you like 
to be a professor in the Seminary?" Our &ther often in 
after years told us, that this question overwhelmed him 
with surprise and confusion. The thought had never en- 
tered his imagination before. The Doctor, without waiting 
for an answer, said : " Of course I have no power to deter- 
mine such a result. It will depend upon the judgment of 
the General Assembly. Say nothing now, but think upon 
it My plan for you, at present, is simply that you spend 
the next winter in Philadelphia learning to read the Hebrew 
language with points with some competent instructor." A 
week afterwards Mr. Hodge wrote to his mother as follows : 


Princeton, May 13, 18 19. 

My Dear Mother: — ^The subject of my last letter has occupied my 
mind a good deal, though I have not come to any very definite deter- 
mination. Did the duties of the contemplated office require me to 
give up the prospect of preaching altogether, I think I should not he- 
sitate in declining it ; for I believe that preaching the gospel is a pri- 
vilege superior to any other intrusted to men. But this is not neces- 
saryr for our professors preach now nearly as much as the stated pas- 
tors of congregations. This being the case, I think the comparative 

always first — ^first everywhere, and first in everything. His success was largely 
due to his conscientious determination always to do his best. He was always 
thoroogfaly prepared for every ezerdse in college and in the seminary. He 
would be able, day after day, when in the seminary, to give what Turrettin, our 
text-book, calls the state of the question ; that is, the precise point at hand, then 
all the arguments in its support in their order, all the objections and answers to 
them, through the whole thirty or forty pages, without the professor saying a 
wotdy—CommunicaUd hy the Rev, Prof. Joseph Packard.D. D, AtexandnM, Va. 



usefulness of a teacher in such an institution as this, and that of the 
generality of ministers, will not admit of much doubt. It is evident 
that the moral influence of Drs. Alexander and Miller on the charac- 
ter of the Church is almost inconceivable ; for they in a measure im- 
part their own spirit to each of their pupils, who bear it hence to 
spread it through the lesser spheres of which they may become the 
centres. The very fact, therefore, of a man being pious in this situa- 
tion makes him the means of incalculable good. It seems to me that 
the heart more than the head of an instructor in a religious seminary 
qualifies or unfits him for his station. This is a very serious aspect in 
which I have been led to look at this subject, and which renders it so 
responsible that I sometimes fear to undertake it. 
. With respect to my competency for the duties of the situation, I be- 
lieve it will depend more on diligence than on natural talent. My 
attention will not, as you appear to suppose, be confined to the study 
of languages, and therefore no talent I may possess can lie unem- 
ployed, but will doubtless be put to its utmost strength. It will, how- 
ever, be of great advantage to me that it will be necessary to become 
in some measure familiar with the dead languages ; for I am con- 
vinced that they are as essential to a student as tools are to workmen 
of a different kind. I know I could have made a better choice (for 
the situation) than our dear professors have made, but the risk in this 
respect belongs to them. I feel myself too much disposed to look on 
the bright side of every thing I contemplate. Perhaps I may be cor- 
rected of this error before I am gray-headed. 

As the event of this plan is and must for some time continue to be 
uncertain, every thing does not depend on my present determination. 
I do not think I have any right to dispose of myself, as I am not my 
own ; but my duty is confined to the single point of trying to find out 
what the will of God regarding me is. I know no better way of learn- 
ing this than by waiting the event — that is, to take the preparatory 
measures Dr. Alexander proposed for the ensuing year, and then to 
consider it my duty to proceed, should the way be opened, and if it 
be closed, consider it an indication that my path lies in some other 


Your son, C. Hodge. 


" The members of the committee who attended the examinations 
were highly gratified, both with the manner in which the examination 
was conducted, and with the manner in which the students acquitted 


"The committee, therefore, recommend that a full certificate of 
thdr having passed through a complete course of theological educa- 
tion, s^preeably to the plan of the Seminary, be g^ven to the following 
yotmg gentlemen, viz.: George S. Boardman, Remembrance Cham- 
beriain, Samuel S. Davis, John Goldsmith, Charles Hodge, William 
Nevins, and Aaron D. Lane.*' 

These Diplomas or Certificates of having passed through 
the entire Seminary course were publicly distributed to 
these young men the next day, September 28, 18 19. 




HAVING graduated from the Seminary, Mr. Hodge, in 
accordance to the plan suggested by Dr. Alexander, 
now returned to his mother's house in Philadelphia, with the 
intention of spending the winter in the study of Hebrew, as 
written with points, with which Dr. Alexander himself was 
not familiar. Mr. Hodge improved this opportunity with 
the utmost diligence under the valuable tuition of the Rev. 
Joseph Banks, D. D., Professor in the Theological Seminary 
of the Associate (now United) Presbyterian Church — ^then 
situated in Philadelphia — and pastor of the Associate Pres- 
byterian Church in that city. Dr. Banks had the reputa- 
tion of being not only a sound Theologian, but also one of 
the most eminent Hebrew scholars at that day in America. 
Mr. Hodge also, during this winter, widened his education 
by attending upon lectures on anatomy and physiology, de- 
livered in connection with the medical department of the 
University. With all matters connected with human phy- 
siology, therapeutics, and the practice of medicine, he al- 
ways continued to take a deep interest, and possessed, for a 
layman, an unusual knowledge. 


In the meantime he was licensed to preach by the Presby- 
tery of Philadelphia, at their meeting in Pittsgrove, N. J., 
October 21st, 1819 ; and from that time for several years, 
was pretty constantly occupied every Sabbath day in preach- 

The Minutes of that Presbytery disclose the following facts 
concerning his connection with it. 

October 21 ^ 18 ly, Charles Hodge was received as a can- 
didate. " All the College studies ; a Latin Exegesis on the 
question 'An Spiritus sit Deus ? ' and a Presbyterial exercise 
on 2 Peter, i : lo, were assigned to Mn Hodge as parts of 
trial to be exhibited at the next fall meeting. 

Reading, Pennsylvania, October 21, 18 18. '*The above 
parts of trial were presented and sustained." 

Pittsgrove, N. /., October /p, 18 ig, " Lecture on Psalm 
liii., was sustained. Certificate was received from Professors 
in Theological Seminary, stating that he had, in a regular 
and creditable manner, completed the course of study pre- 
scribed by the plan of said Seminary. Examinations on 
Natural and Revealed Theology and Church History were 

October 20, i8ig, Charles Hodge and Samuel Cornish 
(colored) were licensed on the same day. 

June 27, 1820, Charles Hodge was dismissed to the care 
of the Presbytery of New Brunswick. 


Philadelphia, December 16, 1819. 

Dear Sir: — ^Your kindness to me has been so great and so uniform 
that I now feel as though L peculiarly belonged to you, and (though 
you may not be very anxious to acknowledge your property) this feel- 
ing constrains me to tell you the little I have done since I left your 
more immediate care. I was licensed on the 20th of October. Since 
then I have preached every Sabbath, and usually twice, and have 
now to preach regularly at the Falls of the Schuylkill in the morning 
and at the Arsenal in the afternoon of each Sabbath. As October 
was my vacation, I did nothing as to studying during that month. 


But early in November I commenced attending Dr. Banks, and recite 
to him five days in the week. Finding the points required so much 
attention, I was obliged to devote myself to them almost exclusively 
for four or five weeks, and therefore did little else than go through 
the grammar and read the first four chapters of Genesis during that 
period. Since then I have commenced reading the Psalms and stu- 
dying Greek, and now recite alternately the Greek and Hebrew. I 
have not been able to read a great deal since I came to town. Two 
of the volumes of Home's Introduction, Lowth's Lectures, and three 
hundred pages in Glassius, together with one or two smaller works, 
include all I have yet had time to get through with. Your books 
have been of the greatest assistance to me, Opitius and Bythner 

Dr. Banks is very much what you said he was. He will talk all 
day on any thing connected with Hebrew. It is quite amusing to see 
his zeal on the subject, especially for the points and accents, to the last 
of which he has devoted years of study, and which he estimates rather, 
I suspect, from the labor they cost him than from their real utility, 
which, however* may still be great. He is very anxious to show me 
the "curiosities" of this system of the accentuation, which he thinks 
does every thing, regulating the rhetorical and grammatical con- 
struction, pointing out the ellipsis, indicating the emotions, &c. 

Will you be so kind as in some way to let me know whether you 
approve of the plan I am pursuing, and what books you wish me to 
read afler I finish this volume of Glassius. I am sensible that I am 
asking you to add to the debt of kindness I already owe you, and 
which, although I can never repay you, it will be the pleasure of my 
life to feel and acknowledge. What Greek Lexicon had I better ob- 
tain — Schrevelius being the only one I have ? Please remember me 
most affectionately to Mrs. Alexander and the boys. Tell little Jea- 
nette she must not forget me. 

And now, sir, may I ask you sometimes to pray for me ? This is a 
favor of which I am utterly unworthy, but which I greatly need. You 
must excuse my asking so much. You do not know, sir, how much 
I owe you, and no one can know ; but I hope God will reward you 
openly. -I am yours, 

C. Hodge. 


Princetok, Dec. 22, 1819. 
My Dear 5ir.-— Yours of the i6th instant I have received, and the 
only thing in it which I dislike is the anxiety which you discover that 


you may not be troublesome by the length of your letter. There is 
not the least occasion for any apprehension of this sort. The mere 
reading of letters is never burdensome, and I have wished and ex- 
pected a communication from you for some time. 

That I take a lively interest in your welfare and usefulness I need 
not tell you, and of course I wish to know what you are doing, and 
what progress you are making in your Biblical studies. The informa- 
tion communicated in your letter on this subject is very gratifying to 
me. I entirely approve the plan which you are pursuing, except, per- 
haps, that the Greek recitations might be dispensed with, and the 
whole of your recitations with Dr. Banks for this winter might profita- 
bly be in the Hebrew. Although I have not the least confidence in 
this whole system of punctuation, and especially of accentuation, yet 
1 am satisfied that you should acquire an accurate knowledge of the 
whole system ; and as this winter may be the only opportunity of en- 
joying the advantages of Dr. Banks' instructions, my opinion is that 
it should be improved in reference to this object. Not that I would 
have you neglect the Greek, but 1 do not perceive the great advan- 
tage of your reciting on it, as there are, no " curiosities '* in that lan- 
guage which you may not learn at home. In answer to your inquiry 
respecting a proper Greek Lexicon to be purchased, I would say that 
for the N. T., Schleusner should be preferred ; but if you mean for 
classical Greek, Morell is, I suppose the best. Hereafter you must 
have Smceri Thesaurus Ecc, Suidas and Hesychius, I learn that 
Schleusner has published a new and improved edition of Birel's The- 
saurus of the LXX. That will be valuable ; also Trommius* Concord' 
once. But there is no advantage in acctunulating too many books at 

Mr. Wisner left with me some volumes of De Moor, purchased for 
you, and with his consent I presume on yours to retain all except the 
first three, until you have read them. It so happened that these first 
volumes were already in my possession. You will find the head De 
Scriptura well worth perusal. 

It is my plan that you should spend the next summer at this place, 
but it is not sufficiently matiured to give details. Keep this, however, 
in mind. 

I send you the second volume of Glassius with De Moor, The 
third is the most interesting, but you must read the second first. Read 
Kefmicotfs Dissertation, De Rossis s Prolegomena to Various Read- 
ings, Wettstein^s and GriesbacKs Prolegomena, &c. 

Yours affectionately, 

A. Alexander. 

72 JOURNAL. [i»i9- 

After his licensure, Mr. Hodge was appointed by the 
Presbytery to missionary work. He had appointments 
every Sabbath morning at the " Falls " of the Schuylkill, and 
later at Cohocksink, and on the afternoons at the Arsenal. 
In connection with a record of these services he kept the 
only religious diary of his life. Some specimens of this 
are here given. 

On Wednesday evening, October 20th, 18 19, I preached my trial 
sermon at Pittsgrove, before the Philadelphia Presbytery. Though 
the Lord had kindly afforded me solemn feelings in view of my en- 
trance on the ministry, yet I found my heart but little engaged during 
the time of service. The circumstances in which I was placed gave 
rise to feelings of anxiety which prevented my weak principle of grace 
from being exercised as it should have been. My text was Rom. viii. 
I. The succeeding morning, October 21st, I was licensed to preach 
the gospel of Jesus Christ. Oh ! that I may ever look upon this high 
vocation with the same feelings with which the Apostle Paul ever re- 
garded it, and may the Lord Jesus work within me all the good plea- 
sure of his will, making me such a minister as He would have me to 

Sabbath, October 24th, i8ig, — ^The preceding evening I rode out to 
Frankford and enjoyed sweet intercourse with my dear brother 
Bigg^. The prospect of preaching on the ensuing day kept my mind 
serious, and gave to our conversation more of the religious character 
than usual. In the morning I preached on the 53d Psalm. I enjoyed 
the service myself far more than I did when preaching before Presby- 
tery, and the people appeared quite serious and attentive. Whether, 
however, the least good was accomplished must be left to the revela- 
tions of the great day. My prayer is for humility and zeal. The af- 
ternoon in Brother Thomas Biggs* room. In the evening he 
preached from Gal. v. 6. 

Sabbath, October jist, 18 ig, was spent in Woodbury. I went down 
the preceding evening, and was kindly entertained at Judge Cald- 
well's. In the morning I preached from John iii. 36. Many of the 
people appeared attentive and serious. I know not what good was 
done. For myself, I did not enjoy the services as much as usual. I 
dined with Mr. White, and did not introduce religious conversation. 
May God pity my weakness, and enable me to be more faithful here- 
after. In the evening I preached from the 53d Psalm. The audience 
was large and very attentive. The Lord granted me more feeling and 
ease than I had enjoyed in the morning. The fear of man, and the 

iBT. 22.] JOURNAL. 73 

desire of applause, God in great mercy has hitherto kept from greatly 
disturbing me, especially in the pulpit. I feel myself entirely depend- 
ent on His sovereign grace for the continuance and increase of this 
great mercy. Were He to let me alone, I should indeed become 
dreadfully corrupt in practice as well as in heart. Bless the Lord, O 
my soul. 

SabbcUh^ Nov. 7th, i8ig, — ^The preceding day I rode up to Abing- 
ton with Mr. Steele. Here I had the pleasure of seeing several times 
good Mrs. Tennant, and had the privilege of praying by her bedside, 
and of witnessing the composure and peace of one who had the hope 
of the gospel. Oh, precious Saviour, grant to my soul and the souls 
of all my friends the powerful supports of Thy grace in the hour of 
death. ♦ ♦ * 

Sctbbath^ Nov, 21, i8ig. — ^This day I entered on my duties as mis- 
sionary. Oh, Thou source of all good, grant me the continued aid of 
Thy grace, that with purity of motive and singleness of object I may 
zealously and faithfully discharge my responsible duties. Do bless 
me, O my God. I rode out in the morning to the Falls with Gerard 
R., and was very much pleased and surprised by hjs religious turn of 
mind, and the interest he took in the institutions of piety. I preached 
from the 53d Psalm to a small but respectable audience. In the af- 
ternoon I rode out to the Arsenal, and spoke from the parable of the 
Great Supper, Luke xiv. i $. This was a pleasant season. I hope the 
Lord was there. Oh, incline that people to hear and obey the invita- 
tions of Thy gospel. 

The evening Bro. Davis and myself spent in our room in delight- 
ful intercourse. The Lord blessed us. We prayed together before 
we separated, as on the succeeding day he expects to sail for Charles- 
ton. Good and powerful God attend and bless him abundantly in 
Jesus Christ. 

Nov. 28lh, iSig, — Sabbath morning I rode out to the Falls with 
Gerard R., and there preached from John iii. 36. The congregation 
was not very large, and my feelings were cold. I dined with Mr. 
Thomson, who accompanied me in the afternoon to the Arsenal, 
where I preached from Rom. viii. i with somewhat more pleasure to 
myself than in the morning. 

During this sacred day I have experienced very little spiritual en- 
joyment ; my heart has been too far from God, and worldly thoughts 
have too much occupied my mind. This I suspect has arisen from 
my conduct during the past week. It is impossible to gain and lose 
at pleasure spirituality of mind. It must be cultivated constantly. 
Let not, my soul, the end of the week you now have entered find you 
still at such a distance from God. Oh, Holy Spirit, return unto Thy 

74 JOURNAL. [i8jo. 

rest ! Deign to make my bosom Thine abode — aad O -attend my 
feeble preaching by Thy almighty energy, for Jesus' sake. * * * 

Sabbath, Dec. 26, 18 ig. — During the preceding week I had preached 
for Dr. Janeway in his new session room. As this was the first time 
I had preached in the city (excepting once for Bro. Piatt), I felt much 
too anxious to acquit myself well, and was disappointed. The eve- 
ning was unusually rainy, and there were consequently few persons 
present Among them, however, was my dear brother, who had just 
returned from Calcutta. This made me feel less at ease than I might 
otherwise have done. But the chief cause of my not enjoying the 
service was doubtless my pride. I felt almost depressed under the 
apprehension that I should never become even a moderately accept- 
able preacher. 1 would give the world were my desire of honoring 
Christ and of saving souls so strong that I should be indifferent to 
what related merely to myself. Oh, cast me not off from Thy pre- 
sence ; take not Thy Holy Spirit from me. Oh, grant to my bro- 
ther unfeigned piety. Would to God I might be made a blessing to 
his soul. 

Sabbath, Feb. ij, 1820. — ^This day my regular ministrations at Co- 
hocksink were commenced. The audience not very numerous, but 
serious. The children of the Sabbath School form an important part 
of my charge. It is often quite unknown at how early an age God 
commences a work of grace in the heart, and it may happen that 
many children have utterly lost that impression through the careless- 
ness of their parents and teachers. May I be taught of God that I 
may be able to teach others also. It is only the heart that has been 
deeply exercised in divine things which can enable us to preach ex- 
perimentally to others. Piety is the life of a minister. * * * 

Sabbath, May 14, 1820, — I preached my last sermon this morning 
to the people of Cohocksink. In the afternoon at the Arsenal my text 
was "Lay hold on eternal life." This was an interesting season. 
The presence of a considerable number of young men gave a cast to 
my train of thought which interested my own feelings, and fixed in a 
great measure the attention of my hearers. I have yet once more to 
preach to that people, and may it prove as a seal to all the rest. I 
have almost uniformly found that when I have commenced a service 
under a litde depression of spirits, it has proved more than usually 


In their Report to the Board of Directors, May 15th 
1820, the Professors say: " The Professors respectfully repre- 
sent to the Board that in their opinion the interests of the 



Seminary require a distinct teacher of the original languages 
of the Scripture. The Professor, who has attended to this 
branch of instruction, finds that it interferes with the perform- 
ance of duties which more properly belong to his office ; 
and that he cannot, consistently with his health, devote to 
it that degree of attention which its importance demands." 

The above Report was committed to Drs. Romeyn, Neill 
and Rodgers; to whom were subsequently added Drs. 
WoodhuU, Rice and McDowell and Mr. Lewis. 

At a meeting of the Board in Philadelphia, May 25th, 
that Committee made the following report, which was 
adopted : — ^" That although the suggestion of the Professors 
on the subject of appointing a teacher of the original lan- 
guages appears to be important, yet the state of the funds 
renders it inexpedient for this Board to endeavor to carry it 
into effect at present 

" Resolved that an extract of this minute, together with 
that part of the Professors' report, which relates to this sub- 
ject, be laid before the General Assembly." 

On the next day, May 26th, the General Assembly, while 
approving the report of the Board of Directors, resolved 
" That the Professors be authorizec] to employ an assistant 
teacher of the original languages of Scripture, until the 
meeting of the next General Assembly. Provided a suitable 
person can be obtained at a salary consistent with the funds 
of the Seminary; and provided also that such salary does 
not exceed the sum of four hundred dollars." 

This authority having been obtained, the Professors ap- 
pointed Mr. Hodge, who came into Princeton on horseback 
to prepare for his work, in the latter part of June. 


Princeton, June 22d, 1820. 

Afy Dear Mother: — I suspect the heat of yesterday made you re- 
gret my having commenced so long a ride. But I suffered less than 
I. expected. I got to Frankford before seven, and stayed for break- 

76 LIFE AS TEACHER. [i8ia 

fast. Mr. Biggs then rode with me about nine miles. When we 
reached Holmesburgh, which is four miles from Frankford, I found 
the sun so excessively hot, that we stopped at a store, and I bought a 
great sheet of paste-board, and cutting a hole in it large enough to 
admit my hat, pinned it on. This effectually preserved my head and 
most of my body from the direct rays of the sun. I was quite 
amused to see the people along the road stop, lay down their work, 
and stare after me as long as I was in sight. Some laughed right 
out. And as for Bristol, I thought that 1 never should have got 
through it. I had courage enough, however, to be looked at and 
laughed at, rather than be made sick by the heat. By riding slowly, 
and stopping frequently, I arrived here, but little fatigued, about eight 
o'clock. Your affectionate son, Charles Hodge. 

He now boarded in the &mily of his paternal friend, Dr. 
Alexander, and had his study and bed-room in that wing of 
the old residence of the Doctor, which had been used as 
a study, and in which he was first abruptly informed of the 
Doctor's plans concerning him. He at this time also began 
to suffer from that obscure and painful affection of the nerves 
of his right thigh which afterwards so g^atly modified his 
habits of life. 

Extract from Records of Presbytery of New Brunswick. 
July 5th, 1820, Mr. Charles Hodge was received as a licen- 
tiate from the Presbytery of Philadelphia, by certificate. 
He was appointed the supply of the Church in New Bruns- 
wick, and the united Churches of Georgetown and Lam- 
bertville a number of Sabbaths during the year. 


Princeton, July 10, 1820. 
My Dear Brother : — My situation here is as pleasant as even my 
fondest wishes had desired. I have a pleasant room at the upper 
end of town, and board with Dr. Alexander's family. This I find a 
very advantageous arrangement, as the intercourse I enjoy with the 
Doctor cannot fail of being very profitable. I take a good deal of 
exercise, think my horse the best in the world, and am very well. 
The rheumatism in my limb, I think, continues pretty much as it 
was. I feel it most in my knee ; it seems to be brought on pretty uni- 
formly, by fatigue. Excepting a slight weakness, however, it is still 
as serviceable as the other. Your affectionate brother, C. H. 



Princeton, September i8th, 1820. 

My Dear Mother: — On Saturday I rode to Bristol, and preached 
yesterday twice in their Episcopal Church. They have been without 
a pastor for some years, and though the population of the town is so 
considerable, they have only casual preaching. They are so liberal 
in their sentiments, that they seldom stop to inquire to what denom- 
ination a man belongs ; if he is willing to preach, they are willing to 

I am very well : my riding so much gives me a color, which has led 
to many congratulations as to the state of my health. My limb was, 
I think, a good deal better, but I believe I walked too much with it 
of late, which has occasioned a return of the pain. I intend to be 
more careful on this point, and continue diligent in observing the 
Doctor's (his brother Hugh) directions. 


In October of this year his friend, Mr. Benjamin Wisner, 
afterwards the eloquent preacher and distinguished Secre- 
tary of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign 
Missions, was invited to preach as a candidate before the 
Old South Church of Boston. Mr. Wisner and Mr. Hodge 
made a plan of riding there together, and after remaining in 
that attractive city three weeks, of returning in the same 
manner, including a visit to New Haven and Yale College on 
the way. They effected the journey in Mr. Hodge's old- 
£ishioned two-wheeled gig, on springs, shaped like the 
letter C, a form of conveyance now utterly extinct They 
were drawn by his small bay horse, of Canadian extraction, 
of whose fine qualities he often subsequently boasted. The 
two letters to his mother, subjoined, contain all the infor- 
mation now remaining, as to this visit, which produced a 
decided impression on himself. 


Boston, Monday, October 9, 1820. 

My Dear Mother: — I presume you are by this time anxious to learn 
something of your traveller. I should have written to you on the 

78 VISIT TO BOSTON. [1820. 

way, had you not told me you could wait until we reached Boston. 
We came within five or six miles of the town on Friday evening, but 
did not proceed, as it was then quite dark, and both our horse and 
ourselves were fatigued by a long day's ride. It would, indeed, 
hardly have been safe to have entered a strange city in the dark and 
without a guide. It was about eight o'clock on Saturday morning 
when we first saw the distant spires of Boston, and the lofty dome of 
the State House. The view excited a variety of pleasing and serious 
emotions. After changing our dress we called upon Mr. (deacon) 
Cutler, the gentleman whom Wisner had seen in Princeton. We 
were soon introduced to Mr. Salisbury, the Lieutenant Governor, Mr. 
Welsh, and to several other gentlemen, who all received us with the 
utmost kindness. I had met with Mr. Dwight, (son of the late Presi- 
dent), at New Haven, and he had fnade me promise to consider his 
house as my home while I remained in Boston. As the weather had 
detained Mr. Dwight from home longer than he had expected, it was 
my wish to have either remained at the public house, or to have gone 
with Wisner to the house of the widow of the late pastor, as a boarder. 
But finding that either of these plans would have wounded the hos- 
pitable feelings of these good people, I was obliged to remain with 
Mr. Cutler until Mr. Dwight returns. There is no danger of our not 
receiving kindness and attention enough. The danger is entirely on 
the other side. 

I have been very agreeably disappointed in the general appearance 
of Boston. I have, to be sure, as yet seen only the southern section 
of the town, which is much the most pleasant. The green they call 
their Common, and the hill on which the State House stands exceeds 
anything I have ever seen. As Saturday was so clear, the gentlemen 
who were with us thought it best to improve the opportunity by going 
to the top of the State House. On reaching this elevated point our 
eyes rested on what is thought the finest prospect in America. Bos- 
ton, Charlestown and Cambridge were all below us; the harbor, with 
its many islands, and the broad ocean full in view, altogether forms 
a combination of the beautiful and grand, which makes the Bostoni- 
ans willing to enter into a competition with the admirers of the Bay 
of Naples. 

Wisner preached twice yesterday for the Old South people. As 
far as I can judge, the impression has been universally favorable. I 
preached morning and afternoon in the Park Street Church, which is 
Mr. Dwight' s charge. 

The kindest providence has presided over our journey. We met 
with no accident, alarm, or difficulty. Our little horse came as 
briskly into Boston as he did out of Princeton. We spent two days 

MT. aa.] riS/r TO BOSTON, 79 

and a half at New Haven. Dr. Miller's letter secured us every at- 
tention we could wish. We were there, as usual, soon obliged to 
leave the tavern, and stay with Mr. Taylor/ a young minister, who is 
the pride of the southern part of Connecticut We found this one of 
the most improving incidents in our journey, as this young man 
(abottt thirty), who possesses uncommonly fine talents, differs very 
considerably in his theoretical opinions from the Princeton gentlemen. 
He kept us pretty constantly in an animated though temperate dis- 
cussion of our diiferences. We have been delighted with the general 
aspect of things, and with the face of the country in New England, 
particularly in Connecticut 

I am well, excepting my limb, which, however, is considerably 
better than it was. I will write again before we leave Boston. 

Your loving son, C. H. 

The people of the Old South Church were delighted with, 
and eventually called Mr. Wisner to be their pastor. But 
they required him, according to their custom, to preach as 
a probationer four Sabbaths. Therefore Mr. Hodge left 
his friend, and came on to meet the duties of a new session 
in Princeton, bringing Mr. John Maclean, afterwards Pre- 
sident of Princeton College, in the vacant seat in his gig. 


Near Boston, October 25th, 1820. 
My Dear Mother: — If praising New England will do you any 
good, you shall have enough of it when I get home. I have now left 
Boston. Mr. Wisner has remained. It was his intention when he 
came here, to have spent only three Sabbaths, but he has found the 
universal custom of the country requires that he should stay at least 
four weeks, which custom he has the more willingly submitted to, as 
bis cold prevented his preaching more than once on the second Sab- 
bath he was in Boston. You know it was our intention to return by 
way of Albany, but we had heard so much of the extreme hilliness 
of the country, we were almost afraid to attempt it. The necessity 
of making the experiment being removed by the detention of Mr. 
V^sner, I determined to take the direct road home, which will save 

♦ Nathaniel W. Taylor, D.D., afterwards Professor of Theology in Yale Col- 
kge, and author of the modification of New England Theology, called " Taylor- 
ism," against which the polemic guns of the FrincetoH Review were trained for 
Cwty years. 

8o VISIT TO BOSTON. [i8aow 

me nearly a week. Happily Mr. Maclean, tutor in Princeton Col- 
lege, was in Boston and anxious to return, and has therefore taken 
the vacant seat in the gig 

Of the first thirteen days we spent in Boston, only two were fair ; 
it rained and blew from the East almost incessantly. The good peo* 
pie here did all they could to apologize for the weather, assuring us 
that such a season had never before been known. But that did not 
mend the matter. The great inconvenience we felt was that we were 
prevented from visiting the adjacent places, as Salem, Cambridge, 
Andover, &c. The Lieutenant Governor kindly offered to take us 
over to Cambridge and introduce us to the President of the Univer- 
sity. But the weather prevented, until Monday last, when we rode 
over and were introduced to Dr. Kirkland and several of the profes- 
sors. I handed the Doctor Mr. Astley*s letter, and young as we 
were he kindly attended us over all their spacious building. The 
compliment of his personal attendance we no doubt owed to the pre- 
sence of his Honor, the Lieutenant Governor. Dr. Kirkland seems 
to be one of the happiest men in the world, always disposed to say 
pleasant things, and is entirely free from anything which would in- 
dicate that he believes, what those around him believe, that he is a 
great man. 

I had the pleasure of spending a tantalizing hour with Mr. Everett. 
I had intended, after the first visit was paid, to make an effort to see 
him frequently. But the weather, by preventing our first visit from 
being made in season, broke in upon this plan. I regret this very 
much, for I am satisfied that it would have been of essential service 
to have seen more of this extraordinary young man. 

Several circumstances besides the state of the weather, induced us 
to postpone our visit to Andover until Friday last, particularly the 
absence of all the professors, except Dr. Woods. I considered that 
the missing of Professor Stuart would frustrate the primary object of 
my visit. You may judge, then, how much I was rejoiced to hear, 
about an hour after we reached Andover, that he had just returned. 
We spent the evening with him, and returned the next day to Bos- 
ton, as our arrangements made necessary. On Monday afternoon, 
however, I went up again and remained with him until this morning, 
(Wednesday), I think Stuart is the most interesting man I have 
seen in New England. He is kind, sociable, condescending and 
communicative ; free from all formality, he becomes your friend at 
once. His talents are of the first order, and no man in the country 
has made any progress comparable to his in the department of Bibli- 
cal literature. He has done me great good, has marked out my road, 
and told me the right path, and enlarged my views as to the extent 

. 22.] LIFE AS TEACHER. 8 1 

and importance of the study, more than I could have conceived it 
possible. He told me he had lost at least three years by taking a 
wrong course at first. I am persuaded that it would be the best 
thing I could do to spend a year with such a man. But it is impos- 
sible. I will write to him, however, and see him as often as I can. 

The Doctor (his brother Hugh) wants to know whether I think the 
people here more intelligent and better informed than they are with 
us. I do, most decidedly, and the ladies beyond comparison. They 
are hospitable, and as attentive to strangers as they well can be. It 
is true, we came under peculiarly favorable circumstances, and 
therefore, perhaps, have been the more struck with the propriety of 
calling Boston the clergyman's paradise. Mr. Wisner, of course, is 
just now the object of much interest, and through him I have re- 
ceived much of kindness and attention. We are now thirteen miles 
out of Boston, on the road to New Haven. 

Your affectionate son, Charles Hodge. 

In New Haven, Mr. Hodge called again on Mr. Taylor, 
and with his fellow traveler, Mr. Maclean, reached Prince- 
ton again without serious misadventure. 


Princeton, Nov. 21st, 1820. 

My Dear Brother : — .... This, considering my six recita- 
tions, is doing very well. I wish to apprize you that all the indigna- 
tion you may feel for my heing thus oppressed, is due to me, as I 
have had the sole direction of the whole business, excepting that the 
Doctor (Alexander) was kind enough to prevent my going further. 
But you need not be uneasy. Most of my duties of this class are of 
sucb a nature, that I can get through them with very little study, 
while at the same time I might spend a week on each to great ad- 
vantage. Thus I shall be able to accommodate my exertions to my 
strength. I never knew, until I undertook it, that hearing a class of 
twenty or thirty students recite is one of the most fatiguing things in 
the world. The unbroken attention you are obliged to pay for an 
hour and a half together, and the necessity of talking a good deal, 
withal, is more tiresome than any one who has not felt it would ima- 
gine. There is another thing which adds to the exertion, which is, 
that these students are men well informed and not easily satisfied, 
and not likely to let a mistake pass unobserved. I feel this difficulty 
a good deal in Greek, as almost all the students have been studying 
the language for years, and some of them have taught it, but in He- 

82 LIFE AS TEACHER, [1821. 

brew I have more the advantage of them. There is one thing greatly 
in my favor, that I have not got your modesty to bother me. 

Both you and Mamma seem to have taken up the idea that I am in 
a forlorn situation here, and I can't tell why. I feel as independent 
as a king, and will contrive some way to keep myself warm. If Dr. 
Alexander spent so many winters in this dear study, I suspect you 
will find a good many more people to envy than to pity me for now 
possessing it. And without jesting, it is much the most pleasant and 
convenient situation I could have had in town. 

Your affectionate brother, C. H. 


Princeton, March 9, 1821. 

My Dear Brother: — ^We had the pleasure, last evening, of hearing 
Mr. Ward.* If you have heard him you know he has little of the 
graces of elocution wherewith to adorn his discourse, but he has what 
is far more important even for an orator, a heart alive to the import- 
ance of the object for which he pleads. After describing the diffi- 
culties they had met in India twenty years ago, he told us how all 
in a great measure had been surmounted. The British government 
and their subjects are now in their favbr. The schools connected 
with Serampore alone contain eight thousand children. One thou- 
sand of the natives have been baptized, and as a profession of reli- 
gion there involves a living martyrdom, we may hope they are sin- 
cere converts. But what is above and beyond all is that they have 
given the Bible to hundreds of millions in twenty-five different lan- 
guages. This is a good beyond all estimate. I never felt the im- 
portance and grandeur of missionary labors as I did last evening. I 
could not help looking round on the congregation and asking myself, 
'* What are these people living for ?*' Granting that each should 
attain his most elevated object, what would it all amount to ? Then 
looking at these men in India, giving the Bible to so many millions, 
which I know can never be in vain, I see them opening a perennial 
fountain, which, when they are dead for ages, will still afford eternal 
life to millions. Should we die, which of our works would we wish 
to follow us ? Which would mark our path or our grave with a ray 
of light ? " Cut it down, why cumbereth it the ground ?'* is a sen- 
tence we have reason to dread. 

Mr. Ward closed his discourse by urging all to join in advancing 
the cause for which Christ had poured out his soul unto death. Who 

*The distinguished Baptist misaonary, Rev. William Ward, connected long 
and intimately with Carey and Marshman, 9t Serampore, near Calcutta. 

Ml, 23.] LIFE AS TEACHER. 83 

so loved us that he died for us. And now, my dear Brother, do you 
not feel die force of this appeal. Is there nothing in you which 
makes you wish to make some return for such love as this ? "He 
that is not for me is against me." Can you bear that f Oh, my 
Brother, do think of this. Your loving brother, C. H. 


Princeton, March 25th, 1821. 

Afy Dear Brother : — I do not think you have any reason to fear 
diat my system will be injured by too much excitement. I suffer 
more pain for not feeling enough, than from the reverse. Though I 
have not the least expectation of ever seeing India or any other for- 
eign country, in the high character of a missionary, I still feel they 
are the most favored men in the world. 

Saturday was a laborious day to me. I spent it in procuring and 
setting out trees in front of Dr. Alexander's house. We planted four 
tulip poplars, an elm, two ash, a hickory, and two dogwood. They 
are beautiful specimens. Should the tulip trees live they will be 
splendid, for it is the handsomest tree in America. 

Your loving brother, C. H. 


Princeton, April 11, 1821. 

Afy Dear Mother: — I have agreed, should I remain here next 
summer, to supply pretty constantly the congregation near New 
Hope, (since Lambertville, N. J.), which is about twenty miles from 
this. The situation of the congregation is critical and interesting, 
and the prospect of doing good there is very encouraging. I was 
reluctant to consent to be away from Princeton every Sabbath, and 
thought it would take up too much of my time. But both Dr. Miller 
and Dr. Alexander urged it as conducive, both to my health by ex- 
ercise, and to my improvement by diversity of occupation. They 
will both assist me. So I shall have, in the three months, not more 
than eight or ten sermons to preach. Your son, Charles. 


Princeton, April 21st, 1821. 

My Dear Brother: — I heard the other day from Wisner, in Boston. 
He mentions a most painful circumstance respecting Mr. Everett,* 
which must have wounded his ieelings .very much. I will first copy 

* Edward Everett, then a Unitarian minister, afterwanU U. 6. Senator, ftc 

84 L^^£ ^^ TEACHER. [1821. 

Wisner*s words. " When Mr. Keene was here, Prof. Everett went 
to the theatre. As he entered one of the boxes a student of the col- 
lege, who was in the same box, lifted up both hands and said, loud 
enough to be heard all over the house, ' Let us pray.' The whole 
audience were looking at and talking about the reverend Professor 
till the curtain rose. The first act is finished, the curtain drops ; a 
man in the pit, standing up and looking at the Professor, says aloud» 
' Life is the time to serve the Lord.' It is said that some others of the 
clergy had concluded to go, but the reception the reverend Professor 
met with induced them to abandon their resolution." This shows 
how deeply rooted are the modes of thinking among common people, 
and how essential consistency of character is to respectability. It is 
probable Everett will be more injured in the estimation of the people 
of New England by this casual occurrence, than anything which has 
happened to him. There is quite as much wickedness as wit in the 
conduct of the student, perhaps rather more, but a great deal of both. 

Your affectionate brother, C. H. 

The General Assembly, May, 1821, passed the following 
resolution: " That the Assembly approve of the employing 
of Mr. Charles Hodge, by the professors, as a teacher of the 
original languages of Scripture in the Seminary ; and that 
the professors be authorized to employ him for the same 
purpose, or such other person as they judge proper, and 
that not more than four hundred dollars be allowed said 
teacher, per annum, for his services." 

The Presbytery of New Brunswick, April 2Sth, 1821, ap- 
pointed him stated supply, at Georgetown (Lambertville) 
for one half of his time, during the ensuing six months. 
This service he performed regularly, and with such success 
that an efficient Church was organized there soon after he 
ceased to supply them. He also introduced to that congre- 
gation his friend and former school-mate, Rev. Peter Stud- 
diford, D. D., who, with his excellent son, the Rev. P. A. 
Studdiford. D. D., have been to the present time the only 
pastors of the large and flourishing Church into which it 
has grown. The Presbytery, in the fall of 182 1, appointed 
Mr. Hodge stated supply of Trenton First Chirrch, now 
known as Ewing. 



" Mr. Charles Hodge, a licentiate under . the care of 
this Presbytery, made an application for ordination, as he 
had engaged to supply the Trenton First Church the princi- 
pal part of the winter term. Presbytery having considered 
his application, and his standing in the Seminary as a 
teacher of the Original Languages of Scripture, determined 
to proceed to his ordination at a convenient time, and 
accordingly assigned him i Cor. i. 21 as a subject for a 
sermon, and directed him to prepare for the examination 
requisite on such an occasion." Mr. Peter O. Studdiford, 
at the same time, made a similar application, the action on 
which was postponed for a time. 

Newark^ October j6th, 182 r. — Presbytery met in intervals 
of Synod. " Mr. Wm. J. Armstrong, a Licentiate of the 
Presbytery of Jersey, having received a call from the Tren- 
ton City Church, was received by the Presbytery of New 

" Whereupon it was Resolved^ That Presbytery will hold 
an adjourned meeting at Trenton, on the last Tuesday of 
November next, for the purpose of ordaining and installing 
Mr. Armstrong pastor of the congregation of Trenton," and 
also, " Presbytery agreed to proceed to the ordination of 
Mr. Studdiford, also to the ordination of Mr. Charles 
Hodge at the time of Mr. Armstrong's ordination and in- 
stallation at Trenton : viz., on the last Tuesday of Novem- 
ber next." 

" The Rev. Dr. Miller was appointed to preside at the 
ordination of Messrs. Armstrong, Hodge and Studdiford ; 
Mr. WoodhuU to preach the sermon; Mr. Cooley to give 
the charge to the newly ordained ministers and to Mr. 
Armstrong as installed pastor of the congregation of Tren- 
ton ; and Mr. Brown the charge to the people. 

" Trenton, November 27/A, 18 21. — Messrs. Wm. J. Arm- 
strong and Charles Hodge were examined on their experi- 

86 ^IS ORDINATION. [1824, 

mental acquaintance with religion, on Theology, Natural 
and Moral Philosophy, on Church Government and the 
Sacraments, and their examinations on these subjects were 
sustained. Mr. Hodge delivered a discourse from i Cor. 
i. 21, and Mr. Studdiford a discourse from Isaiah xlv. 22, 
which were sustained as the concluding parts of trial for or- 

^^ November 28ih^ 182 1. The arrangements made for the 
ordination services were carried out, the Rev. Mr. Com- 
fort giving the charge to the people vice Mr. Brown, de- 
tained by sickness in his family." 


Princeton, Sept. 12, 1821. 

My Dear Brother : — ^With reg^ard to your prospects, my dear Bro- 
ther, I have never thought them gloomy. I feel assured that what- 
ever difficulties may attend the commencement of your course, it 
will, if you are spared, be successful. I feel this confidence because 
we see God does connect, in His providence, success with diligence 
and virtue. Not that we do not daily do enough to forfeit His favor, 
but for the good of the world, and for the encouragement of excel- 
lence. He has made virtuous exertion as much the cause of success, 
as any secondary cause is connected with its appropriate result. I 
saw the remark the other day that no one is ever great without hav- 
ing struggled with difficulties, and I believe it is still more generally 
true that few men are good who are not forced to it by affliction. If 
our difficulties make us both greater and better than we otherwise 
should have been, even our self-love would not have the arrange- 
ment altered. Your brother, C. H. 


Princeton, Dec. 19, 1821. 

My Dear Mother : — I hope the Doctor is well and in good spirits. 
I wish I could give him a portion of my hopes and happiness. I am 
becoming daily more pleased with present duties and future pros- 
pects. Indeed, were I permitted to mould my own lot, I do not 
think I could devise a plan of life more suited to my desires, than the 
one Providence appears opening before me. Whether this is to con- 
tinue, and I am to remain in my present situation, I cannot tell, and 
I hope to be cheerfully resigned to whatever Heaven may determine. 

.24.] Lt^^ AS TEACHER. 87 

Bat I am getting so fond of what I have to do, and of what I see to 
do, that if it be decided that this is not the place designed for me. it 
will be a painful resignation of enjoyments and hopes. 

Your son, C. H. 


Princeton, Jan. ist, 1822. 

My Dear Brother : — .... A circumstance of rather more 
interest was, that on Sunday last I was called to administer, for the 
first time, the ordinance of Baptism, and, what does not happen every 
day, was required to give my own name in full to the little stranger. 
It was the child of one of the Elders of Trenton First Church (called 
Ewing), where I frequently preach. 

Your brother, C. H. 

Mr. Hodge had organized a society among the students, 
designed to promote the investigation and discussion of 
questions connected with the department of Biblical Criti- 
cism and Introduction. The professors attended^ but Mr. 
Hodge conducted the work, and directed the students in their 
special preparations on particular themes. On this subject 
he wrote to his mother. 


Princeton, Jan. 19, 1822. 

My Dear Mother : — I suppose you remember my mentioning that 
I was obliged to prepare a dissertation to read before our new society 
on its first meeting. This was done more than a fortnight since. The 
Professors and most of the Seminary were present. The following 
day Dr. Miller suggested a thing to me which I heard with a good 
deal of surprise, but which he urged by considerations, the force of 
which I was obliged to admit. He said he hoped and expected in 
the spring some permanent arrangement would be made respecting 
the vacant professorship. That, although from my situation the at- 
tention of many of the members of the Church had been fixed on 
myself, yet that to the great mass of the Church I was a stranger. 
That in a matter of so much importance, it would be unpleasant for 
them to act without some knowledge of the person to whom so much 
would be officially entrusted. That, whatever they might hear from 
my friends, they would still be acting in the dark as it respected 
themselves. To remove this difficulty he wished the dissertation just 


mentioned should be published, and circulated among the clergy, as 
far as was thought expedient. Of course my feelings revolted from 
this very strongly, as from something unseemly. Since then Dr. 
Alexander has spoken to me on the subject, and thinks it ought to 
be done, and that it can be done at the request of the Society, with- 
out any impropriety or indelicacy. Whether it wiU be done, I do 
not know. Sure I am that my own feelings would say no. Though 
from the peculiarity of the case, and the novelty of the subject, my 
judgment would, perhaps, be brought to acquiesce, were my opinion 
of the piece higher than it is. 

This is a question to be left to my parental Professors. I am will- 
ing to follow their advice, even with hesitating steps.* 

Your son, C. H. 


Princeton, Feb. 21, 1822. 

My Dear Mother : — I have just returned from the Seminary, and 
from the bed-side of one of our most promising students, who has 
just breathed his last. He was taken on Friday with a violent in- 
flammation of the bowels, which made such rapid progress, that on 
Sunday his life was despaired of. On Tuesday motning, the doctor 
was considerably encouraged, but he soon grew worse, and this morn- 
ing, about 10 o'clock, he died. You may suppose such an event 
would make a very deep impression on the minds of his fellow-stu- 
dents. He was in all respects one of the most interesting and prom- 
ising of their number. He was about twenty-two years old, and 
remarkably healthy, and about a week since, was, perhaps, the very 
last who would have been selected as likely to find an early grave. 
As Mr. Turner, (James Blythe Turner, from Kentucky) was the first 
who has died among the students, and was very much beloved, the 
dispensation is more sensibly felt. 

I am very glad the first death I have ever witnessed was a happy 
one. Both of the professors were present, and his bed was surrounded 
by his brethren, whom he requested to sing for him, the hymn be- 
ginning with the words : "How firm a foundation, ye saints of the 
Lord.*' I never witnessed a scene better calculated to impress the 
mind with the importance and value of religion. It is, indeed, the 

* It was published, and a copy lies before me, with the title, "A DISSERTATION 
ON THE Importance of Biblical Literature, by Charles Hodge. A.M. 
Teacher of the Original Languages of Scripture, in the Theologi- 
cal Seminary of the Presbyterian Church at Princeton. Trenton. 
Printed by George Sherman, 1822.'' And this is the first ptblicaiion of 
Charles Hodge. 

Ar.24.] LIFE AS TEACHER, 89 

"one thing/ 'and the only thing which can afford the least consola- 
tion in so trying an hour. I was also much impressed with the con- 
viction of the truth and of the essential importance of some of the 
leading doctrines of the Bible, particularly that we are saved by 
faith, and only for the sake of what Christ has done and suffered for 
us. Mr. Turner said over and over that the only foundation of his 
hope was " the atoning righteousness of the Redeemer." When he 
ielt he bad an interest in that, he was happy. I believe I was never 
more convinced that any thing which took that doctrine from the 
Bible, left no resting-place behind. 

His particular friends are very much exhausted with watching and 
excitement. Breckinridge (Rev. John Breckinridge, afterwards 
Professor) especially looks very badly. He was for some time 

Turner's room-mate. 

Your son, C. H. 


Princeton, April 2, 1822. 

My Dear Mother: — I have not yet determined where nor how my 
vacation is to be spent. Should Providence decide I am to remain 
at Princeton, I would wish to devote the vacation to the study of 
German, and it has suggested itself to my mind it might be well to 
go and spend five or six weeks at Bethlehem or Nazareth (Pennsyl- 
vania). If there were an intelligent clergyman with whom I could 
stay, it might be of some advantage ; but to hear the language as 
spoken by some plain country people would be of little service. If 
I go, the Doctor (Alexander) would let James go with me. 

As the time of the session of the General Assembly approaches, I 
feel somewhat desirous of having the question of the permanency of 
my continuance here determined, simply to be freed from the unset- 
tled feeling incident to a state of suspense. It is a question, however, 
which has never given me any disquietude. It is one indeed which 
involves consequences of greater importance than I am able to esti- 
mate, but the fact that it is one beyond my determination, the decision 
of which I can in no way influence, seems to remove from me in 
some measure the burden of responsibility. Should it ever be affirm- 
atively made, however, that burden will then be mine ; and it is 

great indeed. 

Your son, C. H. 


Princeton, April 10, 1822. 
My Dear Mother : — ^I have been somewhat peculiarly situated in 
my official duties since entering the ministry. It became necessary 


for me on Saturday last to baptize a man by immersion (in HowelVs 
Pond, a five minutes walk from the church, on the Trenton side, while 
acting as pastor for the Ewing, or Trenton first church), as his con- 
science would not allow him, though a Presbyterian, to receive the 
ordinance in any other way. My good Princeton friends, though 
they considered it as a matter of necessity, seemed very reluctant 
that I should run the risk to health by going at this season into the 
water. But it seems that no evil has resulted from it. The day was 
very mild, and all the circumstances of the case as pleasant as they 
could be. There were a great many persons present, but all belonged 
to the congregation, which is one remarkable for its respectability. 
It was a serious service, and all present seemed to feel it so. 

Your son, C. H. 


Princeton, April 19, 1822. 

My Dear Mother: — Mr. Summerfield preached for us here yester- 
day morning, and I had the pleasure of dining with him yesterday at 
Mr. Bayard's. His sermon was excellent. Much better than I ex- 
pected. His action was also excellent, but he is by no means as elo- 
quent as I had supposed. He has very little power over his audience 
excepting to produce a pleasing excitement. He could not overwhelm 
them as Lamed could, and he seemed to have but little talent at the 
pathetic. My judgment approved of him and his discourse more than 
I expected ; but my feelings were much less interested. 

Your son, C. H. 

In answer to a letter from Dr. Alexander, not preserved, 
Mr. Hodge wrote : 


Princeton, May 6, 1822. 

My Dear Sir: — I would say then, in the first place, that if I know 
my own heart, I wish God's will may be done. If He plainly 
leads me on to the result we have so long contemplated, I confess the 
fondest wishes of my heart will be accomplished. But at the S2mie 
time I believe that I would rather be homeless and penniless through 
life than in any way whatever enter such an office unsent of God. I 
have felt so much on this subject that I have never felt at liberty 
even to pray for the attainment of this object except in the most 
guarded manner. When this day three years ago, and in this place. 


you first mentioned this subject to me, the suggestion took me utterly 
by surprise. The-plan you then proposed seemed to me so important, 
liaiigfat with so many advantages to myself (upon any result), whose 
ultimate success depended so entirely upon the ordering of Provi- 
dence, that I could not doubt that it was my duty to accede to it. 
Since that period my path has been very narrow. There has not oc- 
curred a single opening which was calculated either to tempt me 
aside or to give me a moment's anxiety as to the course I ought to 
pursue. Hitherto, therefore, has the Lord led me. Whether He 
will lead me any longer in this direction, I know not. With regard 
to the Professorship itself, I think now as I have always thought that 
it is decidedly the most eligible situation for improvement, for satis* 
faction, and for usefulness, which our church affords, and that as far 
as my feelings are concerned, I would prefer being here with the 
smaller salary, to any other situation with the largest, that the coun- 
try affords. Should, therefore, my salary even be continued as it is 
at present ($400) I should not think it a sufficient reason for retiring 
from my present situation, unless accompanied with some further in- 
timations that such was the will of Providence. 

Though 1 have been greatly disappointed in the progress I have 
made in my studies, and the benefit 1 have derived from my many 
advantages, yet F am so sensible of the value of the privileges con- 
nected with my situation, that I esteem myself most highly favored. 
You need never fear I shall regret the time I have spent in Princeton, 
and will you let me say it gives me a pleasure to be near you and 
your family, that money cannot purchase. 

I now beg you to pray for me, that God would so order events that 
He may be honored, and that by His Spirit I may be fitted for His 
pleasure. This request 1 make most earnestly. 

With filial reverence, C. H, 




THE Board of Directors, at their meeting, held in Phila- 
delphia, May 17, 1822, reported to the General Assembly 
as follows : " The Board with pleasure inform the Assembly 
that the First and Third (senior and junior) classes now in 
the Seminary, have each resolved to aid in founding a Pro- 
fessorship of Oriental and Biblical Literature. To effect 
this object, the students of the First class have bound them- 
selves to raise and pay, if practicable, in five years, the 
sums which they have respectively subscribed, amounting 
in the whole to $7,000. And the students of the Third 
class have on similar conditions individually bound them- 
selves in sums amounting collectively to about ^4,000." 

May 2 1st, "Resolved, That it be recommended to the 
General Assembly, that they elect a Professor of Oriental 
and Biblical Literature in the Theological Seminary, with 
a salary of ;J 1,000 per annum, provided that for three years 
the present funds of the Assembly be responsible for not 
more than 1^400, the sum now given to the assistant teacher 
of the Original Languages of Scripture, and that the residue 
be procured by subscription." 

On the same day the General Assembly resolved, " That, 


agreeably to the above recommendation, a Professor of Ori- 
ental and Biblical Literature be elected, and that the elec- 
tion be the order of the day for Friday next, at twelve 

Friday noon, May 24th, 1822. "It being the order of 
the day for twelve o'clock, an election was held for a Pro- 
fessor of Oriental and Biblical Literature. The ballots 
being taken were committed to Messrs. John F. Clark, Cox 
and Gilbert to count the vote and report the result to the 

" The committee to which the votes for a Professor had 
been committed, reported, and the Rev. Charles Hodge 
was declared duly elected Professor of Oriental and Biblical 

At the meeting of the Board in Princeton, September 
23d, 1822, "The Board were officially informed, by the 
Stated Clerk of the General Assembly, that that body had 
elected the Rev. Charles Hodge Professor of Oriental and 
Biblical Literature in this Seminary ; and the Board being 
also informed that Mr. Hodge has accepted the appoint- 
ment, resolved that Dr. Blatchford, Dr. McAuley, and Mr. 
Lewis be a committee to direct the order of exercises at the 
inauguration which is to take place to-morrow at 11 
o'clock, A. M." 

Soon afterwards "The committee appointed to make 
arrangements for the inauguration of the Professor made 
the following report, which was adopted : 

" isL Procession to be formed at 1 1 o'clock, a. m., at the 
Seminary in the following order: (i) Students of the Semi- 
nary. (2) Such clergy as may be present. (3) The Pro- 
fessors. (4) The Directors. The procession to enter the 
Church in the reverse order, to be conducted under the di- 
rection of a Committee of one from each class of the stu- 
dents, consisting of Messrs. Breckinridge, Stanford and 

" 2d Hymn and introductory prayer, by the President 

94 ^^S MARRIAGE. [iSsa. 

3d. Formula to be read and subscribed, by the Professor. 

4th. Induction to the chair, by the President 

5th. Inaugural address, by the Professor. 

6th. Charge, by Dr. McAuley. 

7th. Concluding prayer, by Dr. Blatchford. 

8th. Concluding hymn and benediction, by the first Vice- 

Tuesday, September 24tk^ 1822. " The Board attended 
to the inauguration of the Rev. Charles Hodge as Professor 
of Oriental and Biblical Literature. The exercises were 
conducted agreeably to the plan reported yesterday by the 
committee of arrangements." 

The original time-stained copy of this inaugural address 
the compiler of this biography has now in his hands. The 
first sentences reveal the thought and animus of the entire 
discourse, and constitute a divinely significant omen for the 
professional life now opening. 

" The moral qualifications of an Interpreter of Scripture 
may all be included in Piety ; which embraces humility, 
candor, and those views and feelings which can only result 
from the inward operation of the Holy Spirit" 

*^ It is the object of this discourse to illustrate the importance 
of Piety in the Interpretation of Scripture ^ 


In the meantime, on the 17th of June, he was married to 
Miss Sarah Bache, who has already been introduced to the 
reader in the second chapter, at Cheltenham, a country seat 
near Philadelphia, belonging to a mutual friend. Judge 
M. McKane, Mrs. Bache having deceased in 1820. The 
ceremony was performed by the Right Rev. Bishop Wil- 
liam White, the first American Protestant Bishop. Dr. 
White had been the pastor of the bride's family for several 
generations, and had married her &ther, William Bache, to 
Catherine Wistar, in 1 797. 

Uniform tradition represents Charles Hodge and Sarah 

. 24.] MIS MARRIAGE. 95 

Bache as being at that time an uncommonly handsome 
couple. He was slender, of average height, very youth- 
ful'looking, with light brown hair, curling over a finely 
formed head, a light complexion and rosy cheeks, illumed 
by the light of blue eyes, and of a mouth in which be- 
nevolence and firmness, intelligence and humor were so 
subtly mingled as to elude the efibrts of the best painters 
to represent it She was of the full standard height for 
women, of symmetrical form, dark auburn hair, large blue- 
grey eyes, of that rare complexion in which the tender 
pink penetrates the delicate white, as in the interior 
enameling of tropical sea shells. She was endowed with 
the gifbs, and characterized with the temperament of a mu- 
sician smd an artist, full of imagination and enthusiasm, in- 
tensely affectionate and self-sacrificing within the circle of 
kindred, and at the same time thrilled by the widest and 
most delicate sympathies with all varieties of character and 
experience. These natural qualities had already been con- 
secrated by religion, and through all her life they be- 
came more and more spiritualized and sanctified. 

They came almost immediately to Princeton, and took 
boarding in the family of Colonel Erkuries Beatty, the 
&ther of their life-long friend, Rev. Charles Beatty, D. D., 
LL. D., of Steubenville, Ohio. Here they received great 
kindness, and remained until the spring of 1823, when they 
went to house-keeping in the house occupying the eastern 
comer of Witherspoon and Main Streets, immediately (Op- 
posite the centre of Nassau Hall. Here they remained 
eighteen months, until, on January ist, 1825, they took 
possession of their permanent home, built by them on the 
Seminary ground — ^the square brick house at the west end 
of the main Seminary building. In this house Mr. Hodge 
lived all his remaining life, here all his children, except the 
eldest, were bom, and here he did his life-work and died. 
All the beautiful trees which adorn the grounds around this 
house he planted with his own hands. 



Princeton, June 24, 1822. 

My Dear Mother : — ^We have been received with every possible 
kind attention by every body in Princeton, and it has given me the 
greatest satisfaction to witness the evident cordiality Sarah has been 
met with by all her old friends. Our circumstances at Mr. Beatty*s 
are very comfortable, and every thing promises well. 

We go to Dr. Alexander's to-day and to Dr. Miller*s to-morrow. 

It is well we came here a week before the session commences, for it 

will not be possible to get ready for study for some time. My room 

is yet in confusion, having no book-case and no table. In a short 

time, however, I expect to settle down to all the sober duties of my 

office and relations. Our Brother, the Doctor, was all-important to 

us. He performed his part so well on the day on which Sarah saw 

her friends, that I was completely relieved. It makes me happy to 

see Sarah cheerful and contented. She is now singing in my ears, so 

that I scarcely know what I am writing. I begin to fear that many 

of the fond schemes I had formed will never come to much. As to 

studying where Sarah is, it will be out of the question, unless there 

be some way of charming her tongue to rest which I have not as 

yet discovered. 

Your son, C. H. 

But things soon permanently adjusted themselves. The 
wife became occupied with household and family cares, and 
the husband, of all industrious students, became remarkable 
for his tolerance of interruption. His study was the home 
of his wife, and the gathering place of the entire family, and 
the highway of the children between the outside world and 
the other apartments of the house. While some of his 
children remained too small to unfasten the latch them< 
selves, he had left it unfastened, so that even the least of 
us might come and go as we pleased. 

During the first four years of his married life, the period 
covered by this chapter, two children, a boy and a girl, were 
bom to him. His constant letters to his mother and 
brother, and other intimate friends, were filled with notices 
of these children, and with the evidences of his absorbing, 
as well as tender, interest in ihem. This characteristic of 
his correspondence is far more than ordinary in its degfree. 


and his consciousness of that &ct becomes evident To his 
brother he writes : — 

'* People say I am a little foolish, and I think it quite likely. But 
I have a good excuse. With every desire that you may be as fool- 
ish, as happy, and a thousand times better than your brother, 

I am yours, C. H." 

The whole &mily correspondence of this period is suf- 
fused by the glow of his rich and full happiness, having their 
springs in his religion, his family, and his beloved work. 


Princeton, Dec. 25, 1825. 

My Dear Mother : — Your dear little Mary Elizabeth was baptized 
this afternoon in the Oratory by Dr. Alexander. Notwithstanding 
the rain, the place of service was so near we found it easy to take 
our dear little treasure out to be consecrated to God in this delightful 
ordinance. I never appreciated so highly before the privilege of thus 
giving to God what is dearest to us on earth. We feel now as though 
she were not our own, but something lent to be cultivated and pre- 
pared through our agency for heaven. To be instrumental in thus 
training up one of the children of the Lord to be presented before 
Him without spot or blemish, is so delightful and honorable a task, 
that we cannot help hoping that He who has made the prospect of 
the duty so pleasant, will aid us in its performance. There is, too, so 
much ground to hope that our efforts will not be in vain that we can 
address ourselves to the duty with all possible cheerfulness. The 
application of the pure element of water is not only designed to repre- 
sent the purifying influence of the Spirit upon the heart, but it seems 
to be the appointed pledge on the part of God, that if we sincerely 
devote our children to Him, and faithfully endeavor to bring them up 
for Him, He will bestow upon them the blessings signified by the or- 
dinance, and contained in that gracious covenant to which it is at- 
tached. Hence the ordinance is represented as so important in the 
Scriptures. He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved. It 
certainly never was designed to be an empty form. And as it im- 
poses the most solemn obligations, so it contains abundant encou- 
ragement to fulfil them. Our dear litde children we have promised 
to educate for heaven, and as God shall enable us, we mean to per- 
form our vows. To this every thing must be made secondary. To 


98 ffIS STUDIES. [1S25. 

gain this world is not what we have promised to aim at. It must 
therefore never be the direct and primary object of pursuit. I have 
lately, in reading Bonaparte's Russian Campaign, and the Life of She- 
ridan, been very much struck with the truth of the remark how little 
they really enjoy the world to whom the world is every thing. Bo- 
naparte says the happiest part of his life was when he was a poor 
lieutenant. And Sheridan said the happiest part of his life W2is the 
short time he spent in a cottage. There is nothing lost, therefore, 
even as reg^ds the present world, by seeking first the kingdom of 
God ; that is, by making it the primary object of pursuit, seeing that 
godliness has the promise of the life that now is, and of that which is 
to come. We feel, therefore, determined, if God shall render us 
faithful to our purposes, to bring up your dear little grandchildren, 
as we are sure you would have us do, with the one object supremely 
in view of fitting them for heaven. I have great confidence in the 
effect of religious truth upon the infant mind. Children are so sus- 
ceptible, their associations are so strong and lasting, that it does not 
seem strange that the effect of early education should so frequently 
be felt through life. And if we add to this God's peculiar promises 
to those who endeavor to bring up a child in the way in which he 
should go, we shall see that there is abundant reason to hope that 
exertions properly directed will be crowned with success. 

Your affectionate son, C. H. 



During these years the weakness and pain of his right 
limb occasioned a good deal of inconvenience and appre- 
hension, and at times he submitted to painful remedial ap- 
plications. Nevertheless these were years of intense study. 
There remain in manuscript traces of elaborate discipline in 
Hebrew, Syriac and Arabic, and exegetical lectures on Ro- 
mans and Corinthians, and dissertations on the origin of 
language, the general principles of Hermeneutics, &c. He 
preached before the Seminary every third Sabbath, and 
very frequently in the neighboring churches. Writing to 
his brother, November, 1822, he says: "lam incessantly 
busy, having six recitations a week, and a lecture to write 
besides." December, 1822, he writes: "I am studying 


German again : having a teacher in the house I hope to 
make more progress than I did before. We find Mr. Ja- 
downisky a pleasant and intelligent young man/' In 
November, 1823, he writes: "We have an unusually large 
accession to our numbers, and have commenced business 
under very promising circumstances. I have more writing 
to do than I should, and really believe that I shall find it 
essential to cany on the study of six languages this winter. 
I look forward to a pretty severe term, for I must keep be- 
fore my students or they will find it out." 

In the beginning of 1825, he founded the Biblical Re^ 
fertary^ with which he was connected as real editor, with 
die exception of the period of his absence in Europe, for 
forty-three years. This Quarterly appeared at first under the 
tide, " Biblical Repertory, a Collection of Tracts in Biblical 
Literature, Epeupdn rdc ypafd^*' consisting of reprints and 
translations, and making no pretensions to originality. The 
translations were furnished principally by the editor, and by 
Rev. Robert Patton, then Professor of Greek in the College 
of New Jersey, and by James W. and Joseph Addison 
Alexander. It continued in this form for four years, until 
after Mr. Hodge's return fi-om Europe, when the new series 
began with January, 1829, under the title "Biblical Reper- 
tory, a Journal of Biblical Literature and Theological 
Science," to be conducted by an "association of gentle- 
men," of which, however. Professor Hodge was always the 
working and directing member, in every sense the actual 
editor. In 1830 the title became '* Biblical Repertory and 
Theological Review," and finally, in 1 837, " Biblical Reper- 
tory and Princeton Review." Among the contents of the 
first four volumes the only translations which I can cer- 
tainly identify as the work of Dr. Hodge are " History of 
Theology in the Eighteenth Century," by Dr. Augustus 
Tholuck ; and the " Life of Kant," by Prof Stapfer, of 
Paris. These are both contained in the volume for 1828. 

During his absence in Europe, from November, 1826, to 


November, 1828, Prof. Robert Patton took charge of the 
Repertory in place of the editor. 


During the year 1826, as his knowledge increased, his 
standard of the attainments necessary for a professor in his 
department was elevated in a more rapid ratio, and propor* 
tionably the sense of his own deficiencies became more in- 
tense. He felt the need at the same time of uninterrupted 
leisure for carrying on private study, and of access to the 
most learned and able teachers of Biblical Science that were 
to be found. 


Princeton, August 29, 1826. 

My Dear Brother : — ^You will perhaps think me beside myself be- 
fore you are done reading this letter, but I am about to speak the 
words of soberness and truth. I want to leave you all for two years ! 
wife and children, mother and brother. I have long felt the very se- 
rious disadvantage under which I labor in filling a most conspicuous 
and important station to which I feel incompetent. My education^ 
for which I owe my mother innumerable thanks, has been, notwith- 
standing her disinterested and strenuous efforts, by the force of cir- 
cumstances, very defective. You remember I never opened a Greek 
Grammar until I came to Princeton in the spring of 18 12. In the fall 
of that year I entered College, joining a class in which all its members 
had been studying the language from one to two years. T]ie Sopho- 
more year we studied Greek several times a week. During the Junior 
and Senior years, only once a fortnight. The year subsequent to my 
leaving College I did nothing at it. During my three years in the 
Seminary, my time was occupied with other concerns. This has been 
my Greek course. What a preparation for a Professor ! Since I re- 
turned to the Seminary I have had continually so many recitations 
that almost my whole attention has been confined to the single point 
of preparing and hearing them. Little opportunity has been afforded 
for the prosecution of the important branches connected with my de- 
partment. I feel constantly the most painful sense of unfitness for 
my work, and the conviction that with nothing more than fragments 
of time at command, I can make little progress. My plan, therefore, 
is to apply to the Board of Directors for permission to spend two years 


in Europe. If they will pennit my salary to go on, it is all I can ask. 
I can rent my house for a sum sufficient to employ an assistant to 
take my place in the Seminary. All the Seminary will lose is the 
difference between my instructions and those of my substitute, which 
will be little indeed ; and it will, on the other hand, gain all that will 
accrue from my having so much time for improvement, and from the 
increase of reputation, which is something where people are influenced 
by externals. By spending half my time at G5ttingen and half at 
Paris, I shall be able to get possession of both the German and French, 
which will be an incidental advantage of no inconsiderable value. 
You may suppose I do not think of this course lightly. I feel the 
sacrifice I make, or rather should make, if this plan should be exe- 
cuted. But with me my improvement should be paramount to all 
other conditions, and I hope I should be found equal to the exile. 
Mr. Patton has been to Europe and taken much the same course, and 
has given me very definite information as to the expense, and I think 
I can accomplish my wishes without sinking money or running into 

This is all, however, between ourselves, and it depends upon a great 
many circumstances I cannot foresee, and which with every thing 
else I cheerfully leave to the directions of Providence. Sarah, of 
course, wishes very much (should I go) to accompany me, and 
Mr. Patton tells me we could live cheaper there than we can do 
here — that a thousand at Gottingen would support us comfortably. 
But then it would take five hundred to go, and as much to return. 
Sarah would be without friends and without society. We could not 
afford to travel, and I should feel so much encumbered and so 
anxious in case of sickness, that I cannot help thinking the balance 
preponderates on the side of her remaining at home. Dr. Alexander, 
who approves heartily of the plan as far as the Seminary is concerned, 
thinks that I should take my family ; and then when he contemplates 
the difficulties attending such a course, he questions the prudence of 
the scheme. He thinks I could not command myself to remain six 
months without my family. Perhaps not. 

Your affectionate brother, C. H. 

At the meeting of the Board of Directors in Princeton, 
September 25, 1826, the following communication was 
received from the two senior professors of the Seminary : 

" The undersigned beg leave to lay before the Board of Directors 
the following representation. Their junior colleague, the Rev. Mr. 


Hodge, although he has, ever since his appointment to the office of 
Professor, discharged its duties in a manner which reflects equal ho- 
nor on his attainments, his capacity, his diligence and his fidelity, 
has been for a considerable time past under a deep impression that 
he needed further advantages of leisurely study, particularly in some 
of the higher departments of Biblical criticism, and the auxiliary 
branches of knowledge. These advantages he is persuaded he can 
never hope fully to enjoy, unless he shall be enabled to retire for a 
time from the discharge of his duties in the Seminary, and to obtain 
access to those richly furnished libraries and those eminently skilled 
and profound masters of Oriental Literature of whose assistance he 
cannot avail himself in his present situation. 

" For the attainment of these advantages it is his earnest desire 
that he may be permitted to suspend the discharge of his official du- 
ties in the Seminary for eighteen months or two years for the purpose 
of visiting Europe and pursuing certain select branches of study, with 
the peculiar aids which the best institutions in that quarter of the 
globe can alone furnish. He has no doubt that the benefits likely to 
accrue from such a step would be of great importance to himself, and 
would add in no small degree to his capacity for serving the interests 
of the Institution under the care of your venerable Board. 

" The undersigned would respectfully state that after bestowing on 
this plan the most serious and mature consideration in their power, 
they certainly concur in these views of their colleague, and would 
unite, as far as would be proper, the expression of their wishes with 
his, that it may be carried into effect. 

" In contemplating this subject they cannot overtook the fact that 
several of the most enlightened and important institutions of our 
country have adopted a measure of this kind, and in some instances 
entirely at their own expense ; nor can it be doubted that an impres- 
sion of the utility and importance of making this provision for the 
improvement of public instruction is daily becoming more deep and 
extensive. , 

" The undersigned would also take the liberty of suggesting, in case 
the Directors should think proper to accede to the wishes of Mr. 
Hodge, whether he might not unite with a short residence in Europe, 
for his own improvement, an agency to solicit monies and books for 
the use of the Seminary. They cannot, indeed, indulge very large 
expectations of the probable avails of such an agency, yet they enter- 
tain no doubt that quite enough would result from it to reward and 
justify the effort. 

" They have only to add that Mr. Hodge, in case the Board should 
be pleased to think favorably of his plan, does not expect them to in* 

^r. 28.] LEA VES HOME. 1 03 

cor any additional expense whatever in giving their consent to the 
proposed enterprise. All that he asks is that his salary may be con- 
tinued during his absence. He is ready and willing to provide at his 
own expense a reputable substitute to carry on his department of in- 
struction in the Seminary, and one whose services he has no doubt 

will prove entirely acceptable." 

"A. Alexander. 

Samuel Miller.*' 
" Pnnceton, Sept 25, 1826:* 

The Board gave their consent to the plan on the condi- 
tions above offered. Mr. John W. Nevin, a member of the 
class just graduating, was appointed the substitute for Mr. 
Hodge during his absence, and he fulfilled the office for the 
following two years with eminent ability. He has been 
since known over both continents as the founder of the 
Mercersburg school of Theology. 

Mr. Hodge placed his £unily in the care of his mother 
and brother, in Philadelphia, and sailed from New York for 
Havre, October, 1826. 




PROF. HODGE sailed direct from New York on the 
packet ship " Edward Quesnel/' for Havre, early in Octo- 
ber. The first letter which remains is addressed to his 
mother from Rouen. 

Rouen, October 28, 1826. 
My Dear Mother: — ^Your kind letter, which I received before 
leaving Princeton, has often been the subject of my grateful remem- 
brance, especially when repenised. Every day that I live I feermore 
deeply the extent of my obligations to you, for every day I become 
more sensible of the value of the education which your disinterested 
exertions secured your children, and of the restraints and counsels 
which kept our youthful feet ** from the paths of the destroyer." It 
is one of my daily subjects of thankfulness that God has given us 
such a mother. May He, my beloved parent, richly reward you for 
all your sacrifices, and give you the satisfaction of seeing your chil- 
dren answering your expectations, and above all things the inex- 
pressible happiness of finding them at His right hand in peace. 

Your loving son, 



He writes to Dr. Alexander from Paris. 

Paris, November 2, 1826. 

My Dear Sir: — ^There is no person beyond my own family of 
whom I think as frequently, or with as much affection, now that I 
am a stranger in a strange land, as yourself; and there is no person 
excepting my mother to whom I feel so deeply obligated. From my 
boyhood I have experienced your paternal kindness, and shall 
cherish as long as I live the recollection of your goodness, and of 
the many blessings which through you God has mercifully granted 

It is now a week since we arrived at Havre. Our passage was 
rather longer than usual, as we were at sea twenty-five days. The 
greater part of the time the weather was unpleasant, and the voyage 
much more boisterous than I expected at this season of the year. 
We, however, escaped every accident, and, indeed, were never in 
circumstances to excite any apprehension. I found the sea delight- 
ful when the weather was fine, but very much the reverse when we 
were driven to the cabin by rain and storms. It requires no little 
strength to withstand the disposition to listless idleness which seems 
to take possession of every one on shipboard. If I may judge by 
my own experience the sea is no place for study. The only thing of 
much interest I saw at Havre was the port itself, which is entirely 
formed of piers, projecting a considerable distance into the sea, be- 
tween which the water flows at high tide into the docks, where it is 
confined by large gates, which are closed as soon as the tide begins 
to fall. Here the shipping is kept floating, although the canal which 
leads to the docks is at low water perfectly dry. Hence, it is only at 
high tide that vessels can go either in or out. This is a great incon- 
venience, for it obliged us to beat on and off the harbor from eight 
in the morning until five in the evening. The moment the ship 
touched the dock, a police officer in military dress came on board 
and demanded our passports. As I and several others had none, 
we were obliged to appear before the American Consul, and produce 
evidence of our being citi2ens of the United States. The Consul 
gave us a certificate to that effect, upon which the police granted us 
a passport to proceed to Paris. Our baggage was subjected to the 
same ceremony. This form was carried through with a good deal of 
politeness by the officers, who frequently begged our pardon, and 
asked permission very humbly to do what we had no power to 

The moment you set your foot on land you see you are in the old 
world. The houses are antiquated in their appearance in the ex- 


treme. The streets are narrow, destitute of side-walks and dirty. The 
people are poorly dressed, clattering along on wooden shoes, none of 
the women (at least the poorer ones) wearing bonnets, but in place 
of them a singular kind of cap. You soon see also, that the land is 
France. We had not walked far before we heard the violin, and 
discovered singing and dancing going on one side of the way, while 
on the other people were praying on their knees at the door of a 
chapel. There is a very ancient and fine-looking church at Havre. 
On entering it I was very much struck with finding nearly two hun- 
dred boys in companies of about fifty each, reciting their prayers or 
other religious lessons to the priests. I have never in any Sabbath- 
school, nor in any Protestant church in our own country heard chil- 
dren recite so well. They appeared to have got their tasks perfectly, 
and repeated them with wonderful volubility. The priest appeared 
to take a great deal of pains in instructing them, explaining and 
enforcing what had been recited. The necessity of the sacraments 
was in one case the subject of the teacher's remarks. I found the 
same thing in Rouen when I went to the great cathedral after the 
service in the Protestant church was over. It is no wonder that the 
Catholic religion takeis so firm a hold of its votaries, since it is so 
faithfully instilled into the minds of the young. I fear that in this 
respect Protestants are not as assiduous. 

I expected as soon as I got into the country to lose sight of the 
striking indications of a foreign land which were so obvious in town. 
But in this I was disappointed. Every thing strikes a stranger as 
novel. He sees women working in the fields, asses harnessed with 
immense wooden saddles and almost hid by the immense baskets 
appended to either side, ploughs furnished with wheels ; the whole 
country destitute of any enclosure, fields of grass or grain and vine- 
yards all mingled together and coming down to the road-side with- 
out the slightest fence to protect them. The cattle I saw feeding 
were generally tied by the horns to a tree, or to a movable stake 
fixed in the ground. If this was not the case, they were watched. 
I frequently saw a woman with two or three cows tied by the horns, 
which she attended from one part of the field to another. Flocks of 
sheep were always attended by a shepherd and his dog, neither of 
them very romantic-looking. The cottages looked ancient, were 
thatched, and green with moss. The people appeared healthy and 
happy, but their habitations very destitute of what we should con- 
sider comfort. The country from Havre to Rouen is very far supe- 
rior in beauty to any I have ever seen. I had no conception of the 
effect of long-continued cultivation on the general aspect of the coun- 
try. The fields of grass were as smooth as lawns, and the fields in- 


tended for grain were like Dr, Miller's garden. Our country is too 
new to enter into a comparison with this in any species of beauty 
which does not come at once from the hands of the great Creator. 
But our country people are far superior in their appearance to the 
same class here. Not in their personal appearance, for the popula- 
tion of France, as far as I have had an opportunity of observing, 
look more healthy, and consequendy handsomer than ours, but in 
their appearance of comfort, independence and cultivation. 

There are two views on the banks of the Seine which struck me as 
the perfection of the beautiful. The one is near the village of Cord- 
bee, the other is at the entrance into Rouen, the city as seen from a 
high hill just on the edge of the town. I presume the latter is one of 
the finest in France, as it is the subject of a Panorama Mr. Elastburn 
saw exhibited in London. I entered Rouen with greater interest than 
I should almost any other place in France, because of the many in- 
teresting historical events with which it is associated. Of its eighty 
thousand inhabitants, only twelve hundred are now Protestant. I 
had the pleasure of attending their worship on Sabbath, which is so 
similar to our own, that I felt myself quite at home. There were not 
more than two or three hundred persons present, sitting principally 
upon chairs, before a plain pulpit. The preacher appeared to be 
about thirty-five years old, and was fervent and simple in his man- 
ner. His sermon was nearly an hour long, and was listened to with 
commendable attention. I went up to the pastor after the service, 
and asked him whether he could speak English. To my great gra- 
tification he answered in the affirmative. He told me the extent of 
his charge, and that the venerable church in which they worshipped 
was formerly a Catholic chapel, given to the Protestants at the time 
of the Revolution. He also informed me that there were several Bri- 
tish subjects in Rouen, principally Scotch weavers, who assemble 
every Sabbath afternoon to hear a sermon read by some English 
gentleman. On this Sabbath there happened to be a clergyman of 
the Church of England in town, who preached and performed the 
service. I felt rejoiced to hear the praise of God in a foreign land in 
my own language, and could not help contrasting the beautiful sim- 
plicity of the service, both morning and afternoon, with the service 
which I had witnessed in the early part of the day in the great Cathe- 
dral. This is said to be the finest Gothic structure in France, and 
certainly to an eye accustomed to the church in Princeton it is suffi- 
ciendy imposing. I saw it first late in the evening, and on entering 
its "long-drawn aisles,*' lighted only here and there by a dim lamp 
which .scarcely revealed the lofty roof, I did not wonder that such 
places were trod with awe. In the morning I found at least fifty 


priests and other religious officers engaged in chanting the service, 
and about two hundred persons, principally poor, kneeling or sitting 
in different parts of the building. No one appeared attending to what 
was going on, or at least few. This building is said to have been 
founded by William the Conqueror. One of the towers is two hun- 
dred and thirty-six feet high, and another much higher was destroyed 
a few years ago by lightning. The painted windows are very striking 
to one who has never seen any thing of the kind. The statue of Joan 
of Arc stands in the centre of the town. There is nothing very 
striking in it, except that it marks the spot on which the heroine met 
her melancholy fate. 

After leaving Rouen the vineyards became very frequent. They 
appeared to be composed of currant bushes rather than grape vines, 
which are only two or three feet high. The grapes were all gathered 
and the leaves burned. The gardens here, however, look much 
more green than they do with us at this season. We have lettuce 
every day for dinner, and I have eaten strawberries which were very 
fine. They cultivate a species called the Alpine, which continues in 
bearing until frost. There has yet been no cold weather, but the $un 
has scarcely been visible since I arrived, and the rain, though not 
heavy, is almost constant. We did not reach Paris until nine or ten 
o'clock at night, so that I lost the pleasure of a distant view of this 
great city. We entered by a very broad, fine street, passing the gar- 
den of the Tuilleries, the Place Vendome (ornamented with the co- 
lumn made of the cannon taken by Napoleon at Austerlitz), and se- 
veral of the finest buildings of the city. It is to this circumstance that 
I refer the strong impression I received of the grandeur of this cele- 
brated metropolis on first entering it, which has been rather weakened 
than increased by viewing other and less imposing parts of it. The 
streets are generally narrow, excessively muddy, destitute of side- 
walks, and constantly crowded with all kinds of vehicles. I have 
taken a rapid review of the Louvre, which contains a gallery of paint- 
ings one thousand three hundred feet in length, of the Tuilleries, of 
the Luxemburg, of the king's library, and of some other objects of 
interest. I attended the celebration of mass in the king's chapel on 
the first of the month. This chapel is a tastefully ornamented room 
in the Palace, surrounded on the inside by a gallery supported by 
large stone pillars. I unfortunately took a stand which prevented 
my having a view of his most Christian Majesty and the Royal fa- 
mily. The officiating bishop was dressed in a splendid robe of gold 
cloth, and several of his attendants were almost as richly adorned. 
The middle aisle was filled with the royal guard. The music was 
said to be very fine. It made no impression on me, much less, at 

. apt] LIFE IN PARIS. IO9 

least, thali I have experienced from hearing the simplest melody. 
There was nothing in the whole service which appeared to me at all 
adapted to make any man either wiser or better. To-morrow is the 
regular day for a great festival (the king*s birth-day » I believe), on 
which it is customary to distribute wine and provisions to the multi- 
tude, to illuminate the garden of the Tuilleries, to exhibit fire-works, 
&C. But as to-morrow happens to be a fast-day, all this is put off to 
the Sabbath ! 

I hope you will be kind enough to write to me. Letters from home 
are more precious than gold. Remember me most affectionately to 
Mrs. Alexander and every member of your family. I beg of you, my 
dear fether, not to forget me in your prayers, for I greatly need them. 
I need hardly request you to present Dr. Miller the assurance of my 
affectionate and grateful remembrance. 

Yours with respect and affection, 

C. Hodge. 


He remained at Paris from the ist of November to the 
15th of February, studying French, and Arabic and Syriac 
with De Sacy. 

He settled in a handsomely furnished room near the Pont 
Neuf, in the Place Dauphine, at the apex of the Island, 
formed by the Seine, in the heart of the city. He boarded 
in the iamily of a Mr. Oberlin, one of the librarians of the 
King's Library, living on the opposite side of the thorough- 
fere to his lodging-room. All his associations were with 
the Oberlin femily, who spoke only French, and with a num- 
ber of agreeable fellow-boarders, consisting of two barons, 
one doctor in philosophy, and one captain in the army, 
who were Swedes, together with a young Englishman, son 
of Sir Henry Pamell, M. P. 


Paris, Nov. 20, 1826. 

Dear Sarah : — ^Young Pamell made his appearance among us this 
morning for the first time. He is a handsome, amiable-looking youth 
of about twenty. He asked me, immediately after our introduction, 
whether I came to Paris with a view of studying thq French language. 


I answered. " Partly so, but principally with a view to Biblical stu- 
dies." "Ah!** said he, "they are the most delightful in the world. 
I wish I could devote my whole life to them.** I said, "You are a 
citizen of a free country, and can do as you like.'* He answered, 
" Yes ; but as I happen to be the oldest son, my father wishes me to 
enter political life. I still hope, however, the Lord will open my way 
to the ministry." You may suppose that I felt somewhat surprised 
and greatly pleased. 


Paris, Dec. 21, 1826, 

My Dear Sarah : — I went on Monday evening to Professor Stap- 
fer*s — a gentleman who has been very kind and very useful to me. 
I had the pleasure of meeting there Benjamin Constant, with whose 
name you must be familiar. He is one of the most distinguished li- 
berals of the Chamber of Deputies, and is a man of extensive influ- 
ence. He reminded me very much of Timothy Pickering in his ap- 
pearance, although a younger man. There were two Protestant cler- 
gymen there. One of them was the younger Monod, a very evange- 
lical man, who has undertaken the Herculean task of translating 
Scott*s Commentary into French. 

I wrote to Mr. Robinson (Rev. Dr. Edward Robinson), of Ando- 
ver, now in Germany, to ascertain which university offered the great- 
est advantages, and the expenses of living, &c. I have received a 
very full and satisfactory answer from him. He tells me that for the 
purposes for which I have come hither there is no comparison between 
any othei* university at present and Halle. That the advice of every 
person he consulted directed him to that place, and the result of his 
own observation, after spending six weeks in G5ttingen, and then 
proceeding to Halle, confirmed him in the correctness of all he had 
previously heard. There is one very important consideration, that 
one of its leading theological professors (Tholuck) is a very pious 
man, the like of which is not to be found elsewhere. Halle, like all 
old European cities, has narrow, gloomy, and dirty streets. The so* 
ciety, however, he says, is good, and the facilities for study very great. 
I had, before I received his letter, heard enough to determine me that 
Gdttingen was not the place for me. Eichhom is superannuated; 
St&udlin is dead ; Planck is in ruins under the epilepsy, so that, as 
far as theology and Biblical literature is concerned, it is altnost de- 
spoiled. With regard to expenses, Robinson says that Halle is 
cheaper than G5ttingen, though at the latter a student need not spend 
more than three hundred or two himdred and fifty dollars per year. 

MT. 29.} LIFE IN PARIS. Ill 

With respect to Halle he says : " I find all my expenses here, exclu- 
sive of clothes, books, and traveling, and including instruction, lec- 
tures, &c., amount to about five rix dollars per week, i. e,, three dol- 
lars and seventy-five cents of our money, which is at the rate of less 
than two hundred dollars per annum.'* After making all allow- 
ance, it is certainly very^ very cheap. I pay my Arabic teacher alone 
almost as much for three lessons a week, /. e,, I have to pay five 
francs or one dollar per lesson. Paris, therefore, is not the cheapest 
place in the world. Mr. Robinson informs me that the spring lec- 
tures commence about the middle of April. Unless I am there at 
least two months before that time, I shall be utterly unable to enjoy 
the benefit of the course. I have, therefore, made up my mind to 
leave this about the beginning of February. 


Paris, Dec. 28, 1826. 

My Dear Sarah: — I would follow your plan of writing something 
every day, if I were not in the habit of spending all my days in the 
same manner. I rise about eight, at which hour I have my French 
teacher to attend on Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday. On other 
days he comes at two o'clock. I read and study until half past ten, 
when I go to breakfast, which takes rather more than an hour, in- 
cluding delays. I then return to my room, and remain until half 
past three, when I go three times in the week to my Arabic teacher. 
At five I go to dinner, and remain at Mr. Oberlin's generally to 
seven or later. The evening is almost always spent at home reading 
and studying until twelve, when I go to bed. When I go out it is 
generally from ten to two. 


Paris, Jan. loth, 1827. 

My Dear Sarah : — I went as I told you I expected to do, to see the 
king dine on the first of this month. We passed through several of the 
apartments of the palace, which were very splendidly furnished, es- 
pecially his chamber of audience, which is hung with crimson velvet 
and ornamented with gold. The dining-room is very long and nar- 
row. One end was crowded with ladies in their court-dresses, the 
opposite end was occupied by musicians and singers. Around the 
table, which was in the shape of a horse-shoe, the principal officers 
of the king were standing, old Talleyrand among the rest. His Ma- 
jesty sat in the centre, the Dauphin on his right, and the Dauphiness 

1 1 2 LIFE IN PARIS. \}^^T. 

on the left. The former looked like a very good-natured man, but 
his wife always appears out of humor. The little Duchess De Berry 
sat next to the Dauphin, and as usual seemed full of gayety and good 
spirits. She is as much liked by the French as the Dauphiness is dis- 
liked. Although royalty always sinks upon a close inspection, yet I 
am very glad I went. How it is that the million can by choice con- 
sent to exalt one like themselves so much above them, I cannot 

My young friend Pamell has entered the army. This step was 
much against his will, but the Duke of Gloucester had, as a great 
favor, offered his father a commission for him in the guards, which 
he accepted, and then sent to his son for his consent. He is one of 
the most fauldess young «ien I have ever seen. This, however, is 
only negative praise, though amounting to a great deal. His simple, 
humble, devotional piety is his great characteristic. When he is gone 
I shall lose the principal source of my enjoyment in Paris. 


Paris, Feb. 12th, 1827. 

My Dear Sarah : — I am now preparing for my departure from 
Paris, which I expect to leave on Thursday or Friday, the 15th or 
1 6th. 

I preached yesterday for the fourth time for Mr. Wilkes, the Eng- 
lish preacher in Paris, who has been so unwell that he has not been 
able to preach for more than a month. I had the honor of having 
among my hearers Gen. Lafayette's family ; that is, half a dozen of 
his daughters and grand-daughters. I was very much pleased with 
them when I saw them a few evenings since at the General's. . His 
grand-daughters are very unaffected, pleasing girls, and some of them 
are quite pretty. The old gentleman looked remarkably well, and 
is as kind and polite as possible. I left my letter and card on the 
third ineffectual call, and received soon after a very kind note from 
him. I met there Baron Humboldt, and was introduced to him. He 
is not a striking, but a pleasant-looking man, very affable, and has a 
fine forehead. He kindly offered me letters of introduction to Ger- 
many, to any of his correspondents I might desire. An offer I was 
not slow to accept. 

Your affectionate husband, C. H. 

A former occasion of his preaching at the Rev. Mr. 
Wilkes's service, is noticed in the Journal kept by Dr. Tho- 
mas Guthrie, then a young man studying in Paris : 

MT. 29.] LIFE IN PARIS. 1 1 3 

"Jan 21. I then set off for Mark Wilkes's service, which is held in 
a part of the Oratoire. The preacher was a Mr. Hodge, an American 
professor, who had come to Europe for the purpose of studying the 
Oriental langus^es. He intended to do so in Germany, but was at 
present studying French in Paris, as a medium of communication 
with the Germans. He was a young-like, intelligent, fair, good- 
looking, thin and rather little man, (Guthrie was six feet two inches) ; 
and gave us a capital sermon from the 19th verse of the fifth chapter 
of I John. The singing was very beautiful. The English sounded 
most sweetly and pleasantly to my ear. It brought vividly before 
my mind the memories of my native land ; while the smallness of the 
numbers, the upper room in which we were met, the irreligious and 
idolatrous country in which we were maintaining the pious worship 
of God, reminded me of the infant state of the Christian Church." 

Mr, Hodge writes to Dr. Alexander: 

Paris, Jan. 29, 1827. 

My Dear Sir: — From the time at which the winter course in the 
German universities commenced, it was impossible for me to derive 
any advantages from the public instructions had I proceeded ac- 
cording to my original plan. I therefore thought it most advisable 
to spend a few months here in studying Arabic, and in gaining as 
much knowledge of the French as would enable me to prosecute my 
journey without suffering all the inconveniences of being completely 
deaf and dumb. The advantages for the study of the Oriental lan- 
guages here are very considerable, especially for those who wish to 
cultivate them for the sake of their own literature, or for commercial 
purposes. De Sacy lectures three times every week on Arabic, and 
three times on the Persic. His method does not differ from the or- 
dinary manner of hearing a recitation with us. His class, which 
does not consist of more than seven or eight, read the Koran on one 
day, and a part of his Chrestomathy on the other. He does little 
more than explain the force of the words, and any difficulties 
which may occur in the grammatical form or construction. He is 
very particular and very attentive, devoting upwards of two hours to 
each exercise. Besides this Professor Caussin de Perceval lectures 
on the Arabic grammar three times a week. De Sacy also lectures on 
Persian. Quatremere on Hebrew. His course, however, is purely ele- 
mentary, at least at this season, and he has only two or three hearers. 
Lectures are delivered upon almost all the Eastern languages ; San- 
skrit, Chinese, Bengalee, Hindoostanee, &c. All these, as well as the 
instructions in the sciences, law, and medicine, are public and gratui- 

114 ^^^^ ^^ PARIS. [ 1827. 

tous. There is a great difTerence between the lecture-rooms of the 
Professor of Chemistry and the Professor of Hebrew. The latter 
having two and the former two thousand hearers, The establish- 
ments connected with the medical profession, the schools and hos- 
pitals are upon a most munificent scale ; indeed nothing can be more 
liberal than all the arrangements of the government connected with 
the great literary and scientific institutions of the metropolis. 

I have attended the meetings of the Asiatic Society, which consists 
of forty or fifty near-sighted Orientalists, of whom De Sacy is the 
President. It was at first amusing and surprising to see every man 
with the paper or book he wished to read almost in immediate con- 
tact with his face. The worthy President is as remarkable for the 
shortness of his sight as for the depth of his knowledge. This is not 
a comforting account for Addison, who has commenced already pay- 
ing the penalty for this species of learning. The proceedings of this 
Society, having no connection with the Biblical subjects, are not to 
me wary interesting. 

I have also attended the meeting of the Institute, which consists of 
the most distinguished literary and scientific men of Paris, having La 
Place for their President. At these meetings some paper is read by 
one of the members, and afterwards discussed. Arrangements are 
made for the accommodation of strangers and others not connected 
with the Society, of whom a considerable number are usually pre- 

I have made up my mirfd to go to Halle instead of G6ttingen. Mr. 
Robinson informs me that more attention is paid to Biblical literature 
at Halle than at any other university. It has also the great advan- 
tage of having Tholuck within its walls, whois as-much distinguished 
for piety as for his learning. I have seen a little work of his on the 
Theology of the Ancient Persians, which states in the title-page that 
the materials were derived from Arabic, Persic and Turkish manu- 
scripts, in the Royal Library of Berlin. As Tholuck is at present not 
more than eight or nine and twenty, he must have published that 
work when he was about twenty-four or five ! This is a wonder to 
me. I have also seen a treatise of his to show that Christ is the cen- 
tral sun and key of the Old Testament. His work on the Romans, I 
was told by Profesor Stapfer here, was the best that has been pub- 
lished. He has also written a work which has produced a great im- 
pression, on the doctrine of Redemption. One of the leading Pro- 
fessors of Berlin also, Neander, is orthodox on all the great 

Yours with filial respect and affection, 


Mt. 19.] LIFE IN HALLE. 1 1 5 


He left Paris on the 15th of February, 1827, at 5 o'clock, 
p. M.» and traveled by diligence during the coldest weather 
of that entire winter, through Chalons, Metz, Mayence, 
Frankfort and Leipsic to Halle, passing the Rhine on the 
ice. He arrived at Halle, Wednesday morning, February 
28th, at 2 o'clock. 

The same day he wrote to his wife. 

My Dear Sarah: — Halle is, beyond dispute, the dirtiest, ugliest, 
gloomiest town of its size I ever saw. It is a great relief to find two 
Americans here who welcome a countryman with sincere pleasure. 
Mr. Robinson I think you saw in Princeton. He is reserved and 
cold, but at the same time he appears to be really kind, and puts 
himself to more trouble to be of service than many whose feelings 
lead them to a more warm and cordial expression of good-will. He 
is one of those men, I suspect, who slowly and surely make their way 
to your confidence, which they seldom show to be misplaced. I an- 
ticipate, therefore, much solid advantage from being associated with 
him. I have taken a room next to his in a house which belongs to 
and is in part occupied by Gesenius. Mr. Cunningham, firom Boston, ' 
b in the same house. He is a handsome young man, apparendy 
very amiable and quite prepossessing. We breakfast and tea sepa- 
rately in our own rooms, and dine together at half-past twelve at a 
public house. The rest of the day is taken up in studying and at- 
tending lectures, which is the best manner of attaining this exceed- 
ingly difficult language. Your husband, C. H. 

The day after his arrival he was introduced to Gesenius, 
Niemeyer, Tholuck and Jacob. The day of this introduc- 
tion he wrote to his mother. 

Halle, March i, 1827. 

Dear Mother : — I have seen two of the most celebrated Professors, 
and have experienced very sensibly how a man sinks into his proper 
size when seen face to face. When viewed from the other side of the 
Atlantic, these men seemed something out of the ordinary course of 
things, but here, whatever their minds may be, their bodies are made 
of very vulgar clay. I have never been so disappointed in my life 
as in the appearanee of Gesenius, who is the first Hebrew scholar 
probably in the world. He is not more than forty years old, fHvth- 
lous, and, what is a wonder here, rather foppish in his appearance. 

1 1 6 LIFE IN HALLE, [1827. 

He has a silly laugh for every thing he says, and is in short the last 
man I should have selected from ten thousand as a distinguished 
philologist. He is, however, affable, polite and kind in his manners. 
Although you cannot force yourself to respect him, you feel at ease 
and pleased in his society. All physiognomy and craniology fail, I 
think, in reference to such men, for his talents and erudition are un- 
questionable. I heard him lecture this afternoon, and though by no 
means imposing even in the desk, he appears to more advantage than 
in his own study. Tholuck, who is only twenty-nine or thirty, is a 
very remarkable man. He is a wonder in this part of Germany for 
I being pious, and his countenance is expressive and pleasing. He 

j speaks a multitude of languages, and English among the rest. The 

German Professors study in complete dishabille. It is a great pity 
that the literary men of this country should be kept so perfectly 
distinct as to have none of the advantages which the intercourse 
with society gives. Tholuck, however, has traveled considerably, 
and, when out of his study, exhibits a very different appearance. 

Your affectionate husband, C. H. 

When he had been a h'ttle more than three months in Halle, 
in a letter to Dr. Alexander, Mr. Hodge corrected the state- 
ment of his first impression of Gesenius given above, and 
gives an account of his own occupations. " Of the critics, 
Gesenius appears by far the ablest, and is perhaps, doing 
the most harm, although he confines himself to the Old 
Testament, and appears to give himself no manner of con- 
cern about any doctrinal subject, and to take no interest in 
any discussion not purely of a critical character. He says 
a book is genuine or not, without caring in the least whether 
it pleases one party or the other. And this increases his 
influence as it gives him the appearance of impartiality. 
The first impression which his manner and appearance 
make, as I mentioned in one of my first letters from Halle, 
is by no means favorable. But in the lecture-room it is 
very different He is so clear and animated, and so per- 
fectly master of his subject, that I do not wonder at his 
being so popular. His lectures on Job this summer are 
attended by more than three hundred students, who fill the 
room almost to suffocation. I attend this course — four 

jgx. 39.3 L/F£ IN HALLE. 1 1 7 

times a week — and his lecture on Syriac — twice a week — 
Reisig on the more difficult points of Greek grammar — 
five times a week ; and Tholuck's Introduction to Theology 
— ^twice a week. My reason for attending the latter is 
principally to gain an acquaintance with the theological 
literature; as his object is not merely to give a systematic 
arrangement of the subjects, and point out the way in 
which they should be studied, but also to g^ve the character 
of the most important works belonging to each department. 
I have private lessons in Syriac three times a week, and 
German still every day." . 

He was at once admitted to the intimacy of Tholuck, 
and formed a personal friendship, which on both sides re- 
mained unabated to the end of their long lives. Not long 
before his own death, in 1877, Tholuck sent his friend with 
warm expressions of love, a photographic likeness of him- 
self, which was cherished by his friend with great tender- 
ness for the short year he survived him. 

On the nth of March, 1827, Mr. Hodge wrote to his wife. 

Afy Dearest Sarah : — I have by this time become quite reconciled 
to Halle. The weather has been of late so fine, that every thing 
looks more pleasant. I have not seen much of any of the Professors 
here excepting Tholuck, with whom I walk three or four times a week 
for an hour or two together. He has been also kind enough to call 
two or three times and read German with me. Being a young man 
and a pious one, and being very fond of exercising himself in Eng- 
lish, which is one of the fifteen languages he understands, he puts 
OS entirely on a level with himself, and is very instructive. I look at 
him frequently with wonder. Not older than I, he is the author of 
some of the best Biblical works in Germany, and has a fund of know- 
ledge which few men attain at the end of the longest life. The great 
superiority of German learning (and the superiority is great) arises 
not from the mode of instruction in the universities, but from the ex- 
cellence of their primary schools. A boy is so well grounded in 
Greek and Latin that he has no trouble with these languages. As 
these are the great instruments of learning in all departments, they 
have nothing to do but to apply them. 

Your affectionate husband, C. H. 

1 1 8 LIFE IN HALLE. [iSa/. 


March 4th, Sabbath. The evening was spent at ProC 
Tholuck's, with Mr. Robinson and Mr. Cunningham. Our 
conversation was principally on the doctrines of religion. 
Tholuck said he thought the doctrine of depravity was the 
most important doctrine of the gospel, and that he did not 
believe a Pelagian could Be a Christian. Justification, he 
explains after the manner of the old Lutherans, as founded 
on the imputed righteousness of Christ. He does not be- 
lieve in the personal efficiency of the human soul, and, 
therefore, thinks that all acts come from God ; when good, 
both as to their substance and quality ; when evil, the 
quality is from the sinner himself. 

In prophecy and types he is also of the same opinion, 
holding to the double sense. He asked me if I did not find 
myself unsettled in reading the exegetical works of the 
modern German school. I answered, no, at which he 
seemed surprised, and asked what views I entertained about 
prophecy. I told him I considered the Prophets under the 
guidance of the Holy Spirit, and that they often wrote 
what they themselves did not understand, and when intend- 
ing to describe their own circumstances, or events immedi- 
ately at hand, really did describe the circumstances of 
Christ and his church, &c., &c., &c. He exclaimed. Oh, if 
you are upon that ground Neology never can touch you. 

He gave us a very interesting account of the state of re- 
ligion in Berlin, which he described as very flourishing. 
He mentioned particularly a Prussian Baron, whose emi- 
nent piety first brought him (Tholuck) to reflection and 
seriousness. The thought which constantly struck him 
when contemplating the character of this good man was — 
Can all this be the effect of natural disposition ? Is it not 
the result of divine influence? Neander, he also repre- 
sented as a model of Christian excellence. 

March 6th^ Tuesday, This morning I called on Prof. 
Tholuck, agreeably to appointment, and walked a mile or 

. 29] . LIFE IN HALLE. 1 1 9 

two out of town with him. Our conversation was princi- 
paUy upon biblical and doctrinal subjects. In their uni- 
vefsity studies, he told me, they generally commenced by 
giving a course of Encyclopedia, which pointed out the 
several departments of Theology, the method of studying 
them, and the books of most importance under each. 
They give the Einleitung or Introduction to the Scriptures, 
which includes an account of the criticism, authenticity, 
contents, etc., of the sacred volume. Then Exegesis, and 
then a Philosophical view and systematic arrangement of 
the doctrines. 

He talked a great deal about the philosophical opinions 
of the present German Literati. Kant's system is univer- 
sally abandoned. Fichte, who followed him, is also for- 
gotten. Schelling has shared the same fate. The reigning 
philosopher of the day is Hegel. Schleiermacher has a 
system of his own. The present systems are all Pantheistic. 
Hegel and Schleiermacher both deny the personality of the 
Deity and the individuality of the soul of man. The uni- 
versal principle with them is God, and, according to Hegel, 
the world itself is the Realitat of the Deity, and all it con- 
tains, the different races of men, and the animals in their 
various orders, are all modes of existence of this one 
universal principle. This, at least, is the idea I got from 
Tholuck's description. For I do not pretend to understand 
a system which its author says is comprehended only by 
two theologians in Germany ; and which, as Gesenius very 
properly remarked to Mr. Robinson, was thereby proved to 
be not worth understanding. Even the Biblical Theolo- 
gians of Germany are so led away by the speculative spirit, 
so characteristic of its inhabitants, that it seems impossible 
they should be restrained within the bounds of sober and 
important truth, except by the influence of religion on their 
hearts. Tholuck, himself, who has much of this philoso- 
phizing spirit, considers matter as only a different modifica- 
tion of spirit, the essence of both being the same. I 

I20 LIFE IN HALLE. [1827. 

understood him to say that Neander was of the same 

March ph. This morning, at 9, I attended Wegschei- 
der's lecture upon the Acts of the Apostles, and then Gese- 
nius on Ecclesiastical History. I have as yet been by no 
means favorably impressed with this oral method of instruc- 
tion. The only advantages I can perceive attending it, are 
that information is conveyed to a greater number than 
would take the trouble to take it out of books, and that 
viva voce communication is perhaps more spirited and im- 
pressive. I called, with Mr. Robinson, upon Wegscheider, 
and found him in his study surrounded with books. He is 
rather a dull, heavy man, in his appearance and manner of 
lecturing. But he was very affable and agreeable in his 
manners, and appears frank and kind. 

March 8th. This morning, at 1 1 o'clock I called upon 
Prof. Tholuck, and walked with him until one. He said it 
was evident that vital religion was very much increasing in 
Germany, and he thought, that the pantheistic philosophy 
of the day was doing good inasmuch as it led men to 
entertain a " deep religious feeling," and showed them the 
insufficiency of the neological systems. Schleiermacher, 
especially, he thought was made an instrument of great 
usefulness, partly without designing it, or in a way which 
he did not contemplate. His authority stands so high that 
the respect which he manifests for the Bible, and the rever- 
ence with which he speaks of Jesus Christ, has great influ- 
ence. He has thus been the means of awakening the 
attention to religion of many young men, and of some of 
great eminence, as Neander, who after renouncing Judaism, 
was for some time a disciple of Rousseau. Tholuck, him- 
self, attributes much of his religious feeling to Schleier- 
macher's influence. About 4 o'clock Tholuck called for me 
to walk with him, and, although much fatigued by the 
morning excursion, I could not deny myself the pleasure. 
His conversation was principally on practical religion. 

MT. 29.] L/F£ IN BERLIN. 1 2 1 

Saturday, March loth. This morning I had for the first 
time the pleasure of hearing Tholuck. He was upon the 
first part of the 5th chapter of Malachi. It was pleasant 
to hear at least one of the celebrated Professors of the Uni- 
versity giving a religious cast to his exposition of Scrip- 
ture. After his lecture, I walked with him until dinner 
time. He said he did not always approve of the manner 
of interpretation adopted by the Tubingen Professors, and 
that he thought that Storr especially was often very unnat- 
ural. In the afternoon Tholuck was kind enough to call 
and read with me, or rather for me, a part of Olshausen, on 
the secondary sense of SS. He professed himself an ad- 
herent to the grammatical historical method of interpreta- 
tion, but said this would bring out the secondary sense. 

Mondayj March 12th. Spent mostly at home alone, 
pursuing the dull task of learning German. Heard Weg- 
scheider in the morning and Gesenius in the afternoon. 

Tuesday, March ijth. In conversation with my German 
teacher, who is a pious young man, I learnt that the 
number of pious students here is not so great as I had been 
led to expect. He said there were not more than twenty 
of the seven hundred, theological students; a much latter 
number, however, are more or less orthodox. At Tubin- 
gen, he said, there was no pious professor in the university, 
although much piety in the town. At 1 1 o'clock I walked 
with Tholuck. He said he thought the number of pious 
students here was greater than my teacher had admitted. 
But that it was impossible to say. He Wels disposed to 
think that very few of those not religious were orthodox — 
that in Germany there is such an indefinite variety of 
opinion that men do not admit of classification. Many 
profess to be supernaturalists, merely because they believe 
in miracles. He said the works in general belonging to 
the department of periodical literature were superficial. 
Bertholdfs, though neological, was the best, except a Cath- 
olic one published in Vienna. Tholuck spoke in terms of 

122 LIFE JN BERLm. [1827. 

great admiration of Martyn, and said he was so delighted 
with his memoirs that he had determined to translate them, 
but was anticipated. He has himself long cherished a 
strong desire to consecrate himself to the missionary work. 
But Providence has as yet closed the way. He spoke feel- 
ingly of the peculiar difficulties which most of the present 
pious learned men have to contend with. Having most of 
them been previously neologists, they found their old scep- 
tical doubts, particularly with regard to the Old Testament, 
continually to harass them. 

Wednesday, March iph. I have, this evening, had the 
pleasure of conversing for two or three hours with Tholuck 
in my own room. Our conversation was principally on the 
philosophical systems of Germany. He said that many 
Christian theologians were inclined to many of the princi- 
ples of the Pantheistic philosophers — ^that they could not 
conceive how God could create out of nothing — and there- 
fore admit that the material universe and the soul of man 
are of the divine essence. But they differ from the Panthe- 
ists in being persuaded of the personality of the Deity, and 
the individuality of the human soul, believing that it is the 
highest exercise of divine power to confer this personal 
individuality upon his creatures. Schleiermacher would 
not admit the appellation of Pantheist, which he says is a 
nick-name, and belongs to the materialistic Pantheists, while 
he is himself what would be commonly understood by the 
term. Tholuck said that of English philosophers Reid and 
Hume were most esteemed, Stewart less, and Locke not at 
all. It seemed to me a great misfortune that philosophy is 
mixed up with religion in this country, for it gives so 
abstruse and mystical a character to the explanations of im- 
portant truths that there is little reason to be surprised that 
the term Mystics has been applied to the advocates of 
piety. Thus, for instance, they make faith to be the devel- 
opment of the life of God in the soul — ^that is — ^the divine 
essence everywhere diffused and the universal agent 

Jtr. 39.] LIFE IN HALLE. 1 2 3 

unfolding itself in the heart. Tholuck read several 
passages for me from Schleiermacher's Dogmatik, but 
they seemed to me to darken counsel by words without 
wisdom. Tholuck surprised me by saying that since his 
twentieth year he had seldom been able to secure more 
than three or four hours a day for study. 

Thursday^ March i^th. Tholuck called at eleven for me 
to walk with him. He said he thought the Rabbinical dia- 
lect more important for the illustration of the New Testa- 
ment than any other whatever, and, therefore, more useful 
to the Biblical student than either Arabic or Syriac. Arabic 
was of little use except to make use of the " helps " in 
reading the Old Testament He said he had been very 
much struck with the coincidence between the manner of 
e3q>ression and argument in the Rabbinical writers and 
those of the New Testament. 

In the evening, together with Mr. Cunningham, I drank 
tea with Prof von Jacob, who is an old gentleman, author 
of some works of distinction on political economy. His 
daughter is also an authoress, and remarkable for her 
knowledge of language. 

Tuesday, March 20th. Walked with Tholuck at eleven. 
We were led at first to talk on the possibility of a Christian's 
lalling from grace, which led to the doctrine of the freedom 
of the will. Tholuck said, he agreed entirely with the 
doctrine of Edwards, on that subject He told me that 
Schleiermacher, who belongs to the Reformed Church, was 
strenuous in his defonse of some of its peculiar doctrines ; 
maintaining that they alone were consistent He told me 
also that there was more vitality among the Reformed than 
among the Lutherans. Basle, Bremen, Bonn and — the four 
places in which religion is in the most flourishing State, 
were principally settled by the Reformed At Berlin, also, 
where there is so much religion^ the Reformed are numer- 
ous. In the evening, I drank tea with Robinson, Tholuck, 
&c. Tholuck was in fine spirits, and surprised me by his 

1 24 ^ LIPE, IN HALLE. [1827. 

fetmiliar acquaintance with the poetry and lighter works of 
his own country. Scarcely a book was mentioned from 
which he could not at once repeat numerous passages. 

Thursday y March 22d, This morning I again had the 
pleasure of walking with Tholuck. He finds a great deal 
of difficulty, he says, in reconciling the doctrine of the final 
perdition of all men who die in unbelief to his feelings, and 
seems disposed to adopt the opinion, that there will be 
hereafter, other offers of mercy to the souls of men. The 
passage in Peter, referring to Christ's preaching to the 
spirits in prison, he interprets as teaching a descent into the 
abodes of departed souls, and the offer of salvation, to those 
who had either not received or rejected them when on 
earth. He says, that some evangelical men, in Germany, 
hold something similar to the old doctrine of the Limbus 
Patrum. Wegscheider maintains strenuously, that Paul 
taught the doctrine of predestination just as the Calvinists 
hold it, and urges this as a proof of the little dependence 
we can place on that Apostle. , 

Saturday^ March 24th, This morning I took my last walk 
with Tholuck. He is just leaving town for the vacation. He 
told me he had much to endure from the many unfounded re- 
ports, which the enemies of piety were constantly spreading, 
respecting the few of that character here. He is much wor- 
ried at what the Germans call Kleinstadtigkeit, i, ^., little city-- 
ism, a most expressive word, which prevails in Halle. As 
all the other professors are far from orthodox, he is regarded 
as a strange being, and subject of suspicion and tale-bearing. 

March joth. Yesterday at dinner, I made the acquaint- 
ance of our countryman. Rev. B. Kurtz. This evening I 
spent in his company. He informed me that in St. Peters- 
burg he had received one thousand rubles from the 
Empress, and experienced considerable attention from dis- 
tinguished personages. He spoke favorably of the state of 
religion among the Lutherans in the sea provinces of 
Prussia. Among the Greeks^ as far as he could judge from 

XT. 29.] LIFE IN HALLE. 1 25 

tiie service of tlieir churches, there was very little piety. 
The service was in Sclavonic, which the people do not 
understand. At Konigsberg, he also found a great deal of 
piety, and in Berlin, as much as is to be met with in Phila- 
delphia or New York. The Royal family paid him great 
attention, and contributed handsomely to the funds of the 
Seminary for which he is soliciting. In Copenhagen, he 
was also received graciously by the King and .Queen. 

Apil 1st, Sabbath, I had the pleasure of hearing Mr. 
Kurtz preach a real evangelical sermon on Eph. iii. 19. May 
God of His infinite mercy bless brother Kurtz for having 
praised His Son, and representing love for Him to be the 
one thing needful, without which, with all eloquence and all 
learning, we should be only as a tinkling cymbal. 

Apil jd, Mr. Kurtz says he has met a great many 
pious Prussian officers. That in Berlin, in one company, he 
saw twelve of this character. That the aids of the Crown 
Prince, and almost all the Governors and Governesses, in 
the Royal family, are of this character. The Moravians at 
Hermhut retain, he says, their evangelical character. 

Sabbath^ April 8t1u This morning I attended the Re- 
formed Church, and heard Herr Rinecker, who is considered 
the best preacher in Halle. In the afternoon, I witnessed 
the interesting service, attending the confirmation of from 
fifty to one hundred children. They came to the church in 
a procession preceded by the pastor, and attended with 
music. As soon as they entered the building the organ 
commenced playing, and an appropriate hymn was sung. 
The minister then took his stand at the altar, and the children 
stood up around him. After a short address he commenced 
a catechetical exercise, which continued for about half an 
hour. Another hymn was sung ; the organ was accom- 
panied by four trumpets. This is the first time I have heard 
this kind of music in a church. The effect upon my 
feelings was very strong and very pleasing. The preacher, 
Superintendant Tiemann then commenced his sermon from 

126 LIFE IN HALLE. [i toy. 

Proverbs, "My son, give me thy heart" His discourse 
appeared to me very good, recognizing the leading doc- 
trines of the gospel, and delivered with a great deal of 
animation. His audience was frequently in tears. In his 
prayers for the dear children, whom he was about to receive 
into full fellowship in the church, he prayed for every bless- 
ing a Christian heart could desire. After leaving the pulpit 
he again addressed the children, who read aloud the 
Apostles' Creed, and audibly before the congregation pro- 
fessed their feith. After this, they approached the pastor 
four or five at a time, and kneeled before him. He, in the 
name of the ever blessed Trinity, blessed them, and recog- 
nized them as members of the church, taking each one by 
the hand, and placing his hand upon their heads succes* 
sively, as he addressed to them a short exhortation. 

The impression which this whole service made upon my 
mind was very pleasant. And I could not help feeling that 
however little authority there may be for confirmation, as 
of divine appointment, that some service of the kind might 
properly be introduced into our churches. It would have 
at least this good effect, that baptized persons would then 
be brought more under the discipline of the church, and 
the nature of their connection with it would be rendered 
more definite. I could not help feeling also, from the impres- 
sion made upon the children and the audience, that few 
occasions would, humanly speaking, offer better opportuni- 
ties of doing good to the souls of all present. [This I bear 
testimony was Dr. Hodge's opinion, often expressed to the end 
of his life]. God grant that this little flock of lambs which 
has been gathered into the fold to-day on earth, may be recog- 
nized by the Good Shepherd, as a part of that little flock to 
whom it is the Father's good pleasure to give the kingdom. 

Wednesday^ April iitk This morning I went with Rob* 
inson and Mr. Muller* to visit Merseburg and the battle- 

• Since the Rev. Geoige Muller, of Bristol, England, who was Mr. Hodge's 
German teacher in Halle. 

29-] I-IFE IN BERLIN. 1 2 7 

field of Rossbach. We set off at five o'clock, and the day 
proving remarkably fine, we had a very pleasant ride. 
Merseburg is a pleasantly situated town of about nine 
thousand inhabitants, and about half an hour beyond it lies 
the field upon which Frederick the Great, in 1757, defeated 
the French. A simple monument is raised on a small 
mound in the middle of the extensive plain. The inscrip- 
tion states that the monument was erected by the 3d corps 
of the Prussian army after the batde of Leipsic in 18 13, 
the previous monument having been removed or destroyed 
by the French. From the foot of this monument we 
counted between forty and fifty villages, which were all dis- 
tinctly visible from the spot. From Rossbach, we rode 
over the country to Lutzen. Here we had the pleasure of 
visiting the simple monument erected on the spot where 
the body of Gustavus Adolphus was found, after the san- 
guinary battle of Lutzen, 1632. This monument is nothing 
more than a large granite stone, on which the name of the 
&llen hero, and the date of his death are cut. Stone seats 
are placed around for the convenience of visitors. Here 
one of the greatest generals and monarchs of his age fell. 
Here Charles XII. of Sweden stood. Here Napoleon 
fought and conquered almost for the last time. The great 
battle between the French and the Allies, in 181 3, occurred 
on the opposite side of the town. But Lutzen itself was 
afterwards occupied by the French, and the Allies filled the 
surrounding country. 

Friday y April ijtk. This being Good Friday, I attended 
the service of the Lutheran church this morning. The 
Lord's Supper was administered after the ordinary exercises. 
The three pastors of the church proceeded to the altar, on 
which was a small silver image of our blessed Saviour, and 
several large wax candles, very like the altars seen in 
Catholic chapels. The officiating clergyman read an ex- 
planation of the sacred supper, and an exhortation to the 
people, and then turned to the altar, and in a solemn voice 

1 28 LIFE IN BERLIN. [1827. 

chanted the consecrating service. The two other clergymen 
first received the communion from his hands kneeling; 
then one of them took his stand at one end of the altar, 
while the officiating clergyman stood at the other. One 
took the bread and the other the cup. The people then 
approached, three or four at a time, and kneeling before the 
first suffered him to place the consecrated wafer in their 
mouths ; they then rose and proceeding to the second 
clergyman, in the same way received the wine at his hands. 
In neither case were they allowed to touch the element 
with their hands. I should have thought myself in a 
Catholic chapel, were it not for the sound of the German 
language instead of the Latin. Very few of the Lutheran 
clergy retain their belief in the doctrine of consubstantia- 
tion, and yet the customs and ceremonies which arose out 
of it, are almost all preserved. I felt like a stranger here, 
and longed for the time when again, in the simple Scrip- 
tural manner of our church, I could partake of the me- 
morials of our dying Saviour's love. 

Wednesday, April i8th. This day has been observed as 
the Jubilee of Ni^meyer, the Chancellor of the University, 
who has now completed the fiftieth year of his academical 
life. We called with all the rest of the world to present 
our felicitations to the old gentleman this morning. lis 
rooms, which are spacious, were crowded with strangers, 
and ornamented with the numerous presents which had 
flowed in upon him at this season. Here we met among 
many other strangers, Schleiermacher and Bishop Eylert, 
from Berlin, Bishop Westermeyer, from Magdeburg, Titt- 
mann from Leipsic, &c. &c. At eleven o'clock the com- 
pany met in the Hall of the University. Professor Schultz 
read a Latin address ; after which, the Curator of the Uni- 
versity, presented Niemeyer with a beautiful porcelain vase 
in the name of the King. Bishop Eylert made a long dis- 
course in German. Tittmann and his colleague from Leip- 
sic each spoke in Latin. The pro-rector then exhibited 


the marble bust of Niemeyer, which the University had 
caused to be made as an expression of their esteem. He 
received also a porcelain vase, presented by his numerous 
pupils of past days, and a silver civic crown from the city 
of Halle, to which he was a great bene&ctor during the 
last war. 

Gnadau, Saturday^ April 28th. This morning at eight 
o'clock I left Halle with the intention of making a short 
tour before the lectures commenced The whole of this part 
of the country is a great plain. The land is generally fertile, 
and the villages frequent and miserably built, and the people 
poorly clad. Gnadau is a settlement of the Moravians, the 
congregation including only two hundred members. The 
village is remarkably neat, and the people superior in ap- 
pearance to those of the neighborhood. In the evening, at 
seven o'clock, I went to the Prayer Hall, where the brethren 
assemble for their evening worship, and heard only singing. 
In the morning at half-past eight, I went again, and heard 
the Liturgy read and sung. At ten o'clock was the regular 
preaching. The preacher chose for his text the passage of 
SL John which describes our Saviour as the Good Shepherd. 
Like all the sermons I have heard in Germany, this sermon 
was hortatory, instead of doctrinal, and unlike most it was 
pious and animated. From all I could see and hear, I should 
judge that the spirit of piire and simple piety is preserved 
in a high degree among these people, and the superior com- 
fort and intelligence of the inhabitants was very striking. 

Monday^ April joth. This morning early I rode over to 
Gloetke, a small village about five miles distant, and spent 
a very pleasant day with the pastor, Westermeyer. This is 
a pious and intelligent young man, son of the Bishop of 
Magdeburg. He was brought to an entire change in his 
views and feelings during a six months' residence in England 
and Scotland. 

Magdeburg^ Tuesday^ May ist As this city, with the 

exception of the Cathedral and a few small houses, was 

130 MAGDEBURG. [1827. 

utterly destroyed by the Austrian general Tilly, 163 1, it is 
comparatively modern, and therefore agreeable. It is situated 
on the Elbe, has numerous manufactures, and contains about 
33,000 inhabitants. The fortifications of this place are said 
to be among the most formidable in Germany, and the 
garrison at present between two and three thousand men. 
In the evening I called upon Bishop Westermeyer, and was 
very kindly received. 

Wednesday^ May 2d, I visited this morning the celebrated 
Cathedral. The tout-en-semble of this building, either 
externally or internally, is not striking, and will not admit of 
comparison with that of Rouen. But it contains many most 
interesting monuments and works of art. Near the altar is 
interred Ae Emperor Otho I. who died A. d. 973. His 
tomb is now covered with a plain marble slab without an 
inscription; the silver railing by whidi it was surrounded 
was taken away by Tilly. His wife's tomb, an English 
Princess, is striking from the ancient figures which are 
sculptured upon it I was shown the helmet, commander's 
staff and gloves of mail of Tilly, which were secured after 
his defeat near Leipsic, and deposited here by Gustavus 
Adolphus. The pulpit was a most beautiful piece of 17th 
century workmanship, made of alabaster and profusely orna- 
mented with figures relating to Scripture history. Among 
the various tombs which are shown to the stranger, there 
was none to me so striking as that of the Archbishop 
Ernest, erected in 1497. It is entirely of bronze, and 
covered with figures for the most part emblematic. A 
figure of the Archbishop in his robes lies upon the top ; his 
countenance is remarkably fine. The whole monument, 
although so old, appears fresh and new. ... I drank tea 
to-day with Bishop Westermeyer, and was impressed very 
much with the free and friendly manner in which he treated 
me. They all had so much to ask about America that I 
learned but little about Germany. Through the influence 
of the good Bishop, I obtained permission from the Com- 

a9.] LEIPSIC. 1 3 1 

mander to ascend the tower of the Cathedral, a thing which 
on military grounds is permitted to few. The ascent is by 
240 stone steps, and the view is very extensive. 

In the evening I called on the pastor Storig, who, I under- 
stand, is almost the only orthodox minister in Magdeburgh. 
Here again the warm-hearted kindness of the Germans was 
manifested. The pastor and his family were particularly 
desirous of learning the character of the Presb)^erians in 
America, whom they appeared to regard very much as we 
do the Covenanters or the Puritans. He told me he agreed 
with the younger Westermeyer, who, I find, is looked upon 
as something out of the ordinary course, since he is what 
we should call &ithful and pious. 

On Thursday^ May jd^ I left Magdeburg, and reached 
Leipsic the evening of the next day. 

Saturday^ May ^th. I walked out this morning to see 
the appearance of Leipsic during the great fair, which 
attracts people from so many different and distant places. 
The streets were thronged with a very heterogeneous crowd, 
Greeks and Jews, Hungarians, Frenchmen, etc., etc. All 
the streets which were wide enough for the purpose, were 
lined with booths in which every variety of article was 
exposed for sale. The most numerous class of merchants 
appear to be Jews. Their signs written in German and 
Hebrew are everywhere to be seen. They almost all wear 
their beards, and the better sort are clothed in a silk frock- 
coat reaching down to their feet, and bound round their 
waist with a girdle. The poorer class have a similar dress 
of cotton and woolen, and many of them seem miserably des- 
titute. The Greeks were dressed in a loose frock of green 
cloth reaching to the knees, the sleeves large and open ex- 
cept at the wrist Their appearance was tasteful. The Hun- 
garians had lai^e loose coats of wool, of its natural color, 
reaching to theieet I spent a considerable part of the day in 
the museum, which contains all the literary publications of 
this part of the country and some from France and England. 

132 LEIPSIC. [i8«7. 

'Sabbath, May 6th. This morning I went to the St. 
Thomas Church at half-past seven, when the service com* 
menced. The church was crowded, the singing continued 
for nearly an hour, when the superintendent Tzchimer, 
ascended the pulpit and preached a very interesting sermoo, 
as far as I could understand. The Lord's Supper was after** 
wards administered with more ceremony than I had yet 
seen it in a Lutheran Church. The Consecration Service 
was as usual chanted, one minister standing at the altar, and 
the other immediately behind him. Two little boys clothed 
in black frocks and white scarfs stood on each side of the 
altar. I observed that the ministers and their attendants 
bowed not only when the words " Jesus Christ " occurred, 
but when he repeated the phrases "this is my body," "this 
is the New Testament in my blood." When the communi- 
cants received the wafer, it was placed in their mouths, and 
the little boys held a blue napkin spread out beneath to 
prevent the least particle falling to the ground The same 
precaution was observed when the wine was administered. 

Monday, May jth. This morning I called on Professor 
Hahn, to whom I had a letter. He is a man of about 
thirty-five, I should suppose, rather small and by no means 
imposing in his appearance. He received me with great 
kindness, and offered to call with me upon any of the other 
Professors whom I wished to see. We accordingly called 
on Professor Linden, who has the superintendence of the 
Pedagogium. He as well as Prof. Hahn are Christians, as 
pious men are emphatically called here. In the aflernoon, 
I went with Messrs. Robinson and Cunningham to the 
garden, in which there is a simple monument to Prince 
Poniatowsky, erected near the spot on which he lost his 
life, in attempting to cross the Saale. 

Tuesday, May 8th, This morning Prof. Hahn called, 
and accompanied us to Prof. Tzchimer's. This gentleman 
is the continuator of Schrockh's Ecclesiastical History, and 
author of the Analecta and some other works. He is now 

«• a?.] LIFE IN HALLE. 1 35 

eogaged in writing the history of the fall of Paganism. He 
B also distinguished as the great anti-Catholic champion. 
He is a vety polite and agreeable man, considerably ad- 
vanced in life. In his sentiments, I am told, he agrees more 
with the English and American Unitarians, than with the 
German Rationalists. I also had the pleasure of seeing 
Prof. Winzer and Prof Beck, who is quite old, but very 
amiable and kind in his manners. Rosenmiiller was the 
only other one of the Leipsic literati whom I had the plea- 
sure of calling upon. He is a tall, great-headed man, has 
an impediment in his utterance, and does not impress a 
stranger so agreeably as some other of the gentlemen 

This evening I returned to Halle. 

May 1 2th, I have had the pleasure of seeing Tholuck 
several times since my return. He seems much benefited 
by his journey, and has had, he says, his heart warmed in 
Beriin, and has heard many circumstances of an encourag- 
ing character, relative to the progress of vital piety in 

May 20th, Having since this day week dined in com- 
pany with Tholuck every day, and expecting to continue 
this agreeable and profitable arrangement, I have already 
increased my acquaintance with the character and opinions 
of persons whom I have no opportunity of seeing per- 
sonally, and I hope to do so still more. 

Tholuck says, that Professor Hengstenberg of Berlin was 
fcnnerly of Bonn, and a very warm and decided rationalist 
Although now not more than twenty- five years old, 
he was already so distinguished that professorships in 
scveial departments were" in his offer, Greek, Oriental Lan- 
guages, Philosophy and Theology. He determined, how- 
^r, to leave Bonn, and left behind him a strong and open 
^laration of his principles. Shortly after, he was led to 
^nd a religious service among the Moravians. The dis- 
burse made such an impression on his mind, that his con- 

1 34 L/FJS IN HALLE. [1827. 

fidence in the truth of his own opinions was very much 
shaken. He betook himself to the simple study of the 
Bible, and at last came out a firm and practical believer in 
the great truths of the Gospel. He is now Professor oi 
Oriental Languages at Berlin, and exceedingly bold. In 
one of his first lectures he said : " It matters not whether 
we make a god out of stone, or out of our own under- 
standing, it is still a false god ; there is but one living God, 
the God of the Bible." This declaration was received with 
hissing and scraping by a large part of the students, by 
which he was little intimidated. He often asserts that it is 
only the heart which doubts. 

Olshausen, the pious professor in Konigsberg, is also 
a young man not more than two or three and thirty. He 
too was formerly a Rationalist, but when his heart was once 
touched his opinions changed of course. Tholuck told me 
he used to think he was one of the last persons likely to be 
converted. He was continually exhorting him (Tholuck) 
to beware of Pietism and Mysticism, and reproaching him 
with being a Hermhutter. Shortly after one of these con- 
versations, Olshausen thought he would see for himself 
what Moravianism was, and so read the Life of Zinzen- 
dorf On Tholuck's next visit he was surprised to see him 
dejected and sad, and asked him if he were not well. 
" Yes," he answered, " but my dear Tholuck, I have been 
railing at you as a Hermhutter, but I knew not what it 
meant, and that book (Life of Count Z.), showed that I did 
not know what I am myself." He is now one of the warm- 
est and most decided Christians in Germany. 

May 26, I have within a few days had the pleasure of 
several interviews with the Rev. Mr. McCall, who has been 
for six years a missionary among the Jews in Poland. He 
appears to be a warm and sincere Christian, entertaining 
most of the opinions relative to the Jews, which their pecu- 
liar friends generally hold respecting their restoration and 
future exalted state in the church on earth, etc. He says 

29] LIFE IN HALLE. 1 35 

that the Jews are very willing to hear, so much so that 
there is no necessity to seek them ; they come in crowds to 
the house in which they know the missionary is to be 
found. They are exceedingly ignorant ; when best educated 
their learning being confined to the Talmud. The Scrip- 
tures have little authority with them. They have a common 
saying which illustrates their sentiments on this point, viz. : 
^ The Scriptures are water, the Mishna wine, the Gemara 
^iced wine." The Pentateuch and historical books they 
can generally understand, but the Prophets few of them can 
translate. They are complete Pharisees in all their opinions 
and customs, and are generally sincere in their faith. There 
is a class among them calling themselves German Jews, who 
are generally infidels. Another sect, which is of recent 
origin, but which has taken the old name Hasidim^ pretend 
to peculiar sanctity. Their rabbis are in&Uible, work 
miracles, give absolution, etc. The Jews are miserably 
filthy and offensive when not raised much above the ordi- 
nary level by wealth. They are, however, more moral than 
either the Catholics or Protestants of Poland. Little has 
been effected among them as yet, except the production of 
a general spirit of inquiry, and the diminution of their pre- 
judice against Christians. Very few of them can be in- 
duced to engage in agriculture. They prefer merchandise 
in its various forms. 

Among the Catholics, who are exceedingly degraded and 
superstitious, there have recently been several conversions. 
That of a young priest has excited a great deal of atten- 
tion. Mr. McCall speaks of him as likely to become a 
second Luther. The Grand Duke Constantine is very 
&vorable to missions and adverse to the Catholics. Mr. 
McCall, when passing through Berlin, was sent for by the 
Crown Prince,* who was very inquisitive about the 
mission, and expressed his approbation and interest in 

* Frederick William IV., elder brother of the present Emperor of Germany. 

1 36 Lli^B IN HALLE. [18*7. 

its success. It is interesting in a country where the 
King is head of church and state, and has such uncon- 
trolled sway, to know the character of those who are likely 
to influence the religion of Germany. As illustrative of 
the character of the Crown Prince it is worth while to men* 
tion some things which he said to Mr. McCall. He ex- 
pressed his deep regret that so large a portion of the clergy 
had renounced the pure " Bible &ith/' and preached such 
"stupid stuff" as the Rationalists do in its place. He 
was rejoiced, he said, that there were several in Berlin who 
now preached the true doctrines. He spoke of the state of 
the English Church, where, he said, they retained the doc* 
trines, but had not much of the living power of the gospeL 
God grant that he in whose hands so much power may one 
day be lodged, may use it for his glory. 

Halle^ June 20th. Tholuck surprised me very much this 
evening by the account which he gave of the prevalence of 
Rationalism in Germany from 1790 to 1815 or '17. During 
this period, with the exception of the Tiibingen theolo* 
gians, there was scarcely a voice raised against the prevail- 
ing system of Deism. He had himself lived to his fifteenth 
or sixteenth year without having seen any person who be- 
lieved in the Bible i excepting one boy^ in the school to 
which he went. In this school the Deistical system alone 
was taught: and this was almost universal. Of the old 
men, who belonged to the preceding generation, some few 
remained who still held to the old system, but in town and 
country, among professors and pastors, the Rationalistic 
opinions were so dominant, that with few exceptions no one 
had courage to support the contrary doctrines. Professor 
Harms of Kiel, blessed be his memory I was the first to 
break this dreadful stillness. Upon the occasion of the 
ter-centennial celebration of the Reformation of Luther, he 
published the theses of that great man, and added many of 
his own against Rationalism. He was overwhelmed with 
abuse. No less than eighty pamphlets of all kinds in Ger- 

jn. 39.] VlS/r TO DRESDEN. 137 

man and Latin were directed against him. But from this 
time the advocates of the truth began to multiply, and its 
progress has been constant, and in some departments rapid 
ever since. 

August I have recently had the pleasure of seeing two 
pious preachers from the neighborhood of Elberfeld, Messrs. 
Sanders and Krummacher. The account which they give 
of the state of religion in that region is very encouraging. 
In a small party, however, the doctrine of predestination 
has been carried out into practical antinomianism. These 
people feel themselves above the gospel and all its ordi-» 
nzmces, and when they condescend to enter a church it is 
easy to see from their listless, careless, assured manner, that 
they think the doctrines which they hear are only fit for 

Monday^ August 2jih. This morning I left Halle with 
Dr. Thoiuck and Mr. Ehlers for Dresden. Our ride to 
Letpsic was pleasant, and enlivened by the debates of these 
gentlemen on philosophical points. Thoiuck maintained 
that what actually is, is all that is possible. That the world 
cannot possibly be other than it is. He bases this opinion 
on the attributes of God. He urges the idea that attributes 
and essence are the same in the divine Being. That 
beauty, holiness, knowledge are in God essential, that is, 
diat God is essential beauty, holiness and knowledge, etc., 
and that all the beauty, holiness and knowledge in the uni- 
verse is not only derived from God, but is the beauty, holi- 
ness, etc., of God, so that God is not only the most perfect 
Being, but is all that is good or beautiful in the universe. 
He makes the conscience of man and all his moral and re- 
ligious powers the essence of God. For God cannot be 
only the partaker of good, but must be all that is good. 
In answer to my objection that we cannot conceive of 
beauty as an essence or seyn (esse), any more than of pro- 
portion as an essence, Thoiuck replied, that proportion was 
an essence, so that the proportion or relation of four to 

1 38 DRESDEN. [1827. 

eight, and of eight to sixteen is an essence^ seyn. Prox- 
imity is also an essence, a seyn, etc. Tholuck appeals 
strongly to Augustine in support of his ideas on this sub- 
ject, particularly to his * Confessions.' One very important 
principle of Tholuck's whole system seems to be entirely 
&lse. He appears to make what the Germans call Anschau-- 
ung^ the test of all truth respecting invisible things, that is, 
the ability of forming a distinct image of the subject 
before the mind. This they call intuition, and when they 
cannot have such an Anschauung of any subject they can- 
not feel its truth. But, as I said to Tholuck, it is utterly 
impossible to form such a bild^ or image of the soul, or of 
God, or of any spiritual subject. But he maintained that 
all clear ideas of these subjects assume this form, and that 
this is the test of the correctness of these ideas. 

We reached Dresden Tuesday evening, August 28th, and 
put up at the Golden Anchor tavern. The next morning 
I visited the gallery of paintings, which is the object of 
most interest among the curiosities of this city. This 
&mous collection, thought to be the finest in modem 
Europe, is by no means so imposing in its arrangement as 
that of the Louvre. With regard to the pieces themselves, 
I am not able to give any judgment. I was much disap- 
pointed. Many of the paintings which are extolled as 
master-pieces produced very little impression upon me. 
The Night of Correggio belongs to this class. I can conceive 
that an artist can take pleasure in discovering the beauties 
of the proper distribution of light, which proceeds from 
the infant Saviour, but this is as little adapted to the untu- 
tored eye, as the intricate harmony of sound to the untu- 
tored ear. The figures in this piece have no individual 
beauty. The same confession I am obliged to make with 
regard to most of the productions of Rubens. The color- 
ing is indeed surprising, but the effect, for me, seldom, 
either strong or pleasing. The Madonna of Raphael is an 
exception. This was as much above, as the others were 

JKt* 39.] DRESDEI^. 1 39 

below my expectations. The infant here is wonderful; the 
expression of the eye belongs to no human infant, but we 
may well imagine such an expression in the case of our 
Saviour. The Vii^n is the ideal of human purity and 
beauty ; what the human frame may be when this corrupt 
tioa has put on incorruption, and this mortal is clothed 
with immortality. The Magdalen of Correggio^ also, is a 
beautiful picture, and many others which at first produced 
little Impression. I found it far more interesting, after 
repeated visits to the gallery. But on every visit I was 
attracted and held bound by Raphael's Madonna. 

On Thursday morning I called with Tholuck and Ehlers, 
upon the pastor Stephani, a man of about forty-five, of very 
friendly and open manners, plain and blunt in all he says. 
He is a warm Lutheran, reads the works of the Reformer 
by day and night, and unfortunately insists as much upon 
the peculiar tenets of his church as upon the points essen- 
tial to godliness. He is, however, a great blessing to Dres-» 
den, and has served to keep alive a spirit of piety among 
the common people. He was educated in Halle about 
twenty years ago, and related many circumstances to show 
how utterly to all appearance religion and orthodoxy had 
died out. No one ever thought of preaching on the leading 
truths of the gospel, and some went so far as to propose 
to introduce a new Bible, which should contain more in- 
teresting histories than those relating to the Jews, and a 
purer system of morals. 

This evening we drank tea with Mr. Zahn, a pious young 
man who is director of a seminary for the education of 
country school-masters. At 9 o'clock all his pupils were 
collected in the lecture room for prayers. After singing a 
few verses Tholuck read and expounded die words, from 
our Saviour's last address to his disciples, " In this world 
ye shall have tribulation," &c. He made this a test of 
Christian character in a very happy manner. '' If," said he, 
" the world satisfies us ; if in the society and pleasures of 



the world we find no deficiency, nothing that gives pain, 
that leaves our most urgent wants unsatisfied, we are not 
the disciples of Christ. But if we are constantly longing 
for the joys that flow from His presence, then we have part 
in His promise. *• I will give unto you eternal life." 

Saturday^ September ist. We left Dresden on an excur- 
sion of a few days in the interesting country further up the 
Elbe, called the Saxon Switzerland. Mr. Zahn accompanied 
us a few hours distance to our dining^place. He and 
Tholuck, in a long argument against Ehlers and myself, 
maintained that every thing in nature had Bewusstseyn^ 
consciousness, a sense of life — ^trees, stones, everything that 
exists. The arguments for this opinion were mostly drawn 
from general pantheistic principles. For although these 
gentlemen abhor Pantheism, they have, as far as their phi- 
losophy is concerned, many principles in common with it. 
About 10 o'clock we passed the Elbe at Pillnitz, the country 
residence of the King of Saxony. The grounds are simple 
and neat; the palace is simply a row of low buildings, occu- 
pying three sides of a hollow square, &cing inwards. We 
dined at Lohmen, a village situated at the foot of the first 
mountain. Afber dinner we rode about an hour up the 
mountain, and then commenced our tour on foot under the 
direction of a guide. We descended, by a flight of narrow 
stairs, partly cut in the rock, and partly made of wood, into 
a deep valley, or rather cleft, which intersects the mountain 
in various directions. It is sometimes twenty or thirty 
yards wide, and at others only a few feet, the rocks rising 
on either side, in most instances perpendicularly, two, four, 
or six hundred feet Huge masses of rock have &llen 
into this cleft, and where it is narrow, have been stopped in 
their course, anS remain jammed between the sides. After a 
while we began to ascend at an opening where the ascent is 
gradual and easy. Poor Tholuck began to walk too sooa 
after dinner, and hence was exceedingly unwell and could 
enjoy nothing. The ascent brought us to the summit on 


the bank of the Elbe ; here the rocks rise perpendicular to 
the bed of the river, eight hundred feet high. From this 
point the view is very extensive and very peculiar. On the 
right you look over a large plain gradually rising toward 
the horizon, over which immense piles of rock are scattered. 
Some of these, as the Konigstein and the Ulienstein, are 
nules in circumference, and rise perpendicularly for twelve 
hundred feet On the left we look over a vast number of 
these rocky prominences, which stand as the skeletons of 
mountains, from which all the softer parts have been washed 
away. The prominence on which we stood is called the 
Bastey. A bridge of wood is built over some of these 
caverns, which gave us access to part of the mountain 
which was formerly the resort of thieves, and afterwards 
the place of refuge of the inhabitants in times of war. Evi- 
dent indications that this wild region was once inhabited are 
still visible— ^uch as flights of stairs cut out of the rocks, 
the remains of walls by which the breaches of the natural 
bulwarks were closed, &c., &c. 

Tholuck, being too unwell to proceed, went by a nearer 
vray to the rendezvous of the carriage^ and I proceeded with 
the guide for an hour or two through the customary path- 
way along the mountain. Early in the evening we reached 
a bathing establishment, with an excellent public house, 
romantically situated just without the small town of Schan- 
dau, on the banks of the Elbe. Here we had a quiet Sab- 
bath, September 2d. On our return we passed through 
Pirna and Konigstein. Near the former place we visited a 
very extensive hospital and asylum for insane persons. The 
physician kindly went over the establishment with us, and 
showed us the means of amusement and cure they had 
devised for their patients. The latter are various bathing 
establishments, chairs, and beds, which can be set in rapid 
rotary motion, the quickness and duration of the motion 
being proportioned to the state of the patient Near this is 
Konigstein, the celebrated fortification, built upon the rock 

142 DRESDEN. [1S27. 

above mentioned. It has, I believe, never been subdued by 
force. It contains a well said to be seven hundred feet deep, 
cut through the rock. We reached Dresden again on the 
afternoon of Monday, September 3d. 

September ^th^ Dresden. This morning we spent about 
an hour with Dr. Neander. He is rather an old-looking 
man for thirty-five, has much of the Jewish countenance, 
and his manners, though peculiar and awkward, are exceed- 
ingly kind. The poor man has studied himself almost to 
death. He is so weak, and his nerves so much shattered, 
that he is not allowed to walk out alone. There is perhaps 
a constitutional weakness of nerves about him, as his sisters 
are very peculiar. The one who is traveling with him came 
hurrying home the other day in a great fright, lest some one 
should murder her brother in her absence. Neander is 
beyond competition the first man in his department in 
Germany, and is as much distinguished for his piety. Yet 
his opinions are peculiar and arbitrary. He believes in 
miracles, and yet gives himself the greatest trouble to 
explain away the gift of tongues. I heard him at length 
endeavor to interpret the passage in Acts as a mere natural 
occurrence — but very unsatisfactorily. He said the various 
classes there mentioned spoke for the most part the same 
language, that the number spoken did not exceed four, and 
these the Apostles might have learned in the ordinary way. 
The XalsT)^ y^daaiuz mentioned in Corinthians, he explains 
of ** ecstatic speaking," as Plutarch says the priestess of 
Apollo "spoke with tongues. I am told Neander is a 
Sabellian and Patripassian, but I know not. It is pleasant 
to see that talent in Germany, at least in the learned profes- 
sions, has fair scope. Neander's &ther was a Jew, who 
trafficked in old clothes. Twesten's was a lamp-lighter. 
Tholuck's a silver-smith. 

I had the honor of dining twice with Twesten, who is a 
hale, healthy-looking man. He belongs to the orthodox 
party, and has the character of being more variously learned 

JKT. 29.] LEIPSIC, 143 

than most of his literary brethren — not only in the various 
branches of Theology, but in Philosophy, and the natural 
sciences, medicine, law, &c., &c. He seems to have the 
principle that a man to be properly cultivated should sub- 
mit his mind to the influence of all kinds of knowledge. 
He goes to the theatre from a sense of duty to cultivate his 
taste. He has published the first volume of a system 
of Theology, which, as far as its philosophy is concerned, 
is like that of Schleiermacher, from whom, however, 
he of course differs in many important points. He has 
got free from the chains of Pantheism, the fragments of 
which hang around many otherwise orthodox professors of 
the present day. He makes the world, however, a living 
being, if I understand Tholuck correctly. 

I had also the pleasure of meeting Prof. Ritter, of Berlin, 
who is more of a gentleman than most of the German 
Doctors in externals. He has lately published a system of 
Logic, directed against the Half-Kantians and Pantheists. 
What his own opinions are I do not know, and suspect that 
it is not easy, from his books, for a common man to dis- 
cover. He says that every earnest and deep thinker has 
always acknowledged that the human race has a general 
personality distinct from that of the several individuals, /. ^., 
the personal itat der Menschheit, distinct from that der 

September lotk. I left Dresden in the Post for Leipsic, 
where I remained three or four days, and had the pleasure 
of seeing much of Prof Hahn, whose kindness I have much 
reason to remember with gratitude. I heard him lecture on 
the 15th chapter of ist Corinthians. His manner was feeble, 
but what he said was clear and to the point. Hermann I 
heard read on Hesiod. His lecture was in Latin, and his 
manner very hesitating, a fault, I am told, which he has as 
much when speaking German as Latin. I called also on 
the preacher Wolf, and had about an hour's conversation 
with him. Dr. Heinroth, who has written several works in 

1 44 JENA. [1827. 

iavor of orthodox Christianity, is a small, active, &xni- 
liar man, speaking loud and bold on every subject. 
His views are his own, and as he expresses his ideas 
on Christian doctrines in philosophical language, it is 
not always easy for the uninitiated to understand what he 

I left Leipsic on the evening of the 14th, in order to 
reach Weimar on the morning of Saturday, the 15th. After 
spending an hour or two in walking through the town, and 
particularly through the Park, I rode over to Jena* Jena lies 
in a hollow, surrounded by abrupt and high hills. On one 
of these the Prussian army was encamped when it was so 
totally defeated by Napoleon in 1806. The pass through 
which he led his army and drew his cannon is so steep and 
difficult, that an unencumbered man finds it no easy task to 
make his way. In Jena I heard two miserably cold anti- 
christian sermons : the «one delivered in the University 
Church, was by a young man without a trace of Christian 
character in his discourse, and was intended for the students, 
of whom I saw only one present I have nowhere else been 
so strongly impressed with the total absence of relig^ion. 
I am told that the students boast of the fact that they have 
nothing of &naticism among them. Fighting duels seems 
to be as common here as ever. A few weeks since, a young 
man, the only son of a widow, was killed. I have been in 
Halle seven months without hearing a word said on the 
subject. Yet one of the students lately said that they 
occurred almost every day or two. Jena, however, has 
always been particularly famous in this respect, and here the 
method of fighting is more dangerous than in the other 
universities, as thrusting is the fashion and not " slashing." 
In Gottingen also, according to the statement of one of its 
students, duelling is still exceedingly common. ,The stu- 
dents are divided into innumerable Landsmannschaften, 
which are not formed merely for the different states, but for 
every neighborhood of the same state. Those from the 

jtT. 39.] JENA AND HALLE. 1 45 

same district band together, and have to maintain their own 
honor. If one be insulted, accidentally touched while 
passing in the street, or the like, he or some other of his 
company must fight the offender, or some one belonging to 
his clan. And so it goes on, often half a dozen such aflairs 
in a week. 

I had a letter from Dr. Tholuck to Dr. Baumgarten Cru- 
sius, and from Gesenius to Dr. Hofmann. The former I 
found buried in his books, although it was afternoon. He 
had not yet made his toilet, which with a German Professor, 
whose studying habiliments are rather peculiar, is essential 
to his appearance in public. This good and famous man 
was driving his studies without, to the best of my observa- 
tion, even the encumbrance of a pair of pantaloons. As, 
however, he is one of the most learned theologians of his 
day, and withal received me so kindly, I should not dis- 
course on such particulars. He is now engaged in printing 
three works — the one is a Dogmengeschichte ; the other 
a Biblical Theology ; and the other I have forgotten. He 
was kind enough to introduce me to Prof Schott, Editor of 
the New Testament, &c. He is an old man, and rather 
peculiar in his manners. With Dr. Hofmann I supped on 
Monday evening, and was very much pleased with him and 
his family. He is distinguished as an Orientalist. Reads 
Arabic, Syriac, Hebrew, Sanskrit, &c., &c. His Syriac 
Grammar, which is just leaving the press, will be far the 
most full and extensive yet published. 

I left Jena on Tuesday, September i8tft, for Halle, where 
1 remained until October lOth, engaged principally in 
writing. It was vacation) my friends were absent I supped 
one evening with Gesenius, in company with Reisig, the 
two Professors Niemeyer, Professors Meyer, Jacob and 
Friedlander. Such loud talking and laughing would seldom 
be heard among an equal number of English literati. Reisig 
is a complete Bursche, loud and indelicate, but apparently 





Radensleben, Near Ruffin, Sept. 22, 1827. 

My Dear Beloved Brother in the Lord: — I am sitting in a stately 
castle ; opposite me are the dove cotes and gardens, and the great 
highway ; in the room near me my beloved friend, Hengstenberg ; 
round about me the articles for the Church youmaL The sky is 
cloudy, the air is heavy, but my heart is light and dwells upon a far 
distant land, and a beloved brother in another part of the world, 
whom God has given to me. You, dear brother ! You have become 
so dear to me that I can scarce express to you my love. But were 
our bond not secure in God, it would be in vain ; and had we not 
been directed to each other, in the spiritually dead Halle, our bond 
would not have become so firm on God. Therefore I am sincerely 
thankful to gloomy Halle 

I reached Berlin about 8 o'clock in the evening. On the second day 
I met by appointment Justice Focke, a very intimate friend of mine, 
who said much to me regarding you, and is very proud of you. On the 
third day I dined with the Patriarch (Baron Kottwitz), in a great com- 
pany. O what vivifying power springs from such Christian fellowship. 

Hengstenberg was not in Berlin, but at his parents-in-law, upon a 
country estate 40 miles from Berlin. On the fourth day of my presence 
in the city, a coach suddenly made its appearance, and bore me in 
the country to visit him. Here I have been for eight days. My 
dear friend, how are you passing your time in Halle ? Does it pass 
pleasantly or drag upon your hands. Pray leave behind the gloomy 
place, and hasten to friendly Berlin. 

Now with sincere love, I commend you to God, and to the protec- 
tion of His grace. Your faithful, A. Tholuck. - 


On Wednesday evening, October loth, I lefb Halle, after 
a residence of seven months, probably forever. A thought 
which makes one sad, however little interest the object may 
have in itself, which is seen for the last time. I reached 
Wittenberg about six o'clock the next morning. I first 
visited the Seminary which is intended for the more practi- 
cal part of the preparation of students of theology for their 
office. At present there are about twenty-five students, of 
whom a considerable portion are considered really pious. 

JBT. 29-] WITTENBERG. 1 4 7 

The old Prof. Schleusner, whom I wished very much to see, 
was not in town. Prof, rfeubner I heard lecture on the 
history of Jacob and Joseph. This exercise was altogether 
practical, and his remarks were characterized by a spirit of 
genuine and devout piety. 

After the lecture, I had the pleasure of attending him, in 
a walk around the town, in company with the Chevalier 
Bunsen, the Prussian ambassador in Rome, who also has 
the reputation of being a Christian, He is at least very 
sealous against the rationalists. We spent the evening at 
Dr. Heubner's, the conversation turning on the King's new 
liturgy, to which the clergy of Wittenberg are warmly 
opposed ; more, I believe, from the source from which it 
comes, than from its contents. 

I visited, in the course of the day, the church in which 
Luther used to preach, and in which Luther and Melanch- 
thon lie buried. A simple iron or bronze plate marks the 
spot where these great men are awaiting the resurrection of 
the just. An original likeness of each hangs on the wall 
over their graves. These likenesses, which are in them* 
selves fine pictures, are said to be remarkably true. The 
Church is also ornamented with bronze figures of the 
Electors of Saxony of that period. In walking down the 
main street I was struck with the following inscription on 
one of the houses. Hier wohnte^ lehrte und starb Melanch-' 
than, " Here Melanchthon lived, taught, and died." The 
house in which Luther lived was ^orraeriy a cloister, and is 
BOW occupied by the Seminary. His chamber, however, is 
left undisturbed, as he occupied it ; the same stove, the 
same table of solid oak, and the same window chair, which 
three hundred years ago supported the cumbrous weight of 
the bold Reformer. The walls are covered with a thousand 
names of insignificant persons — distinguished from the 
number, the cipher of Peter the Great is preserved from a 
fiite, to which the others seem with little remorse relin- 
quished, by being covered by a pane of glass. 

148 MOVES TO BERLIN. [1827. 


On Friday, the 12th of October, I arrived at Berlin and 
put up in the Stadt Rome, under the Linden. The first 
impression which Berlin makes on a stranger is very impos- 
ing. The streets are broad, the houses large and well built, 
and the avenue lined with a four-fold row of trees is cer- 
tainly the finest street I have yet seen in Europe. On 
Saturday, the 13th, I went early to see Tholuck, who was on 
a visit to Berlin. I found him wrapt up in his schlajrock^ 
hard at work. His reception was extremely afiectionate. 
We walked together about the town and through the Thier- 
Garten, which is a great forest before the Brandenburg gate. 
In the evening he took me to the house of Otto von Ger- 
lach. Here I met with a number of Christians ; the Land- 
gerichtsrath Focke; Kammergerichtsrath le Coq; the 
Count von der Reke ; several military officers, and others. 
Tholuck read and expounded a passage of Scripture ; we 
prayed and sang a couple of hymns. The rest of the eve- 
ning was spent in religious conversation. My heart was 
rejoiced at the prospect of having such a place of religious 
communion accessible every week. 

[In order to introduce to the reader this remarkable circle of 
Christian men with which it was the happiness of Mr. Hodge 
to be associated during his residence in Berlin, and with 
some of whom he corresponded for many years, I will give 
a short account of the brothers von Gerlach, drawn chiefly 
from Tholuck's biographical notice of Otto von Gerlach in 
Herzog's Encyclopaedia. There were four brothers von 
Gerlach, bom in the following order: William, a lawyer; 
Ernest Ludwig, statesman ; Leopold, a soldier, and Otto, a 
clergyman. They sprang ot a noble family; one of the few 
which followed the Brandenburg fiimily when they went 
into the Reformed Church, the members of which had, for 
a hundred years, served the king in office. The friends of 
Mr. Hodge were Ludwig and Otto. Of the latter, Tholuck 

JET. a^3 EX PLANA TOR Y NO 7ES. 1 49 

says that, **\n 1820, after studying law, he came to Berlin, 
entering a circle in which Christian life existed in freshest 
bloom. It was the beautiful time of first love, when a num- 
ber of young men of rank, principally of the military and 
kgal professions, some of them returned from the wars of 
liberty, drew together in loving friendship in Christ Under 
the impressions made on him in this beautiful society, his 
early love for the gospel was strengthened, and after much 
conflict he gave up the prospects of ambition, and entered 
again the academic career. In 1828 he became Privat decent 
in the University of Berlin. In 1834 he became pastor of the 
Church of St Elizabeth, built by the king, in the suburbs of 
Berlin. Here he was indefatigable in preaching and all 
kinds of pastoral labors. He was tite Wesley of Berlin, 
Translated the lives of Wesley and Baxter. Founded the 
Berlin Foreign Missionary Society. All the methods of 
promoting worship and religious life, which have since 
been adopted, found in this man a previous example." 
He reached the very highest positions possible in his 
profession, Councillor of the Consistory, Court Preacher 
and Honorary Professor Ordinarius. He died Oct 24th, 


Ludwig von Gerlach, the elder brother, was bo^n nearly 
three years earlier than Mr. Hodge. He fought through 
the wars against Napoleon, and afterwards entered the judi- 
ciary service of his country. He founded the Kreuz-Zeitiing, 
the organ of the High-Church party. In 1865 he became 
Privy-Councillor of the Supreme Court of Justice of the 
province of Magdeburg. 

The Life of Hengstenbei^, by Dr. Bachman, frequently 
details these gatherings of devoted Christians, mentioning 
the same names that recur so frequently in Professor 
Hodge's Journal — Hollweg, LancizoUe, the Gerlachs, the 
Chancellor le Coq, the adjutants of the Crown Prince von 
Roeder, Count v. d. Groben, von Senfft, the Ober prasiden- 
tin von Schonberg and Caroline Focke, the Theologians 

1 50 EXPLANA TOR Y NOTES. [i««7- 

Neander, Tholuck, Strauss, Couard, Lisco, and the preach- 
ers Ritter, O. von Gerlach» Lindl, Gossner and others. It was 
a wide-embracing bond of friendship in the Lord, of men 
and women of the most different ages, rank and conditions 
in life, in the midst of which the Patriarch Baron von 
Kottwitz moved pre-eminent. — ^Sec. 1,193. 

Much light is thrown upon the society with which Profl 
Hodge was brought in contact, by the description given in 
this work of the great revival of piety against Rationalism, 
which had several years before sprung up in Germany, i. e., 
in 1823. The most varied elements of rank and culture, of 
church connection and of Christian tendency found them- 
selves thrown together in these awakened circles. But the 
feeling of inmost union held all together ; in faith and love 
they knew they were one. In every comer of Germany 
and Switzerland, wheresoever a little believing company 
came together, a living witness for evangelical truth arose. 
The remarkable move in the Catholic Church of South 
Germany, emanating from Boos and Gossner, drew thither 
more than one traveler from Berlin ; young men of the 
Kottwitz circle, von LancizoUe, Hollweg and others, made 
the journey to Bavaria, and there knit together the most 
intimate ^lations, and received the impulse to an eternal 
progress. It was thus as Tholuck expresses it, " that beau- 
tiful primitive time of first love, when the consciousness of 
that which unites the Church of Christ feir out-weighed the 
consciousness of that which divides it." Confessional dif- 
ferences constituted no barrier to the communion in love 
and work for the kingdom of God ; in the joy and custom 
of what is common, the idea of a union of believers out of 
all churches could arise. One hears with the same edifica- 
tion the reformed Theremin and Couard, with the Lutheran 
Janicke and Strauss, the preachers of the Brother Commu- 
nion with the Catholic Lindl and Grossner ; * one embraces 

* Gossner joined the Evangelical Church in x896» 

JB. 29.] EXPLANA TOR Y NOTES. 1 5 1 

in the same love the believing brethren in the Catholic 
Oiurch, with the Reformed Swiss and Lutheran zealots in 
Silesia. Not to what confession one and another belongs, 
is the question ; it is enough to know themselves one, and 
to confess £uth in the name that is given to men, one Sal- 
vation. A Catholic ecclesiastic commended to a Protestant 
pastor fi>r directions, a humble person, taking it for granted 
that he was to receive the Lutheran communion. Many 
Catholics were active members of the Bible Society. 

Full twenty different devotional hours could be enumera- 
ted during twenty years in Berlin, (p. 192) daily on Sunday 
and week-days. Sometimes in many parts of the city, and 
without by the Hamburg gate, &c., at an appointed evening 
hour lai^er or smaller circles might be found gathered 
about their leader. And it seems to be regarded as a 
healthful life that in none of these assemblies any sectarian 
tendency, a disposition to degrade the public worship of 
God, was manifested. Had any worshipper been disposed 
to this, he was immediately set right; and confuted out of 
the word of God. 

At the same time the so-called pietism of the revival 
times is clearly distinguished from the old pietism, in that 
the latter set itself in opposition to the Church, in which, 
with all its lifelessness, the foundation, the pure doctrine of 
the word of God, remained untouched ; the new pietism 
developed itself in opposition, not to the Church itself, but 
against the rationalistic corruption of doctrine in the 
Church. The pietism of the revival times had not, like 
the old, orthodoxy as its opposite, but it carried orthodoxy 
in its bosom. It was easy, therefore, for it to proceed by 
appointed churchly paths. Only when the Church placed 
itself in opposition to the newly awakened life, did this 
enter upon a separate existence. Fortunately, in Berlin, 
the churchly connections were never entirely broken, hence 
the possibility and security of a decided Church develop- 
ment later, was secured. 

152 JOURNAL RESUMED. [1827. 

In 1823 the evangelical party constituted a great people, 
increasing from year to year. In many pulpits of Berlin, the 
witness for Christ, the only Saviour, had again become clear 
as a power which filled the deserted churches anew. The- 
remin at the Dom, Bishop Anders, of the Brother Commu* 
nion, Couard at St. George's, Loffler at the Gertraude 
Church, Frederick Strauss in his double office of Dom and 
Court preacher and Professor in the University, brought 
multitudes under the influence of the truth. From the 
whole city multitudes came together who had an ear for 
the word of God; and many also who had hitherto stood 
aloof, were aroused to ask after the way of life. Couard's 
preaching was particularly crowded, so that there was 
not standing room in the ample church. [Vol. i. pp. 
187, &c.] 

If any discrepancy between this account and that which 
Dr. Hodge gives in his Journal^ is perceived the reader 
will consider (i) the difference of the means and standards 
of estimate of the German Professor and the American 
stranger. (2) The difference between the times described 
by each, i.e., between 1823 and 1827-8 — and (3) The dif- 
ference between Halle and Berlin. 


On Sunday, the 14th, I went to hear Schleiermacher, not 
knowing of any more evangelical preacher who had service 
in the morning. The sermon was peculiar. The words 
were Biblical, but the whole tenor so general, the ideas so 
vague and indefinite, that it was impossible for me to under- 
stand exactly what he meant His text was, Thou shalt 
love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, &c. This is the 
first and great commandment This, he remarked, was the 
highest end of our existence, to come to this full love of the 
Supreme Being — ^that this end can be attained only through 
Jesus Christ, whom he called the source of all truth, and the 
truth itself. The difference between this law as presented 

XT. a9.] BERLIN. 1 5 3 

in the Old Testament and as it stands in the New, is this, 
that in the Old Testament it was part of a law, a coercive, 
external command, while in the New it is the spontaneous 
result of a renovated nature. It is no longer a law, but the 
voluntary bent of the heart; and to bring about this sponta- 
neous tendency of the soul to God is the great work of 
Christ. This is what I took to be the drift of his discourse. 
In the afternoon I went with Tholuck to see the good patri- 
archal Baron Kottwitz, who has been so long and actively 
engaged in the service of the Redeemer. In the evening 
I attended a religious service at the Baron's, and heard a 
very warm, pious sermon from the Moravian Bishop An- 
ders, who is to sail for America in a few days. Here I 
met a large circle of religious friends, partly the same I had 
met the evening before. Among others a very interesting 
man. Prof. HoUweg, the present Rector of the University. 

Saturday evening, October 20th, I attended the same 
meeting that I did a week ago. Tholuck had left town a 
day or two before for Halle. The services were conducted 
by a young candidate of Theology. 

On Sunday I heard Marheineke, a warm advocate of 
Hegel's philosophy. His sermon was dry and general. In 
the afternoon, in the same Church, I heard an evangelical 
discourse from the junior Pastor, delivered with a good deal 
of animation and feeling. 

On the 23d Neander began his lectures to a crowded 
audience, on the Epistles to the Corinthians.'*' His manner 
is clear and simple, and the wonderful compass of his his- 
torical knowledge enables him to bring many very interest- 
ing and striking illustrations of the passages he wishes to 

December i6th. Since my last date I have attended 
regularly the lectures of Neander, and part of the time those 

* Full MSS. report of these lectures, fully written out by Dr. Hodge, are in 

154 BERLIN. [i8a7. 

of Hengstenberg* and Bockh. Mr. Monod, of Paris, came 
early last month to reside in the same house with me, which 
I have found vtxy agreeable. Some time since he gave me 
a very interesting account of the religious exercises of the 
daughter of Baron Cuvier on her death -bed. She had been 

♦extract from the life of hengstenberg, by dr. I. BACH- 
MAN.— GUTERSLOH, 1876-187^.— VoL tt. p, JO, (i87g.) 

Particularly pleasant to Hengstenberg was his acquaintance with 
Professor Hodge, of Princeton, in America, who, after he had spent 
the summer of 1827 at Halle, in intimate association with Tholuck« 
came, in the winter of the same year, to Berlin, and here, as also 
Monod, industriously attended upon Hengstenberg in his lectures 
and at his house. Even at their first meeting he had much pleased 
Hengstenberg, particularly because of his " simplicity, modesty and 
sincerity,*' and at the end of the Semester, April 27, 1828, he thus 
expresses himself: "I was, in those days, much with Hodge, 
whose departure grieves me much, and to-day I took a long walk 
with him. He told me much that was delightful of America, of 
the great Christian earnestness which prevails there, the great mo- 
deration in conduct, the consistency in denying the world ; and he 
himself is the best evidence of the truth of what he says." But in 
the following letter he speaks of both these foreign friends : " I have 
now, for the first time, heard much of the beautiful activity which the 
French preacher, Monod, has exercised here. For instance : Hodge 
and Monod sit together at the lecture ; a student looks into Hodge's 
note-book, which is written in English, and asks him whether he is 
an Englishman. No, says Hodge, an American. That caused the 
student, who supposed that all Americans must be copper-colored, 
such astonishment, that he uttered an oath. Monod reproves him 
with earnest words for the misuse of the name of God. The student 
receives the reproof thankfully, Monod goes home with him after 
lecture, and talks with him of salvation in Christ. He finds a recep- 
tive heart, and the acquaintance is continued until he came to full 
decision. — Monod is at table with Ancillon, and hears that a little 
French physician, a Catholic, is studying here, who has an earnest 
disposition. This is motive enough for him to visit him. He finds 
in him absolute ignorance of the doctrine of salvation, but a very 
receptive spirit, and it was not long before he was united with him in 
the Lord. Yesterday he was with Hodge. Such activity cannot fail 
to give offence. There are about Hodge and Monod the most won- 
derful and wildest stories in circulation.** 

j^] BERLIN. 155 

some years pious, a state to which she was suddenly 
brought after a long season of thoughtfulness ; awaking, as 
<me of her fiiends expressed it, one morning, without well 
knowing how or why, in peace with God. She was on the 
eve of being married when taken ilL As she approached 
the hour of her dissolution her &ith became more and more 
triumphant, so that she was the astonishment and admira- 
tion of all who saw or heard her. Her physicians, ignorant 
of the gospel and of its effects, looked on in silent wonder. 
Her poor &ther, whose name is famed through the civilized 
worlds was often seen kneeling for a half an hour together 
in prayer, by her bed-side. God grant that he and others 
by this event may be brought to the knowledge of the truth 
as it is in Jesus. 

The death of the Baron de Stael, who was one of the 
leading men among the pious Protestants of France, is an 
event, humanly speaking, to be deeply regretted. His last 
hours also were such as to evince the power of the gospel, 
and to leave the most pleasant conviction on the minds of 
his surviving friends, that he had entered into his rest 

I have heard several evangelical preachers since coming 
to Berlin, particularly Strauss and Lisco. The former is court 
preacher, and much of an orator ; the latter is remarkably 
simple and faithful. 

The French Protestant Church here, once so flourishing, 
is now in a very low state. There are nominally 5,000 per- 
sons belonging to their several congregations, and they have 
funds to the amount of ^500,000, but the congregation on a 
Sabbath does not generally exceed twenty or thirty persons. 

I drank tea, the other evening, with the Lieutenant Senfft. 
Prof. HoUweg, the Rector of the University, who is a very 
interesting man, apparently about thirty-five years old, gave 
us an account of the recent revival of religion in Pomerania. 
A young officer of Hussars, who was for some time in ser- 
vice in Berlin, was brought to the knowledge of the truth. 
He resided his commission in the army and retired to his 

156 BERLIN. [1827. 

estate in Pomerania. Here he found the clergy and people 
alike sunk in the deepest indifference to vital religion. He 
began his work in his own family. God blessed his efforts. 
His brothers, who had hitherto lived at variance, were re- 
conciled to each other, in being reconciled ^o God. His 
father also was converted. He and his brothers now began 
to assemble the peasants on their estates for religious in- 
struction and worship. The clergy, of course, opposed 
them violently, and appealed to the Government. But the 
word of God produced a most powerful effect. Multitudes 
were awakened. In one house belonging to these gentle* 
men 600 persons, regarded as truly pious, are in the habit 
of meeting to worship God. The Government issued an 
order to the military to disperse all such assemblies. But 
the colonel refused, and appealed to the military commander 
of the Province, the Crown Prince, who forbade any such 
step being taken. A commission was now appointed to 
examine the nature of this religious excitement, all the 
members of which, with the exception of Prof Heubner of 
Wittenberg, were Rationalists. Their report was un&vor- 
able. But Heubner made such a representation to the king 
that all persecution from the side of those in authority has 
been prevented. This is not the first instance I have been 
informed of, in which the king and members of his family 
have shielded true Christians from the oppressions of the 
civil and ecclesiastical authorities. Unfortunately the writ- 
ings of two famous mystical writers, Gichtel and Jacob 
Boehme, fell into the hands of two of these young noble- 
men, and gave them a complete mystical cast They have 
ceased all their efforts to do good, contemn all their former 
active course, and place all religion in mystical union with 
God, and private contemplation. 

This morning I attended worship at the Duke of Cum- 
berland's. His Chaplain appears to be an amiable young 
man of the High Church orthodox order, but a very cold, 
uninteresting preacher. 

iBT. 29.] . BERLIN. 157 

December 24th, This morning I went with Justice Focke 
to the Erziehungshaus. It contains about fifty boys, from 
seven to fourteen years of age, all of whom have been 
alreacfy convicted of some crime. They are placed here 
for reformation and education. The institution has been in 
operation about three years, in which time thirty pupils 
have been regularly dismissed, of twenty-seven of whom the 
directors have the most &vorable accounts. After the 
children had sung a hymn they were examined by the 
teacher respecting the object and the observance of Christ- 
mas, and then more generally on the history of our Saviour, 
giving all the leading prophecies of Him in the Old Testa- 
ment, and then showing their fulfilment in Jesus of Naza- 
reth. Since I have been in Europe I have witnessed no 
scene with such pure and decided pleasure. On the 23d I 
attended, for the first time, the Lord's Supper in the Lu- 
theran Church. It was administered by the Pastor, Lisco, 
at 7 o'clock in the morning. The communicants proceeded 
into the confessional, where, after a very feeling address, the 
Pastor repeated a general confession of sins, and called upon 
those present to say whether they confessed themselves 
sinners in the sight of God, trusted in Jesus Christ for par- 
don, and had the purpose of leading a holy life. On re- 
ceiving an affirmative answer, he pronounced the usual 
form of absolution. We then returned into the Church, 
and the sacrament was administered in the usual way. I 
have recently been more than ever, I think, affected by 
the sense of the indescribable excellence of our adorable 
Saviour. His character has appeared in a purity and 
beauty which my blind eyes have been long in discovering. 
O that I could see more of this loveliness every day, and be 
more transformed into his image. 

December 27th, I took tea this afternoon with Lieutenant 
von Senfft. He gave us a very interesting account of a 
revival of religion in a village in Silesia. A young man, a 
miller, came from that village to Berlin for employment, and 

1 58 BERLIN. [18J7. 

was providentially directed to a pious man, in whose family 
he lived some time. On his return he related to his father 
that the man with whom he had lived used to read and 
pray in his family. The &ther immediately declared his 
purpose to do the same. The neighbors came in from time 
to time to hear the Scriptures. Some mocked and others 
prayed. The result, as Lieut, von Senfft witnessed, was 
about thirty persons, of all ages, in this village were con- 
verted to the Lord, and were living in the &ith and love of 
the gospel. From this village the fire spread to others. 

In the evening all our usual circle of friends assembled at 
Justice Focke's to meet Tholuck, who had just arrived. It 
was a great pleasure to meet the dear man once more after 
so long a separation. The evening was spent chiefly in reli- 
gious conversation. Returning home, I walked with Ludwig^ 
Von Gerlach, a man who has excited more love and respect 
in me than almost any other I have seen here. He took 
this opportunity of speaking to me very seriously respecting 
my political principles, not so much in their political as 
their Christian aspect I was surprised to find how much 
that was unchristian mingled in all my feelings on this sub- 
ject With this dear man I cannot agree in his opinions, 
yet I felt that he was much more a free-man in his heart 
(with all his strong ideas of the divine right of kings) than I. 

This night thirty years ago I was born. Thirty years of 
love and mercy. Thirty years of sin. Thirty years and 
nothing done. Oh my God, from my soul I pray thee, 
grant me thy Holy Spirit that if permitted yet longer to 
live, it may be to more purpose, — that my time may be 
better improved in working out my own salvation and the 
salvation of my fellow-men. Bless, O God, my dear, pre- 
cious mother, who, thirty years ago, first rejoiced over me. 
That thou hast so long spared her to me I thank and bless 
Thee. Still spare her, oh, Lord, and grant that every suc- 
ceeding day she may be more and more filled with thy Holy 
Spirit, and more richly crowned with thy tender mercies. 

ST. 3a] BERLIN. 1 59 ' 

December 28th. To-day I dined with Tholuck at Justice 
Focke's. They both made me a present of a devotional 
l)ook on the occasion of my birth-day. The Lord bless 
these dear friends for being the means of quickening me in 
the life of godliness. The love of the Saviour is of all 
bonds the purest and the strongest Tholuck drank tea 
with me and Mr. Monod In answer to a question of the 
latter, he spoke very much in favor of always reading with 
the pen in hand He said that for the period of two 
months in the year 1820, he recorded every important idea 
which occurred to his'own mind-— everything interesting he 
heard in conversation, or in reading. The records of these 
two months he finds still valuable. 


Their affection and care for him is rendered very evident 
by their long and frequent letters; and their prayerful anx- 
iety for the preservation of his personal orthodoxy and ^i- 
rituality under the special exposures of his life in Germany 
is interesting, especially in view of the fact which his after- 
life rendered so conspicuous, that their prayers in this be- 
half were fully answered. 

Dr. Miller writes, July 21st, 1827: 

"You have no doubt been informed that we are going on in Prince- 
ton, as to the Seminary, very much as heretofore ; but with respect to 
the College and the congregation by no means favorably. The num- 
ber of students in the College is about eighty, and when the present 
Senior Class shall leave us, the number, I think, will fall below 
fifty. Nor do I perceive any prospect of a better state of things. 
On the contrary, I am afraid the Institution has not reached the low- 
est point of depression. The multiplication of Colleges all around 
us ; the zeal, enterprise, and ostentatious publications of their officers, 
and the incessant importunity of their begging for funds, seem to be 
gradually taking away from us all our human resources and hopes. 
Some of the members of the Board of Trustees, however, are still 
sanguine that the College will retrieve its affairs before long 


"We all long to see you, and shall be glad of your return at the 
earliest possible hour that your plans will admit. I do not believe, 
my dear colleague, that you appreciate as you ought your importance 
and acceptance in our Institution. I know that your mind was often 
much oppressed by a sense of your own want of adequate qualifica- 
tion, and I was willing and even desirous that you should visit Europe 
if it were for nothing else than to get cured of this inordinate and 
morbid impression. But pray come back as soon as you can con- 
sistently with the substantial execution of your main purpose. We 
greatly desire and need your presence." 

Again Dr. Miller writes, Jan. 29, 1828: 

** You will probably learn by letters which will have reached you 
before this, that the winter session in our Seminary opened with a 
larger accession than we expected. We have matriculated thirty- 
eight new students. Four more have returned whom we expected 
never to have seen again, and who had been absent for some time. 
So that our whole accession may be estimated at forty-two, which 
makes our whole number at present one hundred and nine — some- 
thing like fifteen more than we had the previous session. 

" Our College goes on feebly. The present number of the students 
is about sixty-five or sixty-six, and rather on the decline than on the 
increase. I am afraid it will be reduced to extremity before long, and 
that some crisis in its affairs is not very distant. What that may be, 
whether for the better or the worse, I can scarcely conjecture.** 

Dr. Alexander wrote : 

" Princeton, March 24th, 1827. 

" My Dear Sir : — * ♦ ♦ I hope while you are separated from 
your earthly friends, you will take care to keep the communication 
with heaven open ! Remember that you breathe a poisoned atmos- 
phere. If you lose the lively and deep impression of divine truth — 
if you fall into skepticism or even into coldness, you will lose more 
than you gain from all the German professors and libraries. May 
the Lord preserve you from error and from all evil. You may depend 
upon any aid which my feeble prayers can afford. Write as often as 
you can. Do not be afraid of troubling me. Affectionately, yours.'* 

And again, Dr. Alexander writes : 

" Princeton, July 27, 1827. 

" * * I suppose that before I write again you will have left Halle, 

but of this you must give me early notice. * * * The air which you 

breathe in Germany will either have a deleterious effect on your 

moral constitution, or else by the strength of faith required to resist its 


your spiritaal health will be confinned. I pray God to keep 
joo firom the poison of Neology I I wish you to come home en- 
licfaed with BiWcal learning, but abhorring German philosophy and 
theology. I have been paying some attention to Kant*s philosophy, 
hot k confounds and astonishes me«" 

Again Dr. Alexander writes : 

"Princeton, Aug. 16. 1827. 

" I feel anxious to hear from you, to know how you are, and what pro* 

gress you make in the literature of Germany. You must come home 

loaded with riches. Much will be expected of you. But I know how 

litde can be acquired by man in the course of a whole life-time — and 

when I think that you have the disadvantage of having the language 

to acquire and the multipUcity of objects to which your attention 

most be turned, I confess that my hope of any great success is not 

sanguine. But it will be worth while to have gone to Germany to 

know that there is but litde worth going for. It will at any rate 

[dace you on a level with the other traveled literati of this country. 

But whatever you may gain of literature and knowledge of the world, 

I hope and pray that you may not lose any thing of the love of the 

truth and spirituality of mind. On many accounts we miss you very 

much. . . . For many weeks Dr. Miller was sick, and then the whole 

charge of the Seminary was on me. I wish now to begin in good 

earnest to prepare for another world. I think before very many years 

you will be senior Professor in this Institution, and I am afraid you 

will see trouble. But sufficient to the day is the evil thereof. Let to- 

tmorraw take care of itself. I remain affectionately yours, 

"A. Alexander." 

On October 30, 1827, Dr. Alexander writes: 

•• I rejoice to learn that you live in an infected atmosphere, without 
being yourself infected. May God preserve you." 

Again Dr. Alexander writes : 

"Princeton, May 14, 1828. 

" I mentioned to you that Dr. Henry intended his library for our 
Seminary. But the entire matter became subject to the disposition 
of his father, and under the influence of certain persons he has been 
induced to give another direction to the bequest. At least there re- 
mains no doubt but the books will be transferred to the Allegheny 
Seminary. The matter was laid by him before the Directors in a let- 
ter, but they referred the whole question to him again, to dispose of 
as he thought best. The idea which the old gentleman seems to 
entertain is that we have books enough, and that his son's library is not 

1 62 JOURNAL IN BERLIN. [i«a7. 

needed here. Inter nos this new Seminary will affect us here more 
than all the rest put together. It is received by many as the last 
stronghold of orthodoxy, and the most secure deposit for funds in- 
tended to support the truth ; and at this time I have litde doubt that 
Dr. Green and others of our staunch fiiends feel a deeper interest in 
that Institution than in this« These are merely my own conjectures. 
After all, we shall be forced to look to New England for students. 

** Your little family we see very often, and they are as well in health 
as they can be. April was a month of storms, and Mrs. Hodge ex- 
perienced some inconvenience from coming so early, but she seems 
to bear every thing patiently, and is cheerful. 

" Make haste and come home. There will be much for you to do. 
The two crazy old men that are here need some one who has vigor 
of nerves to put his shoulder under the burden. In truth, however, 
we do not expect your aid until the fall, so make the best of your vi- 
sit to Britain. You were very specially remembered in the public 

prayers offered up here during the late meeting 

" I remain affectionately yours, A. Alexander." 


[From this time Mr. Hodge, having obtained a ticket 
from Baron Humboldt to attend his lectures on physical 
science, regularly kept full notes of those lectures as long 
as he continued in Berlin.] 

December 2p. This evening I heard Tholuck lecture at 
Otto Von Gerlach's. This was the most Christian, heartfelt 
exhortation I have heard for a long time. He spoke prin- 
cipally from the words, " Quench not the Spirit" 

Dec. 30, Sunday. This morning heard Strauss preach a 
New Year's sermon. As usual, it was evangelical, but his 
manner is too violent Lieut Senfft walked home with 
me. He is one of the most brotherly Christians I have 
seen. Prince William, the king's second son, [the present 
Emperor] with an income of 36,000 thalers, which is very 
small for his expenses, gives 6,000 to the poor. He is 
remarkably correct in his conduct He wished very much 
some years ago to marry a young princess to whom his 
father objected as not vomekm enough for a king's son. 
•The matter was committed to the Acuities of law, etc., in 

na. 3a] BERLIN. 1 63 

die universities, but the king at last decided positively in 
the negative, and poor Prince William had to give up the 
lady. This is hard. Berlin deserves the name which 
French Christians have given it, viz. : La ViUe de St Jean, 
Of the propriety of the name I had a proof this evening at 
the Lady Schonberg's, in the affectionate manner in which 
the Christians here act towards each other, and towards 
strangers whom they regard as such. The two adjutants 
of the crown prince and their wives were there. Major 
von Roder (one of these gentlemen) is fondling even in his 
manners. '' Kiiss me," he said to Count Graben, his brother 
oflScer, who was passing him. Which request was com- 
plied with without hesitation and without remark. There is 
something delightful in the exhibition of the gospel in 
diese military men ; such a warmth and openness of feel- 
ing; such an entire absence of stiffness or presumption. 
The whole company seemed as if they were of one heart. 
The Graf Schepin was another of these Christian officers. 
Gossner lectured in his usual extempore manner on the 
I5tfa chapter of Mark. Speaking of Christ's coming, he 
said, ''Are you so ready that you could see the world de- 
stroyed as calmly as a child looks at his falling house of 
cards?" The peculiar prominence of the Saviour, common 
to the preaching and prayers of the Germans, is very 
marked in the case of Gossner. I have heard him pray 
several times exclusively to the Saviour. Not praying in 
the name of Christ, but simply to Christ The manner of 
address too, is such as would appear very strange in Engh'sh; 
as O^ du kloMes IGnd, 

I was told this evening by Judge Focke, that in all the 
great revivals of religion which have occurred in Germany 
of late, the same bodily exercises which excited so much 
attention in the south and west of our country, have been 
present to a greater or less degree. In Pomerania, cases 
of what were called demoniacal possession occurred. A 
young woman was often thrown into the greatest bodily 

1 64 BERLIN. [i«a7- 

agitation, rolling over and over, and her mind subsequently- 
thrown into a state resembling the heathen ecstasy, in 
which she would prophesy (in what sense of that word I 
know not). These were only transient seasons ; for the rest 
she appeared to be a true, humble Christian. These extra- 
ordinary appearances soon ceased. It is certainly remarka- 
ble that on both sides of the Atlantic, seasons of religious 
excitement should be attended by such similar outward 
disturbances. I suppose it was to cases of this kind that 
Tholuck referred the other evening, when speaking on the 
passage " Quench not the Spirit," he said, " We should be 
careful not off-hand to condemn as fanaticism, anything of 
an extraordinary character, which attended unusual out- 
pourings of the Spirit" 

December jist I spent this evening with Tholuck, in 
company with others, at Neander's. Neander had just 
been reading a review of Bishop Hobart*s sermons in the 
Christian Observer, He was much surprised to find sucK 
high church principles in America, which he thought little 
accordant with the spirit of freedom. He said he was 
going Catholisch. Tholuck said, that it was singular that 
from England, three works should at this period make their 
way to the Continent, all tending to promote the Catholic 
cau^e; "Lingard's History ,*' already translated into Ger- 
man, French and Italian; "Dallas's History of the Jesuits," 
also translated ; and " Gobbet's History of the Reforma- 
tion in England," this last, particularly as translated by 
Catholics, is a matter of offence to the Protestants here. 
Neander said, he thought " Hug's Introduction to the New 
Testament," although the best, was very imperfect in its his- 
torical part. The accommodation theory, he said, had been 
given up by all Rationalists of any consequence. This 
led to a conversation on the doctrine of Inspiration. 
Neander was disposed to recognize the infallibility of the 
Apostles in all doctrinal points, but not in their manner of 
proving them. Thus it was certain that Christ was God, 

Mf. 30.] BERLIN. 1 65 

Imt all Paul's arguments in support of the doctrine from 
the Old Testament are not of force, as in the ist chapter of 
Hd>rews. To this succeeded a long discussion on the doc- 
trine of Predestination. All were opposed to it Calvin, 
Neander said, makes God the author of sin, and this he 
(XMisidered the dangerous tendency of the doctrine. He 
admitted that those who represent the cause of a sinner's 
rejection of the gospel as lying in himself, avoided the dan- 
gerous practical tendency of the doctrine. He acknow- 
ledged freely that it is entirely of grace, that men are 
brought to &ith and salvation. But it lies with every man, 
either to accept or reject this g^ce. This he considered to 
be involved in the idea of man's efficiency and freedom, 
selbstbestimmung. Tholuck remarked that the two ex- 
tremes were Pelagianism, and the making God the author 
of sin. Truth lies in the midst To this I believe all freely 
assented, predestinarians and anti-predestinarians. Neander 
maintained that it was clearly to be inferred from the Scrip- 
tures that those who have no offer of the gospel in this 
world, will have it in the world to come. This follows ne- 
cessarily, he said, out of the principles contained in the 
Bible. As to others nothing can be distinctly affirmed. 
He thought that the passage in which our Saviour says, 
" The sin against the Holy Ghost shall not be forgiven 
either in this world or in the world to come," implied that 
other sins might be forgiven, or that sinners might be 
brought to &ith in Christ after death. In both these points 
Tholuck concurred. In coming away, Neander shook me 
very affectionately by the hand, and said to Tholuck, "Tell 
our friend Hodge, that though we dispute with him, we 
belong to the same Lord, and are one in heart." 

Read at evening prayer with Monod the 90th Psalm. 

So closed another year of sins and mercies. 

To Jesus Christ, God over all and blessed forever, may my life be 
consecrated. His kingdom come, His will be done. Amen. Charles 

1 66 BMMUJf. [iSaS. 

January 2d^ 1828, I spent this evening at Professor 
HoUweg's, Rector of the University, with Tholucki the 
Gerlachs and others. Tholuck asked which was the better 
way when working among the heathen, or Christians sunk 
in error, as the members of the eastern churches, to preach 
publicly against the reigning doctrines, and come out as 
reformers and form a distinct sect, or to confine attention 
alone to the heart, and let all abuses alone, to be cast aside 
by those whose hearts are changed. Prof Hollweg was 
for the latter. Tholuck seemed more inclined to the former. 
It seemed to me that neither pointed out the exact course. 
The truth and all the truth should be preached as by Paul 
with like wisdom and &ithfulness, and each truth in pro- 
portion to its importance; regeneration and atonement 
above all. The men of our day are too feeble. They 
speak too softly to the people. They are not like the pro- 
phets and apostles. 

The Christians here seem inclined to think it is against 
the spirit of the gospel for women to be authors I 

Saturday^ Sth, This evening I went with Mr. Robinson 
to Otto von Gerlach's. A discourse from Zinzendorf 
was read. 

Monday pk. Called with Mr. Robinson upon Neander, 
and found the dear little man in a veiy talkative humor. 
He is very inquisitive sd^out the United States, and seems, 
afraid of the increase of the Catholics among us. 

Thursday, loth. Drank tea this evening with Hengsten- 
berg. He remarked, that Gesenius scarcely in any one 
point, differs in his views of the Old Testament from De 
Wette. He has only carried further out what De Wette 
had said in fewer words. Jahn, he thinks, on the testi- 
mony of Heubner, was a Christian, and did not defend the 
authenticity of the various parts of the Old Testament, 
because he was a Catholic. This led to a conversation on 
Jahn's view of the original state of man. Hengstenberg 
maintained that our first parents were in many respects 

«r.3a] BSMLUr. 1 67 

children ; they had indeed the image of God, but undeveloped 
and unieumsst I objected to this the light in which 
diey are presented in the Old Testament, and especially the 
position of Adam as our federal representative. This led 
to a long conversation on the point of representation. 
Hengstenberg said, he would willingly admit it as a &ct if 
it was taught in Scripture. But he thought it was not, or 
at least not clearly, and that if it were, it left us just as we 
were without it, as it is impossible to conceive how we are 
made sinners in this way. He admits hereditary original 
sin — not as an evil or sickness, but as a sin — ^but how to 
reconcile it with the attributes of God he caxmot answer. 
This is the mystery ; the £u:t he admits. 

Sunday J ijtk. Heard, this mocning, Theremin preach a 
very plain, excellent sennon on the barren fig-tree. In the 
evening I attended the meeting at (he Frau von Schonberg's, 
the company much the same as before. Gossner lectured 
on the 12th chapter of Acts. His remarks on the efficacy 
of prayer, and the influence of afflictions in driving us to 
pray, were very excellent His Roman Catholic peculiarities 
are striking. He addressed both his prayers from begin- 
ning to end to the Saviour; and as the last verse of the 
hymn which was sung, spoke of the hand of the Saviour lead- 
ing His people, he addressed this hand for some time, 
du Hebe hand^ O thoU dear hand which was nailed on the 
cross for us. His warm piety, his experience, his sufferings 
make him an interesting man. 

Ludwig von Gerlach came home with me and remained 
until 2 o'clock. As usual we got into a religious political 
debate, for politics with him rests on religion. The result 
of our conversation was for me very interesting, as I have 
clearer views of his ideas of the foundations of government 
He had previously spoken of the authority of kings as ana- 
l(^ous in its basis to that of fathers. But to-night he made 
it rest solely or mainly on the right of property. He said, 
We have only to think of a man with considerable proper- 

1 68 BERLIN. [I8t8. 

ty, servants, tenants, etc. ; whose property is constantly in- 
creasing, until he becomes a prince. Two hundred years 
ago the King of Prussia, as Graf von Niimberg was not so 
rich as an English lord. But by marriages, by gifts, by 
purchases, by conquests, his property has increased to its 
present size. He and all kings are ground owners ; all others 
are tenants under him. But their rights are as sacred as his, 
and his rights may, as has occurred in England particular- 
ly, continually decrease — ^he and his tenants may, from 
time to time, as circumstances require, make new contracts. 
If the king disregards the rights of the tenants to a certain 
degree, they have a right to exclude him and call the next 
heir, from whom they may exact a promise of respecting 
their rights — ^as, for instance, when James IL of England 
was excluded and the Orange family succeeded, it was upon 
the condition that they and their successors should remain . 
Protestant It is with states as with individuals, property 
may be increased in an unjust, as well as in a just manner ; 
but as in the case of the individual, the title of property, 
though bad at first, became sanctioned by time, by con* 
tracts, etc. ; so it is with kings. All this he forced me to 
admit, and I feared that I was completely foiled in the argu- 
ment. My resort was this — having obtained the conces- 
sion that the king's authority is founded on property, and 
not on the parental relation, which is entirely a different thing, 
I put him first to historically proving that kings were the 
real proprietors of all the ground in their respective king- 
doms, and here my great inferiority in historical and legal 
knowledge put me to a great disadvantage. I therefore 
asked secondly, on what rested the right of property itself? 
What was its moral ground ? He answered, " God's com- 
mand," but he conceded that the ultimate ground was ex-- 
pediency in its best sense, i. /., a tendency to promote the 
good of society. Then, I claimed, when this right inter- 
fered with this object, it ceased to exist This principle he 
recQgnized. It is recognized in every community. When 

mt. ^o.] BERLINS, I fy) 

the private right of property vesting in an individual comes 
evidently into conflict with this object, his right is sacrificed 
to the public good, e, g,, the sacrifice of private property 
in cutting new streets and roads, and in time of war. Hav* 
tng fixed this principle, we agree, that admitting this right 
of property in kings, it could be justly invalidated on the 
same grounds on which the private right of property may 
be invalidated. So £ir we agreed. Now it is for me to 
prove that the immense accumulation of property in the 
hands of kings, as proprietors of whole countries, is incon- 
sistent with the well being of society, the best interests of 
man. When the enjoyment of another's right of property 
is inconsistent with the enjo)mient of my right of property, 
one or the other must yield. In the case of nuisances, 
when the right of property of one interferes with the right 
of property of many, there is no doubt which must yield. 
But aforiioriy when the right of property of one interferes 
with or endangers not merely the rights of property of mil- 
lions, but their moral and religious improvement, their best 
interests in this world, and their hopes (more or less) in the 
next — ^the case is clear enough-^-what is to be done. 

He is a noble fellow. Though grieved with my obsti- 
iKury, he gave me two kisses when he went, (one, however, 
less than usual). Happily he does not wear mustachios. 

Wednesday y i6. This evening I drank tea with Major 
von Roder, his two brothers, and several others. The 
Major is a very affectionate, free and easynnan. His heart 
seems always full of pious feeling. He talks of the Saviour 
as one talks of a friend. The difference between the free 
German manifestation of feeling, and our reserve, is very 
striking. Roder had three brothers killed in the last war, 
and he himself was shot through the side of his head, which 
has destroyed the hearing of one ear and the sight of one 
eye without disfiguring him in the least. Yesterday and 
to-day the thermometer is about one degree above zero of 

1 70 BERLIN. [xSaS. 

Friday^ yanuary 18. Thermometer still about zero* 
This evening the Lieutenant von Senfft drank tea with me. 
He read some letters which he had received lately front 
friends. One from an of&cer, whom he described as a rough 
and imperfectly educated man, who, having been brought to 
the knowledge of the Saviour in Berlin, is now working 
with great effect in the place in which he is stationed. All 
these were dead before, but at present several of his brother 
officers have been converted, and many of the citizens come 
to him to talk about their soub, and the children flock to 
him for tracts and religious books. Er muss viel ieten, said 
Senfft. He related also that six or seven of his personal 
friends had been awakened from their indifference in the 
first instance by Schleiermacher. Monod related a conver- 
sation he had this afternoon with Mr. Ancillon, one of the 
Councillors of State. He spoke very severely against de- 
votional meetings, and thought that all religious meetings 
out of the Church should be forbidden. His reason was 
that those assembled could talk of politics. Happily for 
Prussia, the king has mu^h more liberal and Christian views 
than many of his ministers. Senfft, speaking of the king, 
praised his economy very much. He is faur from spending 
his income, and is constantiy laying up money, although 
he gives liberally whenever called upon. He allows his 
unmarried sons 36,000, his married sons 80,000, and the 
Crown Prince 1 20,000 thalers per year. 

Sunday, 20th. « I heard this morning a very indifferent 
sermon from the Probst Neander (not the professor). In 
the evening I was at Neander's. He is vety much in* 
terested in the state of the Church in America, and wishes 
very much that the Church and State could be separated 
here. On this subject there was much conversation this 
evening, for his liberal views are not shared by all his 

Thursday, 24^ This afternoon I attended a meeting of 
the Royal Academy of Sciences. Schleiermacher read a 

3a3 BERLW. I7I 

short paper on "Kings being authors/' Humboldt, on 
"The Analogy of Languages/' and a translation of an 
Eastern mjfthological poem. The astronomer Enke read 
an account of his progress in forming certain astronomical 
tables. It was strange to see the old Duke of Cumberland, 
the Crown Prince, and several other members of the Royal 
family at such a meeting. 

Friday, February /. I called this morning upon the ex- 
minister Bekedorf. This gentleman, while in the govern- 
ment, had the charge of the primary schools and the Semi- 
■aries for teachers. Since his passing over to the Catholic 
Church he has vacated his station, but continues the super- 
intendence of the journal devoted to the school system. 
He was exceedingly polite in communicating information 
on tills subject, and promised to send me his work, in which 
the wiiole system is explained. He said his first grand ob- 
ject W2IS to get proper teachers, and for this purpose at least 
one main seminary for teachers is established in each of the 
ten Prussian provinces. These are intended for the prepa- 
ration of teachers for all schools below the gymnasia (which 
are under another system) excepting those of the very 
lowest order, in which merely the most indispensable 
branches are taught The preparation of teachers he con^ 
sidered the main object. The support of the teachers came 
fiom the people, not from the government Every man, 
whether he had children or not, was assessed according to 
his property, and all then had the right to send their child- 
ren to the school, and the civil authorities had the right to 
force reluctant or negligent parents to send their children. 
The same plan is carried out in all parts of the kingdom 
among Protestants, Catholics, and Jews. All must send 
their children to school. 

Monday Evening, February 4A. I was at Professor Holl- 
weg's. There were several Professors of the University and 
flieir wives pjresent, and Ritter, the great geologist and 
physical-geographer, among the number. I was very glad 

172 BERLIN, [iSa3. 

to have an opportunity of seeing this interesting man. He 
is mild and humble, with a remarkably intelligent face. I 
was always under the impression that he was rather of the 
free-thinking school, as so many devoted to his branch of 
science are. But to my delight I learned that he was a 
Christian. Strauss, the popular Court Preacher, was also 
there ; a man of astonishing vivacity. The subject of the 
connection between Church and State was introduced. On 
this subject his opinions are ultramontanist. He makes 
the king the ordinarius of the whole Church — the supreme 
bishop. Against this the whole company exclaimed — 
Baron Bunsen, the Count von Graber, Major von Roder, 
Senfft, Le Coq, HoUweg. This I thought was a good 
sign. They appeared almost as much shocked as I was to 
hear Strauss declare his conviction, that if the State with- 
drew its support from the Church in this country, it would 
&11 entirely. After a hundred years, there might be some 
traces of Christianity left, but that would be all! ! 

Tuesday^ Stk. This evening I attended a meeting at 
Strauss's. There were about fifteen or eighteen students, 
privatim-docentes, &c., present, with Baron Bunsen and 
Count Graber. One of the students read a translation of 
one of the discourses of Macarius. On this there was 
considerable conversation, displaying on -the part of the 
young men a considerable acquaintance with this and other 
Fathers. The subject of conversation was then stated-^ 
whether the justitia vitae of a Christian was really or only 
figuratively a sacrificium ; on this point there was a warm 
debate pro and con., for above an hour : the whole a mere 
logomachy. This gave me occasion to remark the effect 
on their minds, of the universal attention to philosophy re- 
quired of the students in Germany. They were acute and 
discriminating, but amazingly deficient in plain, healthy 
good sense. A second question was started. "In what 
sense can public worship be called a .sacrifice? In the same, 
or in a different sense from that in which the justitia vitae is 

Mr. 3D.] BERLIN, \ 73 

SO called?'^ Hiere again the opinions were various. Bun- 
sen, though a layman, has occupied himself much with the 
subject of Liturgies, and has got the notion that the Opfer- 
idee should be the reigning idea in Christian worship. In 
this there is nothing of a papistical sense; he means merely 
a presentation of ourselves before God, as a living sacrifice 
consecrated to his glory. But the abuse of this term lies 
so near, that most present objected to its being employed. 
I was particularly delighted to hear Graber, in his soldier's 
uniform, cry out s^^ainst the idea that men could give any- 
thing to God. " I have," said he, " nothing but my sinful, 
hateful self to give. Shall I call that an offering, when the 
Bible calls Christ an offering ? To apply the same term to 
things so infinitely different, is too much." His good sense 
and warm Christian feeling made him see more clearly and 
express more forcibly the true merits of the case, than all 
the speculating theologians present 

Sunday^ February loth, 1828. This evening Otto von 
Gerlach came to see me. His conversation is always 
instructive. He spoke a gogd deal of the Jews, and of the 
efforts, made for their conversion. Of all those with whom 
he had an3^hing to do, he found only one in whom he has 
entire confidence. The numerous instances of disappointed 
hopes exceed almost belief. They turn out badly after the 
longest probation; they make the most enormous demands; 
kave the idea that they are the lords of the world ; that 
all exists only for them. In short they are here as they are 
with us in America. The good king, much to the scandal 
of all classes, to-day gave a ball at mid-day, during Church 
time, and is said to have requested his sons to give a mask- 
hallnext Sunday. This is something quite unusual here. 
The king appears to have few resources in himself, takes 
Kttle interest in the government, and therefore turns to the 
theatre and to balls to fill up his head and heart. A. Von 

H said he was "T homme le plus ennuye et le plus en- 

iiuyant dans le mond." Otto von Gerlach thought the 

1 74 BERLINS, [ f SaS. 

measures of the minister Hardenberg, for the liberty of the 
peasants, most unjust In many cases, where they were 
tenants on leases of six years, the rule that by giving up 
one-half of the land to the proprietor, they should receive 
the other in fee-simple, was applied. The peasants them- 
selves, he says, regard the king as making them pure pea- 
sants. The liberal party, which had its &11 in 1819, wa3 
unfriendly to the rights of cities and communes, and 
confined its views to making the general government liberal, 
while it endeavored to stretch governmental authority over 
the most minute arrangements, allowing no town to elect 
its own officers. The Anti-liberal party opposed this, and 
by its success prevented Prussia being brought into the 
state in which France is at present, where the mayor and 
officers of every city, commune, department, and province, 
is s^pointed by the central government In Bavaria, Wur- 
temburg, and other places, where constitutions have been 
given, the people are in reality less free than before, as the 
central governments meddle with everything. This almost 
everywhere in Germany is far piore the case than it was one 
hundred years ago, except in the kingdom of Saxony, and 
in Mecklenburg, where the old reg^ulations are preserved. 
Gerlach gave several instances of the evil of the central 
government meddling with everything. The ministry 
ordered at one time that mathematics should be introduced 
into all schools in the kingdom, and made the BUdung^^ 
prindp. After a few )^ears another general order came 
directing that all the schools should be newly organized, 
and conducted on a different principle, and so it changes. 
In one province an order was issued that all houses must 
stand fifty feet apart, and they actually tore down houses to 
prevent their standing too near together. 

Wednesday^ 2yih, This evening I drank tea widi Hengs- 
tenberg. I was surprised to hear him and other gentlemen 
present, say that the idea usually entertained of the learning 
of the German dergy generally, was erroneous; that he was 

J9T. 30.] BERLIN: 1 75 

sate the majority could not read the Greek Testament. 
This he ascribed to the influence of Rationalism, as former- 
ly the reverse was the case. Almost every preacher was in 
the habit of taking the original Scriptures in the pulpit and 
commenting on them more or less in every discourse. 

March 2d^ 1828. To-day I attended the disputation of 
my good friend, Otto von Gerlach. His Theses were in a 
true evangelical spirit, and were not attacked by his oppo- 
nents with much force. His opponents were the privat 
decent Pelt, and Drs* Wegner and Schneckenburger. The 
accession of Otto von Gerlach to the University may be 
considered as a very £ivorable circumstance for the cause of 
truth in Berlin. 

Wednesday y March 12A. This evening the Herm von Bu- 

low and von , from Pomerania, drank tea with me, in 

company with the Gerlachs, Focke, Le Coq, &c. These 
two gentlemen come from the very midst of the revival 
which is still continuing in that country. It commenced in 
1820-21, by the agency of two brothers of Von Bulow. 
After various struggles with the ministers and civil authori- 
ties, in which this gentleman was often fined, and the gens 
d' armes were sent to scatter the people who assembled in 
his house, the work appeared to subside. But it has now 
broken out anew. Eight hundred often assemble in his 
mansion ; these he regards as true Christians. Much that 
is disorderly and much that is very remarkable has occurred 
— ^visions, prophetic powers, possessions, &c. — as might 
have been expected among a people so little cultivated, and 
in a state of so much excitement. With these two gentle- 
men I was exceedingly pleased. They had the same fervent 
freshness of feeling which men active in revivals most com- 
monly have wjth us. Before the evening was over, they 
.proposed sii^ng and prayer. As the clergy in Pomerania 
are peculiarly opposed to every thing like vital piety, these, 
and other yotmg men, have taken upon themselves the 
office of preaching, and stand in a very uneasy relation to 

1 76 BERLIN. [182S. 

the Church, their sentiments on Church discipline, on 
the nature of the Church, and the rights of members agree* 
ing very much with those of the Puritans. 

Friday y 14th. I dined to-day with these gentlemen at 
Justice Focke*s. A servant, with whom they were previous- 
ly acquainted, came from Potsdam to see them, and these 
noblemen kissed and hugged him as though he had been 
their equal and brother. 

In the evening I called for a few moments, with Lieuten- 
ant von Senfll on the Graiin von Graben. She is a most 
interesting, lovely woman, full of ardent feelings of piety, 
and with much more vivacity than is common among Ger- 
man ladies. 

Saturday y i^th. Had a long conversation with Otto Von 
Gerlach about our form of Church Government Here all 
the ecclesiastical affairs are under the direction of the con- 
sistorium and the ministerium. Each province has its 
consistorium ; the members appointed by the king, of equal 
numbers of clergymen and laymen. There are many 
merely nominal members, as the title of Consistorial Rath 
is often given as a mere matter of honor. The consistoriuoi 
has vefy little power. It has the duty of examining can- 
didates and watching over the doctrines preached. The 
executive government of the several circles, of which there 
are generally two in each province, has the right of patron- 
age, /. /., exercises the king's patronage within their limits, 
which extends to about one-half the congregations. The 
other half receive their pastors, some by the appointment 
of the magistrates of towns, others by that of the land- 
holder ; a very few have the right of choosing their own 
pastors. The power of the Minister of Ecclesiastical 
Affairs, and of his council, extends over the whole kingdom, 
and is very great. Otto von Gerlach relates several 
instances of the interference of the government in the 
most harmless a&irs, as in the case of his own brother, 
who was several times molested for having a prayer-meeting 

jet, JO.] BERLIN. 1 7 7 

in his house. And the candidate Meinhof told me of his 
being called to account for having talked and prayed with a 
man who called to see him under considerable religious 

[Under date of March 20th, Mr. Hodge writes to his 
wife." I shall soon be left alone here. That is, my house 
companions, Mr. Robinson and Mr. Monod, are going in a 
few days, the former to Halle, the latter to Paris. You 
will be surprised to hear that the sober Mr. Robinson has 
fallen in love. I received a note, a day or two ago, written 
by him (as his modesty prevented a personal communica- 
tion) with the official information that the Fraulein Von 
Jacob had consented to accompany him to America as his 
wife. I have spoken to you, I believe, of this lady and her 
family before in my letters. Robinson lias done well. The 
lady is agreeable and very accomplished, speaking several 
languages, and acquainted with the literature of most 
European nations."] 

Sunday y March 2jd. I heard Lisco preach this morning 
on the Fall of Peter. The Church was so full that it was 
impossible to get a seat. Last Sunday Mr. Robinson 
could not get in at all, not even open the doors. It is a 
good indication that those ministers who preach the gospel 
faithfully have their churches overflowing. In the evening 
I drank tea with Lisco, met the Moravian minister, Mr. 
Semler, and von Senfft. The conversation at first turned 
on the late order of the Ministerium, requiring every 
student, who is to be examined, to produce a certificate of 
regular attendance upon Church and the Lord's Supper. 
The students, with the approbation of the faculty, petitioned 
against this. The Ministerium returned a very severe, 
harsh answer, viz. — that such inexperienced youth ought 
not to have the presumption to think they could change the 
opinion of Ministers, &c., &c. This the students received 
in the mildest possible manner, and said they would endea- 
vor to show the Ministerium that they did not need such 


178 BERLIN. [182a. 

external inducements to make them do their duty. In con- 
sequence of the active part which one of the students took 
in the petition, his licentia conscionandi has been refused 
him. This whole affair has excited great attention. The 
Christians, as well as the liberals, are exceedingly opposed 
to the order of the Ministerium. Schleiermacher, who 
belongs to the latter description, refuses to give certificates 
to those who attend his Church or Communion table, and 
he tells them to say to the Consistorium, that he will not 
act according to the requirements of the Government 
in this respect. The whole thing will, I suspect, fall 

Mr. Couard complained of the operation of censure in 
reference to printing the tracts of the Tract Society. He 
said it was so hard to satisfy those in authority that a tract 
did not lead to separatismus, a thing as much dreaded as a 
revolution in politics, Mr. Semler said that in an article he 
wrote for the newspaper on establishments for the poor, he 
remarked that '' nothing could be done until the education 
of the poor was put on a Christian basis." The word 
" Christian " was struck out, and '* moral " inserted, because 
the Ministerium had forbidden any thing to appear which 
might bring before the public the " religious movement " of 
the day. Lindner, a Professor at Leipsic, was displaced 
from his office as teacher of religion in one of the largest 
schools there, because in explaining the passage that a man 
must love Christ more than father, mother, &c., his remarks 
tended to diminish the respect of children for their parents, 
and therefore had a revolutionary tendency. Prof. Lindner 
is an excellent man. This is equal to the solicitude of the 
pastors of Geneva, who requested Mr. Monod to erase from 
his sermon the expression, that " if a man hate not his 
father, &c." I have been pained to hear from Monod that 
the state of morals, even in the Protestant Cantons of 
Switzerland, is exceedingly corrupt, and particularly in 
Berne and Lucerne. Geneva forms a striking exception. 

«r. 3a] BERLIN. 1 7 9 

The Swiss battalion in Berlin from Neufchatel is said to be 
Ae most corrupt of any in the Prussian guards, if not of the * 
whole army. Monod says it is the same with the Swiss 
officers in Paris. Mr. Semler mentioned that the battalion 
in the Tyrol has been the means of the greatest good in that 
country. The soldiers serve eight years, and during that 
time they have a constant course of religious instruction. 

It is said that the Ministerium wish to send Prof Hengs- 
tenberg to Bonn, or force him to relinquish the Kirchen- 
Zeitung. It seems as if a storm was brewing. The Min- 
isterium censured the Theological Faculty respecting the 
petition of the students, and particularly Neander. The 
Hegelians are working strongly against the Evangelical 
party. Marheineke had the amazing presumption to say to 
Neander in a meeting of the Senatus Academicus, " Thou 
ignorant man (p. 149). You are unworthy that I should 
answer you." " Happily," replied Neander, " You are not 
my judge." When some person present exclaimed at Mar- 
heineke's conduct, asking how he could call one of the 
most learned men in Germany an ignoramus, he answered, 
"He knows nothing of Philosophy," L ^., Hegel's system. 

Wednesday J March 26th. Das Hohe Ministerium are 
much dissatisfied with the Evangelische Kirchen-Zeitung, 
and have given Hengstenberg to understand that he must 
^ther give it up or be removed to another University. He 
preferred the latter. Whether their threat will be executed 
remains to be seen. They warned him that if he appealed 
to the Crown Prince, who they know is* favorable to the 
Zdtung, he would be lost, so says Ancillon. In Weimar a 
tract society has been suppressed, and the distributer 
punished with a fine of 20 Florins. The state of things 
throughout the Herzogthum Weimar must be deplorable. 
The superintendent, Prohr, in writing for a person to fill an 
important vacancy in the Church, told his correspondent to 
select a rationalist, and added *^ but do let him be of good 

l8o BERLIN. [1828. 

Sunday^ March joth, I was, this evening, at Madame 
Schonberg's for the last time, as she is about to leave Ber- 
lin for a while. The company was larger than usual. Goss- 
ner preached in his peculiar way from Matt 27 : i. He 
said, as the enemies of Christ rose early to plot His death, 
should not Christians rise early to take counsel with the 
Holy Spirit, how they may serve, love, and honor Him ? 
As they bound the Saviour with cords, so should we bind 
Him with faith, love and hope, to our souls. As Judas 
betrayed his Master for gold, he begged us to think how 
often we had sold Christ, His presence. His communion, 
for the sinful enjoyments of this world; and that ill-gotten 
wealth could do us no good; that one day we would be 
glad to tlirow it away. Judas's repentance not being joined 
with faith availed him nothing, etc. Prof Lancizolle, who 
was present, gave me an interesting account of the course 
of instruction for confirmation which he had received from 
Von Ancillon, then a pastor in the French Church. He 
said it was not until the last week that he was told there 
was such a book as the Scriptures. All the previous 
instruction was about sun, moon, stars and all other points 
than those relating to the doctrines of the Gospel. It is in 
this way that the godd effects of the method of instruction 
are lost 

March jist There was a review to-day of the whole 
Guard in garrison in Berlin. The King conducted the 
review, attended by all the higher officers, his sons, etc. 
Through the kindness of Lieutenant Von Senffl I obtained 
an excellent place on the Zeughaus for viewing this display 
of the flower of the Prussian army. There were 10,000 
men, cuirassiers, lancers, dragoons, infantry, horse and foot 
artillery. The Prussians think their own army the finest in 
the world, and I should think it ought to be from the 
amount of attention devoted to it. 

April 1st, I dined to-day at Madame Schonberg's in 
company with the Graf Lippe, his wife and daughter, a 

MTt. 30.] BERLIN. 1 8 1 

Polish Hauptman Gauratcki, and another Graf, whose name 
I do not know. This Graf Lippe is from Cleves. His lady 
takes a great interest in missions^ inquired of the state of 
religion in America, and spoke of Mrs. Judson's letters, etc. 
Almost everywhere the indications of the spread of religion 
among all ranks in this place, are to be seen. Strauss said, 
some days since, that it was seldom he had an hour to 
himself before night, since he was so constantly occupied 
by persons calling to see him to converse on the state of 
their souls and ask his counsels. 

Friday^ April 4th, This was Good Friday. I attended 
Church in the morning and went to the communion. Lisco 
preached, as usual, with much simplicity and feeling. It 
gave me pleasure to find by my side, at the communion 
table, the dear Neander ; for whose character I have con- 
ceived the greatest reverence. 

Sunday y 6th. In the morning I was at Church; in 
the evening with Neander. He showed me several pass- 
ages from the letters of Jacobi, in which he speaks of the 
folly and extremity to which the German philosophers per- 
mit themselves to be led away in their speculations. He 
expressed the greatest abhorrence of the spirit at present 
prevailing among this class of men ; this making them- 
selves God, or reducing God to an idea (BegriflF) — so that 
Hegel says that Nichts ist die allerhochste Realitat I asked 
Neander if he did not think that something of the spirit or 
principles of the Pantheistical system had passed over into 
the evangelical writings of the present day in Germany, 
and said that the idea that alles Seyn ist das Seyn Gottes 
seemed to me of this character. He said, " By no means — 
all that was meant by that phrase is that God is the only 
real independent substance, and that all other existences 
are grounded in a mysterious way in Him.' This, he said, 
was contained in the idea of the omnipresence of God, and 
in the declaration of Paul that " in Him we live, and move, 
and have our being " — ^and that If bu xax di bo are all tilings. 

1 82 BERLIN. [1838- 

The e? hio^ he said, means something more than merely 
efficient cause. I asked him, then, in what relation our 
efficiency stood to that of God ? He replied, that in all 
good we were merely the organs of God, and that sin only 
broke off this relation. I said, this coincided with the idea 
of the older theologians as to the eoncursus Dei in all our 
acts. He replied — " Yes, I think they were perfectly right 
on this point'' 

In coming away, the dear man pressed my hand very 
kindly, and said, '' I think we can agree." -He seems to 
think that if he debates with any one, or differs from him, 
he does him a wrong, and is uneasy until the feeling of 
perfect peace is restored. 

A few days before this I had a conversation with the 
Gerlachs on the Personalitat der Menschheit They main- 
tained that the race of man was a whole, as a tree is a 
whole. No one stands for himself; so that the race is not 
a collection of individuals as an army is, but of the consti* 
tuent parts of one great whole. It is on this idea they ex- 
plain the idea of original sin. The whole race was then in 
Adam, as completely and as really as an oak is in an acorn. 
It was not Adam as an individual, but Adam as the human 
race who sinned. To the question, "Are we conscious of 
having personally participated in the sin of Adam ? " They 
replied, "That very question is founded on a fidse view. It 
is not /, as an individual, that there sinned ; it is not a 
matter for my consciousness, but for the consciousness of 
the Menschheit (humanity)." 

Thursday^ April 8th. This evening the Lieutenant von 
Senfft called for me, and we went to drink tea with the 
Geheimrath and Professor Schmalz. There is here a large 
family of daughters, who, with their mother, are pious. 
There were two or three other gentlemen present Otto 
von Grerlach, who is much of a musician, took his seat at 
the piano, and the company sang various parts of an 
oratorio by Gans, the death of Chrisl, which is always per- 

iET. 3a] BERLIN. 1 83 


fonned here on Charfreitag — also parts of Handel's Mes- 
siah and of his Judas Maccabeus. They sang, also, one 
piece from an old German composer, Bach, whose works 
have long been n^lected, but which they say are equal to 
almost any of the best German compositions. 

Friday^ April irth. This morning I rode out in com- 
pany with Messrs. Amory and Cunningham, to see the 
prison, at Spandau. The Inspector went round with us 
and showed us everything. There are here five hundred 
prisoners, of whom ninety are females. The greater part 
of these are employed in the manu&cture of cotton and 
wool in various shapes. Those condemned to hard labor 
turn the great wheel which sets the machinery in motion. 
The prisoners are neatly dressed. There are thirty-six 
cells for solitary confinement, for the punishment of ofiences 
committed within the prison. A young man is considered 
ruined when once sent to prison in this part of Germany, 
the corrupting influence is so great The number of crimes 
since 1806 have increased amazingly. Four thousand per- 
sons are arrested every year in Berlin alone, and of these 
seventy-five per cent* are condemned. The greater part of 
the female prisoners are in for life, for murdering their 
iniant children. The proportion of murderers is astonish- 
ing. The Inspector said that his confidential prisoners 
were all murderers, whose sentences had for some reason 
been exchanged fi'om death to imprisonment for life. He 
said he found they were uniformly less hardened and 
depraved than the thieves who came back upon them half 
a dozen times. There is a Chaplain for the prison who 
preaches every Sunday, and visits the prisoners twice in the 
week. They are also supplied with Bibles. 

Sunday^ ijth. I heard Lisco this morning preach from 
the words : " I am the light of the world." In the evening 
I was at Neander's. Dr. Julius, a gentleman from Ham- 
burg, was there. He has been some time in England, ex- 
amining their prisons, and is about publishing a work on this 

1 84 BERLIN. [1S2S. 

subject. Neander, as usual, found occasion to speak of the 
danger arising from the spread of Heel's philosophy, which, 
by making the Begriff God, deifies man. He showed me a 
remarkable passage in Jacobi's work on religion, in which 
the Prophecy of Lichtenstein is quoted. This predicts that 
the world will become so refined that it will be as much 
unfashionable to believe in God as in a spectre, and that men 
will go still further, and make themselves, and God, and the 
universe but a spectre. This, he says, is wonderfully ac- 
complished by Hegel's system, which makes God but an 
idea — nullity the origin of everything — and the universe a 
mere phantom. Neander thinks that Schleiermacher's 
change of opinion, as exhibited in the difference between his 
Reden Uber die Religion and his Dogmatik, has arisen from 
his approaching nearer to Christianity — the main point of 
difference is, that in the latter he appears to admit the per- 
sonal existence of the soul after death. He spoke also of 
the wonderful contrast between the practical common sense 
of the English, and the speculative spirit of the Germans, 
and he again referred to the passage in Jacobi, in which he 
says, that the Germans must always have a golden calf to go 
before them, and an Aaron to offer sacrifice — ^but that they 
are always willing to see the calf destroyed and reduced to 
powder, provided this be not done by a Moses, but by 
another Aaron, who will make them another calf. Thus is 
it with their philosophical systems. The system of Hegel 
has become a matter of ridicule in the little, low papers 
which appear here in Berlin. One man is made to ask his 
neighbor, Weisst du wohl dass du gar nicht existirst ? Wie 
so denn — Weil alles was ist, ist vernQnftig — du bist unver- 
nUnftig — daher existirst du nicht. 

Tuesday^ i^th, I went on Saturday last, with Messrs. 
Amory and Cunningham, to visit the Gewerbs Institut, an 
establishment for the education of artists and mechanics, 
similar, though on a much larger scale, to the Franklin 
Institute in Philadelphia. Lectures are delivered on Che- 

MT.yK} BERLIN. 1 85 

mistiy and the various branches of natural philosophy, and 
the students have regular instruction in drawing, modeling, 
etc They also work in the preparation of all kinds of ma- 
diineiy, make casts, original and copied. The institution 
is furnished with models of the best English, French, and 
American machines. There is a young American here em- 
{doyed by the Prussian Government to erect and superin- 
tend various spinning and weaving machines. I)e was 
laised in the Brandywine factories, near Baltimore, and 
seems to give great satis&ction. The American machines 
bave displaced the English, and every year there is a com- 
plaint that one expensive machine is rendered useless by 
&e Yankees inventing a better. A spinning machine, es- 
tablished in Spandau, a year since thought to be the best 
possible, is put into the background by one just received by 
tibe Government ; the production of the latter to the former 
being as eleven to five. 

Wednesday, 16th, Spent the evening with Justice Focke, 
and Ludwig and Otto von Gerlach. John 10 — 

ScOurday, igth. Visited Potsdam in company with 
Messrs. Amory, Cunningham, and Mr. Lowell, an intelli- 
gent and interesting young man from Boston. The day 
was fine and our ride agreeable, although the country is 
remarkably uninteresting until you reach the neighborhood 
of Potsdam, where the dull, barren, sandy wastes are ren- 
dered somewhat susceptible of cultivation by the numerous 
lakes of the Havel. When we entered Potsdam the cavalry 
r^ment of the Guard were parading with their fine music 
in the garden of the palace. We went first to visit the 
palace of Sans Souci and its grounds. The latter are beau- 
tifully laid out and ornamented. Before the time of Frede- 
rick the whole was a barren waste of sand. Sans Souci 
stands on the top of a hillock, the south side of which is 
covered its whole length with hot-houses, from top to bot- 
tom. The palace was built after the Seven Years' War, and 
is only one story high. It consists of the main building, 

1 86 POTSDAM. [iS28« 

and two wings separated at some distance from it, and one 
of them on much lower ground The east wing contains 
the picture gallery. The Hall is splendid, made entirely of 
Italian ma/ble. The pictures are of the Flemish and Ita- 
lian schools. These are twenty-seven by Rubens, all hor- 
rible. The most celebrated are a Vertumnus and Pomona, 
by L. da Vinci ; a Sleeping Venus, by Titian ; two or three 
by Raphael, the most distinguished being an Ecce Homo, 
which is by &r the most affecting picture in the whole col- 
lection. In the palace of Sans Souci itself there is nothing* 
very interesting, excepting the rooms of Frederick as he 
left them. Voltaire's room, his bed and table, are still in 
statu quo. It made me almost sick to look around me. 
For of all men who ever lived he most excites my bad feel- 
ings. From this we walked through the gardens to the 
new palace — another piece of Frederick's enormous extrava* 
gance — it is conjectured to have cost 11,000,000 Prussian 
dollars. Nobody ever used it It is the Versailles of 
Prussia. In returning, we stopped at the Church where 
Frederick and his &ther are buried. Under the pulpit 
there is a recess in which their coffins lie on a marble floor. 
To stand near the ashes of a man who had acted so con- 
spicuous a part during his life, and contrast the gloomy 
little receptacle of his body with his gorgeous palaces was 
well adapted to produce a deep impression of the emptiness 
of worldly glory. Tuesday, April 29th, I visited, with Jus- 
tice Focke and a few other friends, the Kunst Cabinet in the 
palace. The collection is neither very large nor remarka- 
ble. The king has caused to be prepared a wax figure of 
Frederick I. which is said to be a most striking likenes§. 
The &ce is formed after a cast taken immediately after 
death. The clothing is such as he wore, and the sword is 
the one which hung by his side during the seven years' 
war. The insignia of the various orders, and hat worn by 
Napoleon and taken at the Battle of Waterloo are here 

jKt. aa] BERLm. 187 

In the evening some of my friends came to drink tea with 
me and bid me &rewell for ever in this world, humanly speak- 
ing. Otto Von Gerlach sang a hymn and his brother Lud- 
wig prayed before we separated. They were kind enough 
to present me with a German Stamm-Buch, 1. e.^ a book in 
which friends inscribe their names under the date of their 
birth, together with some sentence or verse expressive of 
idfid feeling or important truth. That written by Neander 
is beautiful. I happened the other day to be sitting in his 
study, when the messenger handed this book to him, then 
altogether unknown by me. Neander quietly and rapidly 
wrote his sentence and returned it to the messenger without 


** Let us stand £ist in the liberty in which Christ has 
made us free ; whom alone to serve is a glory and a joy ; and 
let us not become slaves of men or of any other creature, 
To rejoice in the Lord, to be nothing in one's self; in the 
Lord all things.'' A. Neander. 

l88 LEAVES BERLIN. [iSa*. 

Wednesday^ joth. I remained at home. Justice Focke 
Tippleskirch, G. von der Recke, and Cunningham, came to 
see me in the course of the day. I left Berlin, taking my last 
farewell of Von Senfft and Doris at the Post-office. I did 
not expect to have my heart so interested by a stay of six 
months in any place. The kindness, the.Christian love, the 
warm-hearted conduct of those with whom I have passed 
this winter so happily, will remain deeply impressed on my 
heart as long as I live. When I bid my friends fitrewell 
I cried like a child. Neander's farewell I shall never 

May I St. I arrived in Halle about 12 o'clock. The 
evening I spent with Mr. Robinson at the Staatrathin Von 

Tholuck had gone to Rome for a season, and Mr. Hodge 
saw his friend no more. A little while before, while Mr. 
Hodge was at Berlin, Tholuck, on the eve of his departure 
for Rome, addressed him the following letter. (The original 
in English). 

Halle, April, 1828. 

My Dear Hodge: — You will have been greatly astonished 

as many have at my resolution to spend this year in Rome. There 
is certainly a number of circumstances that make it a scrupulous 
matter, but the opportunity was so very favorable, and some acci- 
dents encouraged it so much, that I could not resist any longer. 
A pious Professor will supply my place this year, and according to 
all probability remain my colleague. This is the most important 
fruit of the plan with respect to Halle. 

As to my state here, I must thank God that, since my complaints 
have lessened, I feel like new-bom. I feel, of course, the burden of 
a lonely, friendless life. I feel particularly the tediousness of contin- 
ual dogmatical researches and disputations, which are so very sel- 
dom interrupted by other occupations and distractions; but being 
more delivered than I was when you were here from the constant 
aggression, I can find access to the throne of grace, and can be satis^ 
fied with God's ways 

I am sure that I shall not only enjoy much at Rome, but that I 
shall be of use also as well to Bunsen as to the congregation. I shall 

St. 30.] LE TTERS FR OM THOL UCJC. 1 89 

draw much profit myself, I hope, from being employed practically in 

the gospeL 

I cannot express what I feel at the idea of my not seeing you again. 
You have been sent to me through God*s mercy as a messenger of 
^ad tidings, as a comforter in cheerless hours, as an elder brother 
to show me the simple way to heaven. I owe you very much, or 
Qore properly I have i^eason to be most thankful to God for what He 
has bestowed upon me by your means. And never 1 never ! on this 
ade of the grave shall I see you again. My eyes run with tears I 
Dear friend, do not forget me ; do not forget to pray for me. . . . 
I am in Christ Jesus our Lord, 

Yours most cordially, A. Tholuck. 

Remember me most cordially to our dear Monod. 

Again he wrote from near Rome, at the time that Mr. 
Hodge was on the eve of embarking from Liverpool, and 
believing that he was already at home, Tholuck addressed 
the letter to Princeton. (The original in English.) 

Frascati, July 30, 1828. 

Afy Dear and Beloved Friend and Brother in Christ : — You are 
now, I am sure, safely brought to your dear home, and sit cheerfully 
smiling among wife and children, thankful for all the great mercies 
of our Lord. And here I sit, too, among dear children (although not 
my own) in happy Italy, thankful for the mercies of my Lord, where 
I can rest a little firom all the afflictions and tribulations of past years. 
... I found myself well, better than in Halle, and soon became de- 
lighted with the enjoyments which the family circle of Bunsen and 
he himself offered to me. He has six amiable children, a most re- 
spectable wife, and him I found a thorough and sincere follower of 
Girist, My pastoral duty also gave me much pleasure, having an au- 
dience before me in which the simple gospel tidings met with a ready 
reception. Since the first of July (the heat in Rome getting more and 
more intense), we removed to the country, where I now reside with 
the family in a beautiful villa surrounded with the Sabinian and Al- 
banian mountains, having Mons Soracte in the face, and in a dis- 
tance at the right side the aeterna Roma, at the left the borders of the 
sea. One day passes swiftly away after the others, under useful and 
edifying conversation. The morning begins with family prayer and 
hymns sung by the boys. The day closes again with singing hymns. 
Neither philosophical nor critical doubts trouble the mind where it 
daily experiences the sweet comfort of Christian communion. Like 

190 GOETTINGEN. [1828. 

a dreary waste my life in Halle lies behind me. I was sick all the 
days I lived there — sick in body and sick in mind. Oh ! what pa- 
tience have you then had with me 1 I hope you would find me now 
another man. But blessed be my Saviour who sent you then to my 
great consolation and comfort. You see then» dear Hodge» that I 
may justly call this, my present abode, a place of rest When the 
disciples returned from their missionary tour, the Saviour told them : 
oKwrateo^e ^^^ov. This I do now, but only 6Wyw. By no means I 
shall protract this absence from HaUe. 

Much is hoped from Bunsen's future career. He is decided to 
leave soon his present situation and to occupy an important one in 
the ecclesiastical department of the Ministerium. He now studies 
Hebrew very hard. I read the Psalms with him. He is a little tjoo 
averse to Republican States, and consequently to your happy 
country. Believe me, my dear brother. 

Your true friend in Christ, A. Tholuck« 



Journal, — On the morning of the 3d May^ I left Halle 
for Goettingen. I dined at Eisleben, where Luther was 
born. The room in which this event occurred is a school- 
room. In another apartment are preserved many relics 
of the Reformer ; such as his table, desk, letters, &c. The 
country from Halle to Nordhausen is much more varied 
than any part of North Germany I had yet seen. From 
Heiligenstadt to Goettingen, the first part of the road is 
very interesting, hilly and abounding in trees. I arrived in 
Goettingen about eleven, and stopped at the crown tavern. 
In the morning Mr. Wm. Amory called to see me. We 
walked together round the town, and found the public 
promenade very pleasant Goettingen itself has little to 
recommend it in externals. In the afternoon we visited the 
museum and attended the lecture of Blumenbach. It is 
impossible to give any idea of the manner of this extra- 
ordinary man. One would suppose he was desirous of 
showing the capability of the human face of assuming^ 
queer forms. He talks with as much unconcern as in his 

«r. 30.] GOETTINGEN. I9I 

Study. We called to see him the next morning. He re- 
ceived us very kindly, showed us his collection of skulls, 
and beg^d us to try and get him from America various 
articles he yet needs to complete his collection. He spoke 
very favorably of many Americans he had known. Al- 
though about eighty years of age, he has all the vivacity 
and interest in all persons, and things he has anything to 
do withy as though he were in the prime of youth. I 
called on Prof Lucke with the letter of Dr. Neander. He 
appears to be about thirty-five, an amiable and friendly man. 
He was kind enough to call on me at four o'clock and 
take me to see several of the other theological professors. 
We first called on the elder Planck, a man apparently be- 
tween seventy and eighty. He had such an asthmatic affec- 
tion that it appeared difficult for him to converse. We 
then called on Prof. Pott, a man of about fifly. He talked 
chiefly about books, and the great library, the pride and 
pillar of the university. We called also upon Prof. Hem- 
sen. The decided manner in which he came out in the 
late difificulties, respecting the missionary society, has gained 
him the confidence of all Christians. He and Lucke both 
spoke very warmly against the Berlin philosophical school. 
Ldcke appears to be a great friend of Schleiermacher, al- 
though reckoned as belonging to the orthodox party, and 
not a little abused by the opposers of the present struggle 
for life in Germany. He said that he had little difficulty in 
this place ; that the professors treat him kindly, and his au- 
ditorium is well filled. On the evening of May 6th, I 
drank tea with the two Messrs. Amory, and met several pro- 
fessors and teachers of the university. I had a long talk 
with Prof. Reiche on Mysticisms. He is a most decided 
Rationalist, yet without that bitter hatred to the truth and 
its advocates which so strongly characterizes most of his 
schooL It is as clear as day that the most intolerant and 
bitter spirit rankles in the bosom of many who have made 
the greatest advances in the Aufklarung of the times. I 

192 COETTINGEN. [1828. 

visited the library and saw Prof. Beneke, to whom ProfI 
P^tton had given me a letter. He spoke of Patton ivith 
af!ection, and it is pleasant to find how universally the 
Americans, who have been to Goettingen, are remembered 
with respect and affection. I called also to see Prof. Ewald, 
whom I regard as one of the most remarkable men I have 
seen in Europe. He is about twenty-four, looks much 
younger, is modest in his manner even to bashfulness, al- 
though confident even to arrogance, in his writings. He 
has more hearers than any other Professor who reads on 
theological subjects. He expressed his hope of being soon 
able to find time to write a Syriac Grammar. Hoffman, 
he says, has made no new step, has been diligent, but that 
is all. He regrets the opinions of Vater, Eichhorn, &c., on 
the Pentateuch ; makes it with the exception of Deutero- 
nomy very old. Job he sets between seven and eight hun- 
dred years b. c. The present prologue is, he thinks, spurious. 
The latter part of Isaiah he rejects. We went afterwards 
to meet Mrs. Goeschen, a lady whom I had met nearly a 
year ago at her son-in-law, Westermeier's. We drank tea 
with Blumenbach. Mrs. Goeschen and family were there. 
The old gentleman talked a great deal of our Indians, for 
whom he seemed to have a great liking. His wife is 
mother general of the Americans, whom she praised to the 
skies. The last thing she said to me was, " Send us plenty 
of Americans." Prof. Hemsen was kind enough to come 
and sit half an hour with me this afternoon. He gave no 
very encouraging account of the prospect of doing much 
good to students at present. No missionary-society, after 
all, had been formed. No prayer-meetings were allowed. 
All that had been gained in the late struggle was that a 
missions stunde was held, in which the missionary journals 
were read. He presented me in the name of Prof Pott, 
with the first part of the commentary on Corinthians, an 
attention on the part of Dr. Pott I had no ground to ex- 
pect I supped at Prof Liicke's, but was obliged to come 

«. 33.] WUPPER THAL. 1 93 

away early, in order to meet the stage passing from Han- 
over to CasseL 

The 8th and ^th of May, I passed in Cassel. The new 
part of this city is very beautiful. The old part is not re« 
markable. The gardens and walks round the town are the 
finest I have seen in Germany. 

At 5 o'clock I left Cassel. The country from this to the 
Rhine is generally varied, and fertile, and beautiful. The 
dominions of the Elector of Hesse Cassel are marked by a 
degree of poverty I cannot account for. The villages are 
the most miserable, and the people more ragged-looking 
than any I had elsewhere seen in Germany. The aspect of 
things change for the better as soon as you enter the pos- 
sessions of Prussia. As soon as the Wupperthal (the 
valley of the Wupper, a short but copious stream entering 
the Rhine on the eastern side, about fifty hiiles below 
Cologne) commences, a scene is opened which could not 
have been expected in Germany. The poverty which every- 
where else characterizes the peasantry, here disappears. 
Well-built houses, tasteful gardens, and a general appear- 
ance of refinement and comfort everywhere meet the eye. 
The entire valley, of which Elberfeld is the centre, is almost 
a continual village, filled with manufactories of every kind, 
so that the traveller feels as if he were suddenly transported 
to England. Elberfeld contains about twenty-two thousand 
inhabitants, and is probably the richest place of its size in 

These Rhine provinces of Prussia have much that is 
peculiar and interesting in their ecclesiastical arrangements. 
They formerly had, under a Catholic Prince, their own 
Presbyterian form of Government This, however, has been 
much weakened since they were brought under the domin- 
ion of Prussia. Each Circle has its Presbyterium, consist- 
ing of the pastors of one or two elders, for each congregation, 
and each Province has its Synod. But the actual govern- 
ment of the Church is taken, for the most part, out of the 

194 KRUMMACHER. [i829« 

hands of the Presbyteria and Synods, and g^ven to the 
Consistoriay as elsewhere in Prussia. The Consistoria 
examine candidates, and alone can depose a pastor, and that 
only by reporting to the Ministerium in Berlin, from whom 
the act of deposition must proceed. The changes which 
have recently occurred, have principally been brought about 
through the influence of the clergy. The Rationalists in 
this part of the country are said to be favorable to the 
Consistorial form of ecclesiastical administration, as . it 
brings them more in connection with the state, and gives 
them more worldly power. The congregations, however, 
have retained the right of electing their own pastors, and 
hopes are entertained that the powers and rights of the 
Presbyteries will be restored. 

I heard the pastor Krummacher preach in the morning. 
The Church was large and crowded. The people seemed 
mostly of the poorer class, although, I am told, that the 
richer part of the population are remarkably regular in 
their attendance on Church. The sermon was peculiar^ 
The subject was the rainbow, which he made, first a sacra-- 
ment, aad then considered as a type of the Church. The 
points of resemblance were five ; origin, color, form, posi- 
tion, and . This was carried through with a good 

deal of taste and talent, but the whole discourse wanted that 
authority and power which belong alone to truths obviously 
contained in the word of God. I called to see the Pastor 
Wichelhaus, to whom I had a letter. He received me 
kindly, and gave me the information concerning the eccle- 
siastical government of these provinces I have recorded 
above. He also informed me that in the Wupperthal, 
during the prevalence of infidelity all over Germany, 
orthodoxy still retained its place, and the spirit of piety, 
although for a time depressed, never lost its hold on the 
people. All the preachers in this neighborhood are con* 
sidered orthodox and pious. In the present state of lively 
religious feeling here, there are two dangers which struck 


me as threatening to disturb the beauty of this part of God's 
vineyard. The first is a tendency among some few of the 
|veachers to antinomian principles. The other is the ex- 
travagant allegorical interpretation of the Old Testament. 
In the evening I visited the Superintendent Snecklager, 
where I met four or five other preachers fi"om the neighbor- 
hood, and a Mr. Le Grand from Basle. 

Tuesday, May ijth. I left Elberfeld at six o'clock for 
Dusseldorf, distant about fifteen miles. It contains about 
sixteen thousand inhabitants, a majority of whom are 
Catholics. The country in this neighborhood is perfectly 
flat on both sides of the Rhine, and continues so until 
Bonn. In the afternoon I walked out to Dusselthal, the 
institution of Count von der Recke. This was originally a 
doister, surrounded by a brick wall, and including thirty- 
six acres of land. There are now a large dwelling-house, 
a brewery, oil and flour mills, a long house, including car- 
penter's and smith's shops, &c. The Count has now eighty 
boys and fifty girls, all poor protestant children, with the 
exception of two Jewish children. He told me that all his ' 
long-continued eflbrts to do something good for the Jews 
had proved ineffectual. They had all proved themselves to 
be actuated by such selfish and worldly motives that he was 
unable to say that he regarded one of all those under his 
care from the commencement of the institution a sincere 
Christian. The amazing pride they always manifested 
made it exceedingly difficult to get along with them. Si- 
mon, he said, had given him more trouble than words could 
well express. He complained of the extravagant ideas en- 
tertained by the English Christians as to the dignity and 
future destiny of the Jews, and said he could not find in the 
Bible that they were destined to be the rulers of the world. 
The Jewish inmates left in mass when he made it plain that 
the attraction he oflered them was religious instruction and 
not worldly gain. The Count has the entire expense of the 
support of the institution on his own hands. Voluntary 

196 COLOGNE AND BONN [i8aa. 

contributions from Christian friends amount to very little — 
and the product of the labor of those engaged in the various 
industries is far from being sufficient I asked him what he 
thought of the plan of the American Jewish Society. He 
said he thought they were engaged in an utterly hopeless 

On the 14th, at four o'clock in the monung, I left Dus- 
seldorf for Cologne, where I arrived at nine o'clock. It 
contains sixty thousand inhabitants, chiefly Catholic, twelve 
thousand beggars, and twenty-seven churches. The Cathe- 
dral, commenced in A.D. 1248, but never finished, is the 
most beautiful specimen of Gothic architecture in Germany. 
It contains the bodies of the wise men of the East, and the 
staflf of Peter. St. Peter's church contains the famous pic- 
ture of the Crucifixion of Peter, by Rubens, and some re- 
markable painted windows. In another church are pre- 
served the bones of the eleven thousand virgins. This is a 
hot-bed of Catholic superstitions. 

I left Cologne at two o'clock, and arrived at Bonn at 
six. Here the mountains commence and the beautiful 
scenery on the banks of the Rhine. I soon met Mr. Wool- 
sey, who continued with me three days in Bonn, and went 
with me by steamboat to Coblenz. I have got to love him 
ten times more than ever.* I called on Prof Nitzsch, to 
whom I had a letter from Neander. He is a middle-aged 
man, rather melancholy-looking. I also called on ProfI 
Sack, a very agreeable and afiable man, and apparently a 
friend of piety and the truth. I heard Schlegel lecture, and 
was disappointed in his appearance and manner. Fre}rtag 

* Presfdent Theodore D. Woolsey said at Dr. Hodge's Seini-Centeniiial Com* 
memoratioxi, April a4th, 1872; "Some years after (I had known him in Prince, 
ton Seminary) I was in Bonn, and he coming into (out of) Germany. I think in 
i8a8, stopped in Bonn. I saw him, and went up the river with him to enjoy his 
society. Then he spoke to me I may say-^if permitted to speak of mysel^tbat 
I was in darkness)— he spoke to me words of cheer, of comforf, of strength. I . 
do not remember the words, but I remember the impression, and that impressioii 
will go with me through life.'* 

jat.^ol] letter to his wife, 197 

lives a mile or two out of town, and therefore I did not see 
him. The University of Bonn is not more than ten years 
old. Yet it has nearly one thousand students, of whom 
from three to four hundred are studying theology, about 
two-thirds being Catholic. The Elector s palace and its 
beautiful grounds have been appropriated to the service of 
the University. 
(Here the Journal ends.) 


SURSEE, May 28th, 1828. 

Mfy Belcved Sarah : — I have seen the Alps ! If now I never see 
uiy thing great or beautiful in nature, I am content. I felt that as 
soon as I saw you, I could fall at your feet and beg you to forgive my 
beholding such a spectacle without you, my love. You were dearer 
to me in that moment than ever. I left Basel about one o'clock with 
a young English gentleman for Lucerne. We rode about fifteen 
miles and arrived at the foot of a motmtain. As the road was steep 
and difficult, we commenced walking up the mountain in company 
with two Swiss gentlemen. We ascended leisurely for about two 
hom^ before we reached the top. I was walking slowly with my 
hands behind me, and my eyes on the ground, expecting nothing, 
when one of the Swiss gendemen said with infinite indifference — 
"Voila les Alpes." I raised my eyes — and around me in a grand 
amphitheatre, high up against the heavens, were the Alps ! It was 
some moments before the false and indefinite conceptions of my life 
were overcome by the glorious reality. The declining sun shed on 
the immense mass of mingled snow and forests the brightness of the 
evening clouds. This was the first moment of my life in which I felt 
overwhelmed. Every thing I had ever previously seen seemed ab- 
solutely nothing. The natural bridge in Virginia had surprised me — 
the Rhine had delighted me — ^but the first sudden view of the Alps 
was overwhelming. This was a moment th&t can never return ; the 
Alps can never be seen again by surprise, and in ignorance of their 
real appearance. 

Beme^ yune 2d, I am now writing in Berne. After having com- 
pleted a short tour among the mountains, we reached Lucerne about 
twelve on the 28th of May. We took a hasty dinner and set out for 
Mount Righi, after having procured mountain shoes and walking 
poles. We crossed Lake Lucerne, and dien commenced the ascent 
for three hours. The sun was shining for the first hour, which, with 

198 LETTER TO HIS WIFE. [1828. 

the difficulty of the way, made it by far the most severe task I had 
ever undertaken. We were obliged to lie down every ten minutes. 
After the first hour the ascent was not so severe. There was a shower 
of rain, and enough of cold wind. After three hours and a half, we 
had accomplished the task. It was so cloudy and so late that we 
could see little from the summit, which is 5,550 feet above the sea. 
We went flattering ourselves with being repaid by beholding the 
rising sun. But we were again disappointed. There was so dense a 
fog that nothing could be seen. About 7 o'clock it began to clear — 
and then the sight was splendid. From this point you overlook the 
varied surface of the north of Switzerland. To the right and on the 
left you have a view of the long, unbroken chain of lofty Alps. Of 
these we could see but little, yet we were amply repaid by the grand- 
eur of the prospect to the right, and the ever varying forms of the 
clouds as they drove over the plain below. We descended to the lake 
on the other side of the mountain. The lake of Lucerne deserves all 
the praise which has been lavished upon it for romantic scenery, and 
almost every spot on its vast borders is rich in associations with the 
heroic memories of the deliverance of Switzerland. At Stanze my 
English companion gave out. We took a carriage to Sachseln, where 
we slept. The next morning we rode to Lungeren, and then, partly 
on horseback and partly on foot, crossed the BrQnig and dined at 
Brienz. We were rowed over this beautiful lake in three hours, and 
on the evening of the 29th reached Unterseen, which lies on a plain 
between the lakes of Brienz and Thun. The next morning I set out 
alone with the guide for Lauterbninnen, distant about a three hours 
walk. This is one of the most beautiful valleys in Switzerland, closed 
by the Jungfrau, one of the loftiest mountains. It is also famous for 
the waterfall of the Staubbach, which falls nearly perpendicularly 925 
feet. I rode up the Wengem Alp, which separates Lauterbninnen 
from Grindelwald, on a mule, in four hours. On the top we enjoyed 
two cloudless hours of surpassing grandeur. We were within musket 
shot of the immense masses of rocks of the Jungfrau and Eiger, which 
rose from our level between 6,000 and 7,000 feet. This near view of 
these immense mountains of ice, rock and snow is as overpowering 
as the first distant view of their grandeur. We saw and heard at least 
twenty avalanches. It was like a long-continued thunder-storm, so 
rapidly did one falling mass succeed to another. The mountain we 
passed had still so much snow that the mule could proceed no further. 
I therefore commenced the descent on the opposite side on foot. In 
four hours we reached Grindelwald, having made a detour to get to 
one of its famous glaciers. What will my wife and mother say to my 
lameness— walking nearly twenty miles and riding ten in one day ? 



Biil with heartfelt gratitude I may say it has not injured me in the 
least. Saturday was so disagreeable that I had to relinquish plans — 
and so, returning to Unterseen, a walk of five hours, and dismissing 
there my guide, I made the best of my way to Berne. 

Yours, &c., &c., Charles Hodge. 


London, June 28th, 1828. 

My Dear Mother: — ..... From Geneva I made an excursion of 
three days to the valley of Chamouny to see its celebrated glaciers 
and to get a view of Mount Blanc. Having seen in the Canton of 
Berne scenery of the same* kind, the impression was by no means so 
strong as when things at once novel and sublime strike the sight. I 
crossed the celebrated sea of ice, an enterprise of much more difE- 
cuhy than I expected, and attended by a degree of danger that, had 
1 been aware of it, would have deterred me from the attempt. The 
ice changes from month to month in these immense glaciers, so that 
you are never secure in finding it in a good state, unless your guide 
has passed at that particular place within a few weeks. These gla- 
dei3 are immense bodies of snow and ice, and will fill up the elevated 
valleys of the mountains. The one called the Sea of Ice is eighteen 
leagues long, and from one to three miles broad. The surface is as 
irregular as the ocean. What may be called the waves are ten, 
twenty, or fifty feet high. The difficulty consists in getting up and 
down these waves, and over the chasms which run in all directions, 
and are often slightly covered with snow« With a careful guide, how- 
ever, accidents are exceedingly rare. Those which do o<jcur are ge- 
nerally the result of the folly of young men who disregard the advice 
of their conductors. The guides in these mountains are regelated 
just as pilots are in the difficult harbors of maritime nations. They 
are examined, must receive certificates, and are responsible for the 
safety of all whom they conduct. I found the excursion of this day — 
walking nine hours under circumstances which required great mus- 
cular effort — too much for my limb. Otherwise I was scarcely fa- 
tigued at all. Were it not for that weakness, I should think myself 
equal to any amount of bodily fatigue. 

From Geneva to Paris the country is not peculiarly interesting. At 
•Paris I felt myself almost at home. I dined one day with ten Ameri- 
cans — Dr. J. R. Clark, Dr. Hopkinson, Dr. Ralston, Dr. Cunningham, 
Mr. Chauncey . 

I left Paris for London with the dear good Mr. Chauncey, and am 
now settled with him in good, comfortable lodgings. 

Your son, C. H. 




London, 27th, 182S. 

My Deartsi Sarah : — As Mr. Chauncey had been by Calais 

and Dover, he preferred the route by Dieppe and Brighton. We 
spent one day in Rouen to view the old churches, &c. After a ride 
of six hours we found ourselves in Dieppe. Our passage over the 
Channel was not pleasant — ^but in twelve hours after leaving Dieppe 
we were standing on the chalky shores of old England. You may 
suppose it was with a swelling heart I trod upon the soil of the mo- 
ther country, which, with all her faults, is the most wonderful and 

admirable the world has ever seen St. Paul's church is mnch 

the most sublime and striking of any I have seen when viewed from 
under its immense dome. We attended last evening the House of 
Commons. You are aware that they sit in a room very much like a 
Methodist meeting-house — ^that the members wear their hats and 
lounge about as they please. I heard about twenty speak in the 
course of three hours, and never heard so much poor speaking in my 
life. I have never attended Congress, and therefore can make no 
comparison ; but I am sure our General Assembly does not offer a 

sight of twenty such dull people. 

Your own husband, C. H. 


London, July 5th, 1828. 
My Dear Sarah : — A few evenings ago I attended the de- 
bates in the House of Lords, and heard the Duke of Wellington, the 
Marquis of Bute, Lord Calthorpe, and several other members speak. 
All most miserable speakers, excepting the Duke, who c€tn say what 
he wants in a plain, sensible manner. The whole assembly is far 
from imposing, and the members almost as negligent as those of the 
Commons, lounging about and talking to each other. Lord Calthorpe 
is a very pious, excellent man, and therefore I heard him with plea- 
sure, although he is a very poor speaker. 

Your own husband, C. H. 

Mr. Hodge visited the usual sights in London, and heard 
Dr. Wardlaw, of Edinburgh, preach twice. He was kindly 
entertained over Sabbath at the house of Mr. Roberts, 
about five miles out of the city. He and Mr. Chauncey 
spent the 12th, 13th, and 14th of July in Cambridge, and 
heard Charles Simeon preach, with great delight, and 

: yi] RETURN HOME. 20I 

visited Professor Lee» to whom he was Introduced by a 
letter of Tholuck's. But as it was vacation the majority of 
the professors were absent Returning to London, he went 
Xo Oxford and visited the Colleges, but all the gentlemen 
to whom he bore letters were absent, enjoying their vaca- 
tion. He then visited Blenheim, the seat of the Duke of 
Marlborough, and Warwick, the seat of the Earl of War- 
wick, and went thence to Liverpool. On the twenty-second 
he left Liverpool for a rapid visit to Edinburgh, of which 
not a single line of record survives. On the ist of August 
he sailed from Liverpool, in the Caledonia, for New York. 
He reached his home, in Princeton, about the i8th of Sep- 
tember, 1828, WHERE THERE WAS JOY. Then was the first 
abiding image of his father, and of Drs. Alexander, 
Miller, and Maclean, who gathered to the greeting, fixed in 
the mind of the collector and recorder of these memoirs. 
From this point journals and domestic letters cease to be 
copious, and personal recollections begin to yield their con- 
tributions to the history which remains to be traced 



STUDY — ^THE Biblical Repertory and Princeton Review — ITS HISTORY AND 

THE eleven years, the record of which is assigned to this 
chapter, were years of critical significance in the history 
of the American Presbyterian Church, as well as those in 
which passed the crisis of Professor Hodge's life. During 
this period the conflict of elements in the church flamed 
into open controversy, and the great division into its Old 
and New School branches was consummated. Dr. Hodge's 
part in this ecclesiastical convulsion was so important that 
it will be reserved for a chapter by itself. This same period 
was marked in the history of Professor Hodge as the one 
in which, through protracted confinement and acute physi- 
cal suffering, he achieved his reputation as a scholar, 
teacher, writer, and pre-eminently as an effective controver- 


sialist and church leader. He returned from Europe com- 
paratively an unknown young man, and he entered upon 
his new professorship of Didactic theology in 1840, with 
very much the same general reputation he enjoyed to the 
end of his life. 

He opened the session of 1828, '29, with the Introduc- 
tory lecture, in which he endeavored tq impress upon the 
minds of the students " the practical truths which the cir- 
cumstances of foreign states and countries had deeply im« 
pressed upon his own/' These were: Firsts the great 
importance of civil and religious liberty, as illustrated by 
the eflfect of our institutions in elevating the intelligence 
and character of all classes of the people, and in setting 
religion and the church free from the trammels of the State. 
Second^ the training of youth in knowledge and religion. 
In this respect he declared the institutions of Germany to 
be greatly in advance of those of the United States. He 
sketched the system of public instruction, through all the 
grades of schools, throughout the Kingdom of Prussia, 
with special reference to religious teaching and its results. 
" But the most interesting feature of the whole system is 
that religion is as regularly and as systematically taught as 
any other subject. Each class of schools has its regular 
text-books on this subject ; and in all, the history and lead- 
ing principles, both in doctrines and morals, of the Scrip- 
tures are inculcated. The nature of this instruction depends 
of course very much on the individual character of the man 
to whom it is committed, and it is too often the case that it 
embraces little more than the leading facts and moral prin- 
ciples of the Bible. Still even this is of immense advantage. 

So thoroughly is this system carried through in 

Prussia, that I never met a boy selling matches in the street 
(and I made several experiments of the kind) who could not 
answer any common question on the historical parts of the 
Old and New Testaments." " The German system provides 
for education of Protestants, Catholics and Jews alike, and 


-where it is possible, by separate schools. Is it not possible 
in this country to have the Christian religion taught in the 
common schools? The selection of teachers and die course 
of instruction depends on the commissioners of the several 
districts. If public opinion once be brought to decide for 

the measure, it can be accomplished The various 

sects are uniting not only to distribute the Bible, but also 
to circulate doctrinal tracts. May they not be induced to 
unite in the preparation of religious school-books in which 
the historical &cts and essential doctrines, in which all evan- 
gelical denominations agree, may be taught and inculcated? 
If such books could receive the sanction of the ruling bodies 
of the various sects among us, there would be no difficulty 
in their being generally introduced." The Third head was 
the intimate connection between speculative opinion and 
moral character. The correspondence between opinion and 
character is strikingly observable in the various religious 
parties in Germany. The leading parties are the Orthodox, 
the Rationalists, and the Pantheists. " Wherever you find 
vital piety — ^that is, penitence and a devotional spirit — ^there 
you find the doctrines of the iall, of depravity, of regenera- 
tion, of atonement, and of the deity of Jesus Christ. I ne- 
ver saw or heard of a single individual who exhibited a spi- 
rit of piety who rejected any one of these doctrines. Holi- 
ness is essential to the correct knowledge of divine things 
and the great security fi-om error." " If these be so, bre- 
thren, 'keep your hearts with all diligence;' beware of any 
course of study which has a tendency to harden your hearts 
and deaden the delicate sensibility of the soul to moral truth 
and beauty. Lean not on your own understanding, and 
keep as you would your hold on heaven your reverence fqr 
Jesus Christ." 

Mr. Hodge now devoted himself with renewed enthusi- 
asm and with untiring diligence to his studies and class in- 
structions. His professorship covered all the ground now 
distributed between the professorships of '' Oriental and 


Old Testament Literature," of " New Testament Literature 
and Biblical Greek," and of the " Instructor in Hebrew," 
etc. Until his lameness, he met two classes every day, 
teaching and lecturing on the Hebrew langyage, literature, 
and exegesis in the mornings, and on the New Testament 
literature and exegesis every afternoon. He prepared also 
extensive courses of lectures on Biblical criticism, herme* 
neutics, special introduction, sacred geography, and the 
exegesia of several books of both Testaments. He de« 
livered to the junior class exegetical lectures on Paul's 
Epistles, an exercise which he continued witiiout interrup- 
tion to the end of his life, a period of fifty years. At this 
time, also, until incapacitated by lameness in the summer 
of 1833, he preached in his turn in the village church, and 
afterwards in the Seminary Oratory, and the various 
Churches of the neighboring cities and surrounding country. 
His preaching at this time was more fresh and animated 
than it was in his later life. He engaged in the work with 
genuine enthusiasm, and was heard with universal interest 
and profit by intelligent audiences. He uniformly wrote 
and read the entire sermon. In style they had tlie well* 
known characteristics of all that proceeded from him ; clear- 
ness, comprehensiveness, and vigor. He read naturally and 
simply, at times perhaps too quietly, but with his strong 
and inflammable emotional nature ready to burst forth at 
any moment as a boiling spring, or as a volcano, flashing 
light as well as sending forth streams of passionate feeling. 
None of the sermons preached at that period are extant 
The tradition, however, yet remains of certain occasions 
when his feelings were powerfully wrought upon, and when, 
leaving his manuscript, he for a while melted or thrilled his 
audience by the tenderness or the passion of his appeals. 

Such an occasion was the funeral of Edward, second son 
of the venerable Dr. Samuel Miller, in the autumn of 1832, 
when Mr. Hodge preached in the old Church which pre- 
ceded the present first Church of Princeton. Dr. S. Ire* 

206 AS A PREACHER. [1832. 

naeus Prime writes me, " My first sight of your illustrious 
and now glorified &ther was in the pulpit in Princeton, in 
.the autumn of 1832, when he preached the sermon at the 
funeral of Dr. Miller's son Edward. The tenderness, 
simplicity and beauty of the discourse filled me with won- 
der and with love, and awakened a new train of thought in 
connection with the science of religious education. In my 
mind theology had not been associated so much with the 
writings of John as with those of Paul ; but suddenly I saw 
both these men of the Bible blended and reproduced in the 
teacher and preacher who stood before me." The compiler 
of these memoirs, then a child in the gallery, can still vivid- 
ly recall the wave of emotion which swept over the whole 
audience, when the preacher lifted himself and addressed to 
the college students, filling the gallery on his right hand 
with tHe voice and the countenance of a herald from the eter- 
nal world, the message sent to them by Edward Miller just 
before he died — ^" Tell them to stop ; they are mad I " 

An instance of the same kind, though much more remark^ 
able, occurred when he was called to deliver the fimeral era* 
tion on the occasion of the death of his intimate friend. Rev. 
Dr. Albert B. Dod, the brilliant Professor of Mathematics in 
Princeton College, in November, 1845. Dr. Hodge had spent 
days and nights at the bed-side of his dying yet triumphant 
friend. His whole soul was in the highest state of spiritual 
exaltation. An account of this address and the efiect it 
produced is given by Dr. Paxton in the closing chapter of 
this volume. 


During these years he kept up a very active and general 
correspondence with his personal friends, and widi the lead- 
ers in the Church's work alike in England and on the Eu- 
ropean continent and in America. Of his own letters not 
many except those written to his brother can now be re- 
called. But several of the letters from his beloved German 


friends are given because of the intrinsic interest attached to 
the names of the writers^ and because they beautifully illus- 
trate the warmth of personal love which it was a character- 
istic gift of Dr. Hodge to attract in all communities and 
during his whole life. 


Princeton, October lath, 1828. 

My Dearest Tkoluck .'—You can hardly conceive of the pleasure 
I experienced when my little boy came into my study two days since, 
ai\d said, " Father, here are two letters for you from over the wide 
sea.*' A single glance was enough to assure me that one was from 
that dear friend to whose kindness and affection I am so much in- 
debted. The many happy and instructive hours I have spent in 
yonr society, will be the subject of delightful recollection to the close 
of life. I look back to my sojourn in Germany with feelings of un- 
mingled pleasure, so far as the recollection of misimproved advan- 
tages will permit. I love the German character, as exhibited in 
Christians, quite as much as though I were myself a German, and 
cannot pass a German immigrant in the street without feelings of 
interest I experience for no other people. You beg me to inform 
you "of my affairs/**- This maybe done in a flew words. After 
taking a tour from Dusseldorf up the Rhine, I went to Heidelberg, 
thence to Basle ; spent two or three weeks in traveling in Switzer- 
land ; passed a few days in Geneva, and proceeded thence to Paris. 
I reached England about the 20th of June ; delivered most of your 
letters. I visited Cambridge, and was kindly received by Professor 
Lee, whom I found determined to write down all your German neol-* 
ogists. In Oxford I missed both of the gentlemen to whom your 
letters were addressed. I sailed from Liverpool on the 2d of August, 
and arrived in New York on the 8th of September. To my inex- 
pressible joy, on reaching Princeton the following day, I found my 
wife and children in perfect health and surrounded with every 


Dear Tholuck, you can hardly think how happy I now am. My 
lovely children (for they are very lovely), are hanging on my knees 
all the time, and my dear wife — I will not talk about — you must come 
and see her ! Our seminary is prospering, and is furnished with its 
ordinary number of students. The spirit of piety has not declined 
among them, and perhaps more of a disposition to embark in foreign 
missions was manifested during the last term than usual. My ven- 


erated colleagues, Drs. Alexander and Miller, you would love very 
much. They are the lights of our church, and their memories n^l 
long be blessed when they are gathered to their rest 

The American Board of Missions met last week in Philadelphia. 
Their report was very interesting, and their income last year was 
108,000 dollars, and the information received from their various 
stations encouraging. I will endeavor to send a printed copy of 
their report to Berlin by the first opportunity. The History of The- 
ology in the i8th century has been printed. It would, I presume, be 
much too expensive to you if we should send it to you at Rome. I 
will, therefore, forward it to Halle for you. I am very much dis- 
tressed to hear of the state of mind of poor Krummacher. It was 
nearly as bad before I left Berlin, but I cannot help regarding it as 
mainly the effect of disease, and consequently hope to leam» that 
with returning health, his faith and hope have been restored. I am 
very much surprised to hear what you mentioned of Otto von Ger- 
lach. I wish he would come to this country. He would, I 
am persuaded, find a wide field for the exercise of his talents. 
Should a kind Providence ever send any one of the dear friends I 
love so sincerely, to these distant shores, I should be overjoyed to 
meet them — ^my house and heart stand ever open to them. I should 
have written to you sooner, had I not thought it better to write by the 
way of Leghorn ; but opportunities for that port occurring so seldom, 
I hasten to take advantage of the first packet for Havre. I thank 
you most cordially for your dear letter. Do write to me as often as 
your time will permit. Tell me whatever of interest occurs in your 
section of the kingdom of God. Let me know of important theo* 
logical works which you think I ought to send for. I obtain books now 
regularly from the Buch-handlung des Waisenhauses in Halle, and 
shall therefore be able to procure whatever works you may recom- 
mend to me. 

Give my best respects to Herr Bunsen, who, I rejoice to hear, is 
likely to attain a station of so much usefulness, as a seat in the 

And now my dearest friend accept the assurance of my warmest 
and most grateful affection. Do not forget me — ^may love to our com- 
mon Saviour bind our hearts in perpetual union. 

Your brother in Christ, C. Hodge. 


Rome, Feb. 27th, 1829. 
My Dear Brother in the Lord: — ^The distance that separates Prince^ 
ton from Rome is such, and the waves that roll between my dear 


Brother and myself are so numerous, that I really despaired of our 
erer being able to stretch our hands to each other beyond the ocean. 
However, you have received from the hands of your little darling 
Ae lines of your poor German pilgrim in Rome, and Sir Thomas, the 
"maestro di casa" of the Prussian ambassador, has put in my hands 
die unexpected news which I have received from the dearest friend 
I possess in your part of the world. You can scarcely imagine, 
my dear Hodge, the dehght and the eagerness with which 1 broke 
the seal of your message. So delighted was I, that scarcely any 
letter from my country excited in me the same degree of eagerness. 
All the ^weet and quiet evenings, spent in the floor room of the 
Ulrichs Strasse, and the little green spot out of the Galgthor, all the 
delicious enjoyments of the Kuhstall and Tharand, all the solemn 
hours passed in the fellowship of the Berlin brethren stood at once 
before my eyes. Earthly and spiritual enjoyments, earthly and 
spiritual cares have linked our hearts together, and space and time 
shall never separate what God has united. 

You enjoy again all the delights and the sweetness of a Christian 
£3Lmily-life, and your days will pass on quietly to the end. To me 
new scenes of life have appeared, and are opening again before my 
eyes, but for me the spot of undisturbed tranquillity lies forever be- 
yond, in that life, from which none has ever rettu'ned, but He, who 
will lead there all troubled souls, and myself among them, as I 
trust in God. The days of my residence in Rome are running fast 
to an end. Before German spring begins, I shall find myself once 
more at the solemn gateway of the Galg-Strasse. The time spent in 
Rome has been for me a time full of various enjoyments and various 
engagements ; and, although the sting in my flesh has made many 
an hour gloomy, I must still and will ever praise the Lord for the 
great mercies he has shown me during the past year. I shall leave 
Rome with my bodily vigor partly recruited, and with faith and hope 
stiU more increased. 1 have good reason to hope that the spiritual 
condition of Halle will improve. Although hindered by various 
intrigues the appointment of Guericke as extraordinarius is almost 
sure, and very lately Prof. Ullmann has been called there to the 
professorship of Niemeyer. He will probably become a more sincere 
fellow-labourer than Thilo, although there is about him a good deal of 
fear and timidity of men. A little flock of faithful students is still 
remaining in Halle, and under God*s blessing will increase. The Ber- 
lin Church journal {Kirchemeitung) is becoming more and more a 
standard for the faithful in Germany. The persecutions Hengsten- 
berg has suffered on its account evince it the more a work agreeable 
to the Lord of the Church, and dangerous to its adversary, the foul 


fiend. The communications which it contains from America, have^ 
been a stimulus to many others as well as myself to fresh exertions. 
They are truly delightful. Pray send to me at Halle some more of 
your publications. 

I cannot help mentioning again our dear litde Krummacher. I 
understand that the mist which involved his mind is disappearing^. 
His spirit was terribly excited by the grand subject of predestina- 
tion, which his uncle had enforced upon his mind, and which was so 
violently combated at Berlin, and this has now come to be appre- 
hended by him as by his whole family as a truth. 

I send this letter to Havre by the kindness of Dr. farvis, an 

Episcopalian from Boston, who saw you in Paris. He intends to 

spend the summer of 1830 at Halle. Our dear Robinson has not yet 

reached Rome, and I do not know whether I am still to expect him. 

Pray dear friend write to me very soon and send to me whatever 

you think interesting. In the bonds of Christian fellowship, and 

with a greeting to your esteemed, though to me unknown, wife. 

Yours sincerely and faithfully, 

A. Tholuck 


Princeton, February 28th, 1829. 

My Dear FrUnd and Brother : — I wrote to you some months ' 
since, directing, as you requested, to the care of the Prussian Leg^a. 
tion, Rome. I write now to Halle, in the expectation that this letter 
will find you there by the first or middle of April. My affection for 
you remaining undiininished, I am very desirous to hear from you 
and learn the state of your health, and the character of your present 
prospects. I trust that your long absence in so delightful a country, 
and under such favorable circumstances, has been the means of re- 
storing your spirits and preparing you anew for the arduous duties of 
your station. Let me know how things look in Halle. What pro- 
gress the cause of truth is making there and elsewhere in Germany ? 
I feel a deep interest in all that concerns your important section of 
the Church, and cannot but hope that the time is coming when she 
will arise in new splendor from the ruins of her lamentable fall. 

With us there is little of much interest which you will not learn 
from the American journals. Although I feel as deeply as ever the 
great advantages which our ecclesiastical liberty confers upon us, and 
think that we have great reason to rejoice in the general prevalence 
of truth and piety in most sections of our country, I am now aware to 
a greater degree, than formerly, of the evils which attend even the best 
system. Our worldly men are more worldly even than yours. Reli- 


gkm bein^ no concern of the state, they do not even pay it the 
fennal regard which in your country it receives as a part of one 
general secular establishment Everything depends with us on 
public opinion, and this will, in the main, be right as long as vital 
piety be prevalent to the extent it is at present Revivals of religion 
continue in every section of the country, particularly to the North 
and East, and greater exertions are now made than ever before for 
the propagation of the Gospel, both at home and abroad, and for the 
difiiision of knowledge. 

My Berlin friends have never written to me. I wrote a few weeks 
after reaching home to Ludwig Von Gerlach, but have as yet received 
no answer. I long to hear from them, but fear to trouble them with 
my letters. I am very desirous to be kept informed of the progress 
of theological literature in Germany, and for this purpose have 
ordered several of your periodicals — ^the Tubingen Zeit-Schrift, that 
by Umbreit, Lucke, &c., the Evangelische Kirchen-Zeitung, and 
several others, but they come very slowly. July, 1828, is the last num- 
ber that I have received of the Berlin journal. Please speak to Mr. 
Funke (the manager of the Buch-handlung), and beg him to forward 
the periodicals as rapidly and as regularly as possible. Please order 
for us, from time to time, any book which you may think important 
for us to have, to the amount of from 50 to 100 Prussian dollars 
annually. You know the kind of books I want, valuable works on 
the langus^e, literature and exegesis of the Old and New Testa- 

As I presume so far on the bond of Christian fellowship which 
binds us together, as to make such demands on your goodness, can- 
not you find something for me to do for you ? Are none of your 
friends ever coming to our side of the Atlantic ? 1 should be de- 
lighted to have it in my power to manifest my gratitude towards 
Germany, by showing kindness to any German. I wrote a letter of 
introduction for Rev. Edmund D. Griflin, of the Episcopal Church, 
to you about a week since. He is the son of an eminent lawyer 
in New York, and a young man, I understand, of amiable character. 
1 do not know him personally, and therefore cannot say whether he 
belongs to the High-church or the Evangelical party of the Episco- 
pal church. 

My dear Brother in Jesus Christ do not forget me. Write to me 
ofken. Give my best love to Dr. Guericke, and to all my Berlin 
friends. May the best of Heaven's blessings always attend you. 

Your friend and brother in Christ, 

C. Hodge. 



Princeton, June 8th, 1829. 

My Dear FHend: — I received some weeks since your second 
letter from Rome, written on the eve of your departure for Halle. 
Some time before your letter was received, I had written and di- 
rected to you at Halle, under the expectation that you would be there 
in March or April. I greatly rejoice at the renewed health andf 
spirits with which you return to your usual duties, and cannot but 
hope that Providence will render you a great blessing to the section 
of the church in which he has called you to labor. The accounts 
which I have incidentally received regarding the progress of the Re- 
deemer's cause in Germany, are very encouraging, and make me 
regret that my means of intercourse with you are not more frequent 
and more direct. You are the only one of my German Mends who 
has written to me. 

I have just returned from Philadelphia, where I have been for the 
last two weeks attending the meeting of our'General Assembly. We 
had a large and interesting meeting, and have much reason to re- 
joice in the progress of the cause of Christ in our country. We 
received several very excellent letters from the French Protestant 
churches, with whom we have opened a correspondence, which bids 
fair to be mutually usefuL I will endeavor to send you a copy of 
our minutes, and of the reports of our several religious and benevo^ 
lent sodeties. They will serve to exhibit to you more of the activity 
of " the hands and feet *' of the church, and arouse you, who consti- 
tute the head and heart, to do your work in unison. I had the 
pleasure of seeing our good friend. Bishop Andres, in Philadelphia. 
This was his first visit to that city. He had been shut up in Bethle- 
hem, and has, I fear, not received the most favorable impression of 
his new residence. He complained much of the heat of the climate» 
and of the difficulty of adapting himself to it. I hope he may make 
me a visit in Princeton, it would give me the greatest pleasure to be 
kind to a real German. 

Please write to me soon and often. My heart yearns toward you 
with all its first affection, and I cannot bear to think that my dear 
friends abroad have so soon forgotten me. I heard lately from dear 
Monod, who is laboring faithfully and successfully at St Quintin, 
and^a little while after received from the Stadtrath Semler a beautiful 
litde picture of Lisco*s church, and a short note. I wish you would 
thank him for me, should you have an opportunity, though I hope 
soon to write to him myself. Give my best love to all my friends— 
both the von Gerlachs, Le Coq, Focke, von Senfft, Hengstenberg. 


Gaericke, &c. I often think of tlicm with great a£Rection. The intelli- 
gence which you gave me of Kmmmachcr's retnm, did not snrpiise, 
though it greatly rejoiced me. He will, I hope, come out from the 
fiery trial, by which he has been tried, as gold doably purified. 

May God our Saviour bless and keep you my dear friend and 
brodier, and enable us both to run, with joy, the race which has been 
set before us. Yours, with much affection and esteem, C. HoxxsE. 



Berun, July 14th, 1829. 

To Mr. Hodges — ^How ungrateful must I have seemed to you, my 
frigid dearly beloved in the Lord, in that I have left unanswered un- 
til to-day your letter of the 28th of last September — a letter so friendly 
and gracious ! I ask you, nevertheless, to believe that I, like your- 
self, hold fast the common interest which faith in Christ and His love 
has awakened in us, and that I constantly and thoughtfully recollect 
the blessings which God has bestowed upon me through the instru- 
mentality of His children in America, and especially through an ac- 
quaintance with the American churches, and particularly through 
yourself, since you have shown me the living image of that which 
written and printed descriptions but imperfectly represent. I feel so 
deeply in myself and mOst German Christians the lack of determina- 
tion and completeness which are to be found in both theory and prac- 
tice among the followers of Christ in England and America ; and I 
know so well that whatever profoundness of thought and feeling may 
exist in Germany is but a poor substitute for these effectual operations 
of the Holy Spirit. These latter qualities of the German character 
may very easily entice and lead us not to God, but into the abysms 
of Pantheism. For this reason communion with the Lord's people 
beyond the sea is a necessity. If, notwithstanding, I have left your 
letter so long unanswered, I must plead in excuse the press of affairs 
and business which my stay in Berlin brings with it Not every mo- 
ment b fitted for converse with so true and dear a friend. We await 
rather a time when heart and soul are fresh and free from business 
cares and outside impressions, and while thus waiting, month after 
month passes away. I am not even now able to write to you because 
the proper mood is come, but to-day is an important epoch and 
turning-point in my life, and I do not wish to carry over into the new 
period the debt of love which your letter of the 28th of September has 
laid upon me, although I repay it poorly and unsatisfactorily with 
these rapid lines, and your undeserved friendship and love will make 
me ever your debtor, 


To-day is my wedding-day. Let me but look into your house In 
Princeton at the joy of seeing once more your loved wife and children 
" all loveliness and promise to a father's eye," and then you will feel 
with me what I experience to-day, especially when you recall that it 
is, as you know, my second marriage. My life has not been, as you 
once said of your own, "like a silver stream.'* It has overflowed 
with sorrows. The mercy of the Lord meets me once more with con- 
solation and joy, but my heart has not yet recovered from its wounds, 
and longs to be free from sin and death, to rest in Him who alone 
hath everlasting joy and life. My bride is the cousin and dear friend 
of my late wife, and in this way first became dear to me. Gossner is 
to perform the ceremony. Day after to-morrow we leave for Halle, 
where I have been appointed Landg^richts-director, President of an 
inferior court of justice ; and there I hope to enjoy Tholuck's com- 
panionship. You will learn from the accompanying letters of Otto 
von Focke, together with much beside, that during last May we suf- 
fered a sore affliction in the loss through death of our dear friend Le 
Coq, with whom we were so often together. The peace and tranquil- 
lity of mind which characterized him lasted through many sorrows to 
the end, and his death awakened the heart of his brother, whom you 
also know, and moved him to give himself up wholly unto the Lord. 

The little time which remains for me to stay is ^most gone. J^t 
me beg you once more to pardon my long silence, and to rest assured 
of my warmest brotherly affection. As Cato always said, " Prseterea 
censeo Carthaginem esse delendam," so I say to you, and would 
like to say the same to all Christians in America, among others to 
Dr. Alfred Post, in New York. Be on your guard against material- 
istic politics and the false liberalism of the infidel French and English 
of the last century — ^Voltaire, Gibbon, Rousseau, &c., &c. Compare 
not only your doctrines, but also your feelings^ with those of the 
blessed Lord, of St Paul, and of the saints of former times, on the 
one hand, and with those of the liberals of our own time on the other ; 
but compare thoroughly and candidly, without prejudices, as before 
the all-seeing eye of the Holy One, and shudder if you disagree with 
the former and agree with the latter. Alas ! that Satan should always 
prefer to build chapels close beside the churches of God ! 

Yours forever, Ludwig von Gerlach. 

My warmest regards for Mrs. Hodge, my half-countrywoman. 


Berlin, July 29, 1839^ 

My Dearest, Dearest Brother : — Oh ! that I could express bywords, 
my dearest friend, how I love you, and how my heart longs to see 


JOQ. again in this life 1 But that b the blessing of the bond of Chris- 
tian love, that, although far separated by land and sea, the hearts are 
and remain united in tender and firm love and in prayer. God bless 
likewise our bond of love ; and as I never will forget my dearest and 
loneliest friend Hodge, you may sometimes remember Berlin, and 
pray for the friends you have in this city. Your friendly letter to von 
Gerlach has rejoiced us very much, and I hope that you will continue 
to conununicate to us from time to time news of your welfare. 

My friends have probably written to you that one of our dear bre* 
tfaven, the soft and lovely Adolph Le Coq, walks no more amongst 
ns. He was the best of the Christian friends here at Berlin, and 
therefore God hastened to bring him in peace. Oh, that we may see 
ourselves with him before the throne of God. What a joy to be 
vnited there with all friends in unseparated connection. There shall 
be no more leaving nor separations by land or by sea. Yes, there 
tiiall I see you again, and see your beloved wife and dear children. 

We had the last winter, also, some very dear friends from America 
here amongst us, the dear Post and Woolsey» but they were no 

Tlkat beloved word, 'America,* has been a great deal more in my 
&ind and heart since I met such dear friends from there, and know 
that they are safe at home again. Alas, that the world is so large, 
and friends so widely scattered. Prof. Tholuck was here during Whit- 
sunday and stayed with me. Remember him often in your prayers, 
that the Lord may give him faith, the most steadfast and happy, and 
also aid him with firmness and decision in his course of life. He is 
now engaged to a young lady in Halle. May the Lord bestow his 
blessings on this bond. He remembers you constantly with much 

Our circle of Christian friends, through the removal of the beloved 
Ludwig von Gedach to Halle, and of Prof. Hochweg to Bonn, and 
through the death of the blessed Le Coq, has suffered a very painful 
loss, and there is great need that the Lord raise up new brothers. 
Alas ! that there are so few Christians, and that even among Chris- 
tians themselves, there is so little firmness and decision. The Lord 
has visited Europe with severe trials and heavy calamities, with 
earthquakes, floods, violent storms, diseases, etc., but the majority of 
the people heed neither the voice of love nor wrath. 

The times appear to me to indicate more and more that the coming 
of the Lord is near at hand. Therefore we will take courage and 
await Him with watching and praying. Yes, He will surely come, 
and we will pray, 'come soon !* Now, farewell, God bless you and 
your dear wife and children, with His everlasting blessing. 


Let us receive good tidings from yon very soon, and write also 
some lines to me. 

Farewell, and remember your faithful and obedient brother in the 
Lord. Otto Von Focke. 


Halle, March 30, 183a 

My Dear Friend Hodge: — I sent you a letter last summer, some 
time in August. Did it not reach you ? It was my heartfelt expres- 
sion, but I have received no answer to it. I have been quite weU 
during the past winter, and have been able to do a great deal of 
work, but my wife* is very sickly the greater part of the time. In no 
way can I keep her with me very long ; yet the Lord*s will be mine. 
Our beloved Guericke, who enjoyed the happiest of marriages, has 
suddenly lost his wife in child-birth. He is so afflicted thereby that 
he is thinking of resigning his professorship, and becoming a pastor. 
We have experienced much in many ways during the last few 
months. The King has now appointed an able committee to investi- 
gate the teaching of Profs. Gesenius and Wegscheider, but no further 
results will be reached. On the whole I have not been able to agree 
with Von Gerlach's action—he is the author of the article in the 
Kirchenxeitung, The excitement is still going on here. I know not 
whether the cause is really advanced by it Yet there was a warmer 
and a firmer bond of love between some thirty students last winter 
than ever before. 

We had also established a missionary society, the regulations of 
which I enclose with this letter. I besought you urgently in my 
last letter to prove your friendship toward me by sending a contribu- 
tion to the Literary Advertiser, I will now limit still further my wish 
expressed at that time, and ask you only for the notice and critical 
opinion of the most current work in America for or against predesti- 
nation, together with a historical review of its advocates and oppo- 
nents. I beg you not to refuse me this friendly service. I shall soon 
expect its execution. 

In the Lord our Saviour, yours ever the same. A. Tholuck. 


Princeton, February 9th, 1831. 

My Dearest Tholuck : — How often and how affectionately my 
thoughts and heart have been turned towards you since I last wrote, 
it would be difficult for me to state. It is seldom, I believe, that a 

* Married since his return to Halle from Rome, summer of 2899^ 


day pdsses without your image presenting itself in some form or 
another before my mind. I commune with you in your writings^ 
where I trace those same featm«s which were so £uniUarly exhibited 
during our personal intercourse. Or I hold intercourse with your 
spirit through the recollections of the past. Rejoice over the remem- 
brance of your friendship, and in the prospect of meeting you Jen^ 
seits in a purer world. I have sympathized with you much in your 
trials in Halle. The more, because you could not, as you mention in 
your letter, fully approve of the course of your own friends. It is 
difficult for a stranger to enter understandingly into all the circum* 
ttances which should modify the application of general principles to 
particular cases, in a distant land. To us the principle on which our 
dear friend von Gerlach seems to have proceeded, that the members 
of a church should, while they continue such, conform to its stand- 
ards, seems self-evident. And in such a country as ours, its applica- 
tion is easy. But how it is possible, rebus sic stantibus, to do the 
same with you, it is not for me to judge. My feelings, however, side 
with von Gerlach and Hengstenberg in this business, and force me 
to dissent from the course the venerated Neander would have the 
friends of religion in Germany to pursue. I rejoice much in the 
spirit of your communication to the Evang. Zeitung, respecting the 
nature of your relation to die Rationalism of Halle. You will excuse 
my saying, that the drift of some passages of your discourse on the 
RelaMon of Revelation to Reason, published in your Anzeiger, made 
me fear that we differed considerably on this point, and that you 
were less impressed with the radical difference between the two sys- 
tems, Rationalism and Faith in God*s word, than we Positive men 
could have wished. The spirit of your communication to the Kirch- 
en-Zeitung has removed in a great measure this apprehension, and 
made me feel that we all are of one mind on this subject I regret 
that I do not receive the Anzeiger and other periodicals more regu- 
larly and frequently. Nothing later than May, 1830, has come to 

The wonderful changes that have occurred in the political state of 
Europe since you wrote, are full of interest for the Christian. I fear 
troublous times are at hand for your poor Prussians ; with Poland 
convulsed on the east, and intoxicated France on the west, it seems 
scarcely possible that peace can long be maintained. Will you not 
be tempted to seek an asylum on our peaceful shores, far from the 
struggles of the dying systems of feudal Europe ? I have profited 
much from the lessons of Ludwig von Gerlach, and though I rejoice 
in the progress oi liberty as much as ever, am rather cautious to see 
that what \&just, as well as what is desirable, should be kept in view. 

^ I 


I have not the purpose of writing on politics to you. The state of 
things in our country, politically, is not without its clouds. I do aot 
apprehend any serious convulsions, but our present rulers take such 
a view of our relation to the dependent Indian tribes on our borders, 
that I very much fear our national character will be deeply stained by 
their disregard of solemn treaties. The religious state of the country 
is as favorable as in years past. The number of extensive revivals in 
various quarters is considerable. For particulars I must refer to the 
New York Observer. The progress of the Temperance Reformation 
has been astonishing. No one could have imagined that such a result 
could have been produced by the simple proposition, that men should 
agree never to use ardent spirits except as a medicine. The consump- 
tion of this destructive article has, by the exertions of temperance 
societies, been diminished perhaps one-half. 

I thank you for the books which you ordered in my name at the 
Waisenhaus. I wish to receive the most important of your theologi- 
cal works, that I may be kept going, so to speak, with the German 
mind. We have not received the 2d part of the 2d volume of Nean- 
der*s Ecclesiastical History. Will you order for me a copy of Fpey- 
tag*s edition of Golius ; of Schlegel's Philosophische Vorlesungen, 
delivered in Dresden ; of the Greek Testament, Scholz ; of Dr&seke*s 
sermons, .and whatever good and new works you choose within 
moderate limits. 

Give my best love to Guericke. How severe has been his loss, and 
how shameful the treatment he has received ! I did intend writing 
to our friend Ludwig von Gerlach this afternoon, but am prevented 
by company. Assure him of my continued and warm affection. 
Dear Friend, do write to me. I long to hear from you. Do not pun- 
ish me for my silence. Write at once on the spur of the moment* 
You have a home in America whenever you choose to come and 
claim it. I saw Mrs. Robinson last October in Boston. I was much 
delighted with meeting her again. She appeared well and happy, 
and takes just and philosophic views of things in this country. The 
Richtung of the people is so different from her's, that she can hardly 
feel herself at home yet, particularly at Andover. I want to send 
you a set of the Biblical Repertory published here in Princeton. 

Love to all dear German friends. 

Yours, affectionately, C. Hodg& 


Princeton, April 6th, 1833. 

My Dear Friend: — In commending to your kind and affectionate 
reception Mr. J. A. Alexander, I feel as though I were commendmg 


my second self to you, if you will understand this expression as in- 
tended to convey, in the strongest terms, the interest which I feel in 
his welfare, and that I will rejoice as much over kindness shown to 
him, as if I experienced it in person. Mr. Alexander is my associate 
m the department of Biblical Instruction in our Seminary. He is 
more of a scholar, especially in your favorite field of Oriental Ian* 
guages, than any American within my knowledge, who has visited 
Europe. He is an amiable and excelleilt man, and what is of more 
importance, and of greater interest to you, he is a Christian. I feel 
assured, therefore, you will receive him for his own sake as well as 
mine, with open arms, and facilitate in every way you csm his improve- 
ment and happiness. I wish it were possible for him to spend the 
winter with you, as I have no doubt it would be of great service to 
him, and a great pleasure to you. His plans are not yet definitely 
fixed, and you may greatly aid him in making the most advantage- 
ous disposition of himself diuring his stay in Germany. Will you be 
good enough to facilitate his access to your scholars and libraries, 
and do for him as you did for me, which includes all kindness. That 
neither time nor distance has either weakened or changed my feel- 
ings for you, I hope your own heart will lead you readily to believe. 
You are as bad a correspondent as I am. I Mrish you would reform 
in this respect, and I will promise to follow your example. 

Yours, affectionately, C. Hodge. 


Halle, Whitsunday, 1833. 

Afy Beloved Friend and Brother in Christ: — From this subject in 
regard to which I have ventured to presume a perfect^unity of feeling 
between your Christian fellow-countrymen and myself, I will now 
pass to another, which by its close relation to the fate of the kingdom 
of God, affected me not less than the former. In regard to this I can- 
not presume upon such a unity with you and your fellow-countrymen. 
I mean the shock of Christendom through Liberalism since July 1830. 
It b true you remarked in a letter to Tholuck, Feb. 183 1, " That you 
have profited so much by my lessons, that though rejoicing in the 
progress of liberty as much as ever, you are rather cautious to see 
that what \sjust as well as what is desirable should be kept in view." 
But when the "just" and the "desirable*' become placed near each 
other, as two different things with a like meaning, then indeed does this 
seem far different firom the lesson which Christ the Lord taught us, 
" Seek ye first the kingdom of God and His righteousness (which com- 
prehends all that is "just") and all these things (the desirable) shall be 


ADDED unto you.'* Few things in my life have so long and so deeply 
affected me as the existence of Liberalism and its relation to the 
Church of Christ and to our 1^. If therefore, as I hope, the brotherly 
love which you entertained for me in Berlin, and have preserved on 
the other side of the ocean by letter, still dwells in your heart; then 
you will see nothing more than a desire for brotherly communication 
when I ask you to read what I have written since the July revolution 
in the EnangtUcal Church Journal upon this subject, and also in 
reg^ard to Church power, authority, freedom, etc., etc. It has surely 
reached you, and may I ask you to express yourself to me freely 

Should Christians be at variance on such grand and fundamental 
questions? Is it not a disgrace to the Church, that it becomes 
divided into two heads by political ideas, while in the i6th and 17th 
centuries religious doctrines divided the political world ? Is it not a 
shame that the earnest Christians of North America and Scotland 
should be under the same yoke with the Roman Catholic O'Connell, 
and the deistical and atheistical French liberals ? 

O, that the Lord would gather together the sheep of His fold ! That 
we who bear the name of Christ were at all points of like mind and 
heart ! What victories we could win under the banner of our Hea* 
venly Kingl 

With the most sincere brotherly love, yours most truly. 
Finished Jan. 23, i833* Ludwig Von Gerlach. 


Berlin, Feb. 28, 1834. 

My Dear Friend: — ^Three years have already flown by since I 
received your friendly letter, and during all this time I have left it un- 
answered. Meanwhile, I have heard with many heartfelt sympathies 
of your great bodily affliction which you have, however, if not alto- 
gether, yet in good part overlooked for the sake of your calling. May 
the Lord soon restore you to health, and prepare you anew both in 
body and mind for the responsible position you hold. It has given 
me much joy to receive through Mr. Alexanderf news from Princeton 
and America. I am of the opinion that the school of Prof. Stuart, to 
judge from his new "Comentary on the Epistle to the Romans," will . 
become the source of many heretical opinions, the beginning of which 
lies in his teaching concerning original sin, and of the Son of God, the 
eternal Sonship of Christ. I think it an excellent thing that opposition 

• " The Wesley of Bcriin.*' 

t Profcsaor Joseph Addison Alexander. 


to this departure from the true doctrine is already taken at Princeton. 
Moreover, I deem it a happy result that more life and animation in- 
fuse tiiemselves into the English and American literature through 
the influence of German theology. In England, where one finds so 
many treasures of books, and where Christian life especially prevails, 
thin{^ in the realm of theological learning are at a greater standstill 
than ever before. With us, thanks be to God, prospects have greatly 
br^htened since you were here. In Pomerania, where at that time the 
first great revival had occurred, the number of orthodox ministers has 
more than ordinarily increased. In one region there were seven of 
them in immediate neighborhood, and among them there is mud) 
genuine sympathy and much fellowship in the service of the Lord. 
The Bishop Ritschl has constantly been becoming more determined 
in his avowal of the Gospel. He is a blessing to the whole province, 
favoring everywhere the installation of Evangelical ministers and 
ti^e removal of the incapable and vicious. The number of believing 
ministers here in Berlin has increased. You are aware that the 
Methodist Minister Gossner, whom we have so often heard together, 
has become a disciple of J&nicke. His Church is crowded at all 
times, and his labors among the lower orders are especially rich in 
blessings. I am constantly forming the acquaintance of persons who 
have been brought into the Church through him. The Rev. Mr. 
Kuntze, who was in London assistant to Dr. Steinkopf when you were 
here, is also preaching now ; and for the past year. Rev. Mr. Amdt, 
a pupil of Strauss, has been laboring with churches constantly filled, 
and his labor results in many blessings. Further, no one of our 
believing pastors has been called away by death, and everywhere 
the number of their hearers has increased rather than diminished. Our 
missionary society is in a very prosperous condition, that is, when 
considered from a German and not firom an American or English 
point of view. Its revenue in comparison with the past has increased 
threefold in the last six years, and it now has thirty missionary posts. 
These have of course in many places to contest vigorously with the 
authorities, but these engagements have almost always resulted suc- 
cessfully, and they have brought about and increased brotherly 
lelations. Last fall, the first five missionaries were sent from here to 
South Afirica. Since they were detained by storms a long while on 
the Isle of Wight, the latest information we have of them is of their 
being on the Atlantic Ocean. The number of ministerial associations 
(Predigervereine) has greatly increased in Germany. In Silesia, in 
Prussia-Poland and in Prussia proper they are in part quite numer- 
ously attended. The persecutions on the other hand on the part of 
the Consistories have only begun here and there. 


Thus only recently a society in K5nigsberg, which was under th« 
direction of Dr. Ashansens, was suppressed by order of the King-, 
because (a striking circumstance which calls to mind the ivknaipei^ 
ifioc 6 laravof*) two of the ministers had become crazy for the ad* 
joumment of the convention. How effective Tholuck*s sermons are 
at present in Halle you will hear through Mr. Alexander. An old 
school-friend of mine, together with his wife, has lately been brought 
to Christ through one of them. The Christian work is progressing m 
Prussia as in several other of the German lands. Many active min- 
isters of the gospel have made themselves conspicuous in the kins'- 
dom of Hanover, which a few years ago was apparently dead. In 
Gdttingen my dear friend Julius Mtiller has become the universky 
chaplain ; he is a profound and righteous man, who has written an 
article against Hegel's philosophy in the Studien und KriUken. He 
also delivers lectures on exegesis and practical theology. L4icke, as 
you know, is there also. He is, however, at present, so feeble and 
undetermined, that I would not be surprised to hear that he accom* 
plishes little. In several of the cities of Hanover, where lately die 
Christian cause was entirely dead, there are now active ministers of 
the cross of Christ. Especially is the condition of the free-city Bre- 
men encouraging. Five ministers are laboring there with great 
earnestness and effect. They are aiding each other in their work, 
and a struggle between light and darkness, which is highly interest- 
ing, has begun there. In Hamburg the rising generation give 
promise of quite a number of ministers ; while the old people are for 
the most part worldly and inclined to universalism. The most dis- 
couraging outlook, however, is in middle Germany. In Leipsic and 
Jena scepticism is prevalent, and particularly in the province of 
Saxony matters have of late become rather worse than better. You 
will not be surprised when I state that the liberal constitution which 
that unfortunate land has received, increases still more this sad con- 
dition. In Hesse affairs are becoming now somewhat more en- 

At Cassel there are several evangelists, and also a clergyman. In 
Marburg Kling, the editor of Flatfs Lectures, has recently become 
professor of theology. The worthy Harless has now become professor 
extraordinary at Erlangen, and from him we look for a thorough 
commentary on the epistle to the Ephesians, in a short time. Only 
in TQbingen does the future seem dark. The old school of Storr, 
Flatt, etc., is now completely supplanted by the followers of Schleier- 
macher, as Baur, Hegel, Strauss and others. Steudel has very few 

• z Thess. a : x8* 


hearers. This is not to be wondered at, for that old school had be- 
come too indogmatical and too partial to exegesis, and their successors 
were becoming even shallower. 

At present the Prussian lands are enjoying in general the richest 
blessingSp and the others are beginning to rise from their wretched- 
ness. But in the otherwise so greatly blessed Wurtemburg, the cause 
of Christ seems to be greatly in danger on account of the many 
sects prevailing there. In our university here in Berlin things appear 
in many respects far otherwise than they did six years ago. Since 
the evangelical Kirchenzeitung oi 1830, Neander has labored in much 
doser connection with Schleiermacher, and withdraws still further 
from Hengstenberg. One notices this especially in the students, 
among whom since that time it appears to me that the Christian life 
h2is been sadly lacking in decision. On the other hand, since that 
time, Hengstenberg has had many hearers, and it is especially pleas- 
ing that so many thoroughly energetic disciples of Christ have at- 
tadied themselves to him and to me. 

You have probably learned ere this that Dr. Schleiermacher died 
on the 1 2th of February of this year. Up to the eighth day before 
bis death he had been in excellent health, and had read with me for 
three hours daily. Everything is now in great commotion over the 
important question as to who is to become his successor. The great 
majority as far as shown by open manifestation are for Twesten — 
particularly so is Neander and his followers, together with all the 
partizans of Schleiermacher. On the other hand the theological faculty 
(to which Neander at present does not belong) has come forward 
with a request to the Minister to call Olshausen ; a step which has 
caused great surprise. Should the latter be called I would be more 
than ordinarily rejoiced, for notwithstanding a peculiar weakness of 
his, I regard Olshausen as one of the best thinkers and most deter- 
mined men among our University theologiahs. His commentary 
has already had a second publication in two volumes. It is widely 
circulated and accomplishes much good. Twesten, on the other 
hand, agrees almost altogether with Schleiermacher, and is said to 
be a worldly-minded, fickle man, who visits the theatre, indulges in 
high living and neglects in this manner the proprieties of his vo- 

After this much of public news, let me say a few words about our 
friends here and in other places. Frau von Schonberg, at whose 
house you often met with us, has dwelt for the last three years in 
Stettin, where her husband is the Ober-president of Pomerania. 
Her quiet, devout disposition and her energetic love have accom- 
plished even more there than they did here, where she labored in a 


mere retired position. She is helping greatly the advancement of 
the cause of Christ. Count Groben is still in his former position. It 
was only last week that he lost his only and very amiable daughter, 
yet he will be greatly strengthened in the Lord by this calamity. 
Our old friend Senfit has been married for four years, and already 
has three children. He has an excellent, truly Christian wife, and 
gives evidence of being happily married. He heartily returns your 
greeting, and thinks of you often with tender love. Focke has been 
in very poor health for three years, so that we have often indeed 
believed that God wished to call him out of this, to him, oppres»ve 
life. However, he is now recovering again by degrees, and we hope 
yet longer to keep him with us. The old venerable Baron Kottwitz 
is still living, now in his 77th year. The king has often of late 
shown him confidence in a noteworthy way, and he has thereby 
brought it about that four new churches have lately been built in 
our densely populated suburbs. I am to become pastor of one of 
them in a few months, but will also continue to lecture in the univer- 

The great gap that was made by the death of our beloved friend 
Le Coq, is still at all times painfully present to me. You will be 
able to imagine in some degree how sad his loss was to us. What a 
lovely image of our Lord shone in his heart 1 How one could turn 
to him at all times, and ever find the same honest, loving, friendly 
heart, the same desire for the advancement of the kingdom of God. 
Hengstenberg has been married also for some time, and although 
" considerably under thirty," yet is even now the Dean of the theo- 
logical faculty. The third volume of his " Christologie '* will appear 
soon. After which he is purposing to write either a great work on the 
authenticity of the Pentateuch, or a popular commentary on the 
Psalms. I advise him, by all means, to undertake the former of 
these in the first instance, since I deem a critical examination of the 
Pentateuch as the most important work for a Professor of the Old 
Testament. My own studies draw me more and more from the pe- 
culiar German kind of scholarship. I am inclined too much to 
action, too greatly adapted to church work. Hence I cannot bury 
myself so to speak, among my books, as is necessary for a German 
scholar. Yet I have chosen for myself a subject which sooner or 
later will prove of greater importance, if God gives me time and 
strength, viz., a history of Christian Church government in connec- 
tion with a dogmatic exposition of the doctrine of the Church. 

I have been engaged for three years on a practical edition of the 
Bible, which is to contain the Lutheran text, with short explanatory 
remarks. The printing of the New Testament will begin this sum- 


mer. For the future I am purposing to found near my parish a small 
Minister's Seminary, similar to that of Wittemberg, but " non salari^ 
par r etat " — ^but upon the American principle of disconnection be- 
tween church and state. You have perhaps seen my plans in regard 
to these things (much talked about between us in 1827 and *28) in 
Thoiuck*s " literary Advertiser/* of 1832, where the article upon 
"The re-arrangement of the Church Government in the Evan- 
gelical Church " was written by me. You have no doubt also seen 
the long article by me, which appeared in the September number of 
the " Evangelical Church Journal," for last year, entitled, " Con- 
cerning the ctdtivation of the relations between Church and State in 
the Lutheran and Reformed Churches." In regard to this, your 
acquaintance has been a great advantage to me ; for without it I 
could scarcely have become acquainted with North America in gen- 
eral, or interested myself in any degree in it. I have requested 
Mr. Alexander to send me the most important historical works on 
North American Church history. You promised me this six years 
ago, but I have received nothing. May I ask you to assist him with 
your advice, since you understand me and my needs. 

Now I must conclude, my dear friend, ever present to me in my 
thoughts. Keep for me across the ocean your sincere love until we 
see each other in the future, where we may embrace without sin in 
the society of the blessed. O ! may no one of all those who are 
mentioned in this letter be left behind. " May each one who has 
such hope within him, purify himself even as he is pure," and un- 
ceasingly seek for the jewel of a heavenly calling. With the request 
for a few lines, as opportunity may offer, 

I remain in sincere love, your friend and brother, 

Otto Von Gerlacr. 


During all these years he exchanged weekly letters with 
his brother. He had never known a sister nor any other 
brother. They were only eighteen months apart in age, 
and in childhood and youth had been all in all to each 
other. They were one in principles, opinions and interests, 
temporal and spiritual. Their differences of character and 
position were precisely such as to cause them to be mu- 
tually attracted to and dependent upon each other. In this 


correspondence Dr. Charles Hodge's whole life, inward and 
outward, personal and family, lies embalmed. Throug^h 
this channel, for fifty-three years, from his settlement in 
Princeton in 1820, to his brother's death in 1873, he poured 
^out without reserve all the contents of his mind and heart. 
The whole is a singular monument of that brother's nobility. 
The Philadelphia brother was the elder, with much more of 
the instinct and habit of the anxious care taker than was 
proportioned to the difference of age. He was of the more 
cautious disposition, and of the more deliberate and cooler 
judgment He was a skillful and experienced physician. 
He lived in a great city, lately the seat of government of 
the United States, and, at the time of which we write, the 
ecclesiastical metropolis of the Presbyterian Church in 
America. After his practice was established, and he had 
entered upon his professorship in the medical department of 
the University of Pennsylvania, he became the richer of the 
two. Thus it came to pass, that in all things he was his 
brother's counsellor, supporter and comforter. Before the 
days of railroads, telegrams and express agencies, he was 
the unwearied agent for the execution of a ceaseless stream 
of commissions. No matter who else was the family 
physician, every detail of morbid symptom of every mem- 
ber of the Princeton &mily was narrated to him, and his 
advice sought, and often his personal presence asked for 
and obtained. When the children multiplied, and expenses 
with them, when the theological professor's salary &iled to 
be paid for months, and the Editor of the Repertory was 
pressed for money to pay its bills, for which the returns 
from subscription were at first entirely inadequate, the 
Philadelphia brother, with inexhaustible generosity, came 
to the rescue by loans and absolute gifb. 

It was during these years, from February, 1830, to De- 
cember, 1840, that Professor Hodge's six youngest children 
were bom. The letters, like an echoing gallery, repeat the 
voices of those days, and bring back into the present, not 

. sS.J FAMIL Y LIFE. 227 

only the words but the very flush, and tone, and gesture by 
which his love for and delight in these little ones is ex- 
pressed. They are full of their doings and sayings and of 
the lather's joy and pride and hope on their account. They 
were. at every age and at all times allowed free access to him. 
If they were sick, he nursed them. If they were well, he 
played with them. If he were busy, they played about him. 
His- study had two doors, one opening outward towards the 
Seminary kt the convenience of the students, and a 
second one opening inward into the main hall of the home. 
Hence his study was always the &mily thorough&re, 
through which the children, boys and girls, young and old, 
and after them the grandchildren, went in and out for work 
and play. When he was too lame to open the door, and 
afterwards when he was too busy to be interrupted by that 
action, he took the latch from the doors, and caused them 
to swing in obedience to gentle springs, so that the least 
child might toddle in at will unhindered. He prayed for 
us all at &mily prayers, and singly, and taught us to pray 
at his knees with such soul-felt tenderness, that however 
bad we were our hearts all melted to his touch. During 
later years he always caused his &mily to repeat after him 
at morning worship the Apostles' Creed, and a formula, of 
his own composition, professing personal consecration to 
the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost But 
that which makes those days sacred in the retrospect of his 
children is the person and character of the fitther himself 
as discovered in the privacy of his home, all radiant as that 
was with love, with unwavering &ith, and with unclouded 

His musical tastes and talents were not remarkable, 
yet he loved good music, and especially singing, which 
appealed to the religious affections. His older children 
remember him before his lameness walking up and down 
his study singing devotional hymns. Finding that his 
second son, while an infant on the knee, discovered special 

228 RECREATIONS. [^Sjo-* 

susceptibility to music, he revived his own ilute-playingf, 
which he had practiced when a theological student After— 
wards he got a violin for his boy, and the grave professor 
and commentator himself used it until he had acquired 
quite a respectable skill. 

Partly because of his lameness, and partly because of his 
taste, he always kept a single horse or pair from 1832 until 
his death. Partly to provide for their support, and partl3r 
for his own recreation, he purchased November, 1830, si^c 
acres of ground, immediately adjoining the Seminary pro- 
perty to the westward. To these he subsequently added 
by purchase, two acres in the spring of 1832. He culti- 
vated these lots for more than a quarter of a century, witK 
great interest and success. He manured and limed and 
drained them in the most advanced methods. He raised 
the best crops, of the finest quality and largest quantity in. 
proportion to his ground, known in the neighborhood. 
Successes of this kind pleased him very much, and the onl3r 
boasting his most intimate friends ever in all his life knew 
him to express by word or look, came from him colored 
with a boy's enthusiasm in view of such achievements as 
these effected through the instrumentality of his hired man. 
Especially was this the case when on some occasion he 
exhibited to a farmer or other competent judge some high- 
bred calf or colt he had raised. He intelligently appre- 
ciated and heartily delighted in all the points which exhibited 
and proved their perfection of type and style, and their 
physical excellence in general. To the end of his life he 
delighted in fine horses, and would listen with animated 
interest to the conversation of gentlemen who also happened 
to be connoisseurs in horse lore, and were describing the 
perfections of some celebrated horse, or narrating his 
achievements on the road or course. 

. 34.] HJS MOTHESrS DEATH. 229 


In April, 1832, his beloved mother died after a brief ill- 
ness, so unexpectedly that her youngest son, although he 
used all diligence, was unable to reach her bed-side until 
after her departure. As soon as he returned to Princeton 
after her funeral, he wrote to his brother: 

" I was much mistaken in thinking I should have little compara- 
tively to call dear mother to mind. Almost everything, I find, is in 
some way associated with her. So many articles of clothing Of the 
duldren, so many of their books and playthings, and so many of my 
own clothes bear marks of her care, that she is constandy recalled to 
our recollection. The loveliness of the children now gives a moum- 
fiil pleasure, as I know that the eyes which would have looked on it 
with so much delight, are now closed. But constant recollection of the 
mercy of God to her and to us, the thought of how much everything 
has been ordered as she would have wished, soothes and satisfies 
me. I feel very much for you, my dear brother. Great as I feel my 
own loss to be, I know yours is greater. You have a daily and sen- 
sible void in your circle of duties and enjoyments. But as you have 
more to mourn for» you have more to console you. You were the 
chief earthly stay and comfort of our dear parent, and most of the 
happiness of this world which she enjoyed came through you. You 
too had the inexpressible satisfaction of being with her to the last ; 
of seeing and receiving the evidences of her confidence in her Re- 
deemer, and the assurances of her love. So dear brother you have 
every consolation of which such an affliction can admit. 

Your loving brother, C. H." 

In July and August of that year, the Asiatic Cholera 
prevailed in this part of America for the first time. Its 
character and the condition of its progress appeared mys- 
terious; its virulence baffled the skill of the physicians, and 
its ravages were dreadful. Four citizens of Princeton fell 
victims to it that season, and quite a number of the laborers 
on the canal and stragglers from the road came into the 
village hospital to die. Mr. Hodge was very active in as- 
certaining from the most competent sources the proper 
treatment of the disease, and in visiting the patients in per- 

230 POLITICS. [i^Si- 

son, and in making arrangements for their comfort Every 
case and its treatment was made a subject of consultation 
with his brother. The son as well as the brother of a physi- 
cian, and having in early manhood attended lectures on 
anatomy and physiology, he always took the greatest inter- 
est in reading upon and discussing medical questions, and 
in cases of necessity, was himself capable of acting the part 
of a respectable practitioner. 


He was always an attentive and interested witness of 
political events, and entertained and expressed the most 
decided opinions. He was trained by his family in the 
opinions of the old Federalist party of Washington, Hamil- 
ton and Madison, and he held them tenaciously as principles 
to the end of his life. He had a poor opinion of President 
Jackson, and of the Locofoco party, and was a warm advo- 
cate of the protective tariff, and of the United States Bank. 
He always adhered to the old Whig party until its death ; 
then in 1857 voted for Fremont, the first Republican candi- 
date for the Presidency, and continued to be a decided Re- 
publican as long as he lived. 

He writes to his brother, October ist, 183 1 : 

My Dear Brother: — ^The commencement passed off much in the 
usual manner. As I seldom attend on such occasions I cannot speak 
of it from personal knowledge. Mr. Dallas' oration on the preced- 
ing afternoon was better than that of Forsyth the year before, but 
still very deficient in solid worth. The only production of this kind 
which seems to have given much satisfaction generally was that of 
Mr. Wirt He, it seems, is the anti-masonic candidate for president 
I wish he could succeed. But this splitting up the anti- Jackson men 
into Calhoun, Clay and Wirt factions will only secure their own 
defeat, and burden the country with the present miserable incumbent 
for another term. The apathy of the people in respect to his miscon- 
duct is of serious omen for the future. The missionaries in Georgia 
are probably, through his desertion, by this time condemned to tlie 
penitentiary for four years ! Verily, I think I could in such a case 

.35] POLITICS, 231 

^join a rebellion, with a clear conscience* as I am sure 1 could with a 
fall heart But not a voice is raised on the subject. The dreadful 
excitement on the negro question will absorb all interest in the South 
for a time. I heard to-day that fresh murders had been committed, 
and that one planter had called up four of his slaves, and caused 
them to be shot without the pretence of a trial, and that it was feared 
a dreadful massacre of the blacks might yet occur. The papers state 
that tortures are resorted to to extort confessions ; that the suspected 
u« flogged to make them confess and disclose. This is a most de- 
plorable state of things, and will serve to exasperate the feelings of 
the South gainst the North, although it be more than ever unrea- 
sonable. Your brother, C. H. 


March 10, 1832. 

The decision of the Supreme Court has filled all hearts here with 
gratitude and joy. The memory of these judges will be cherished as 
long as good men live in America. It is the most important decision, 
taking all things into view, which that court ever made. Jackson 
men here, at least the best of them, say they will stand by the Court 
in preference to their master, and I hope there will be enough equally 
well principled to cause it to be the course of policy to execute the 
laws. Your brother, C. H. 


December 15, 1832. 

My Dear Brother: — I rejoice with you over the President's pro- 
clamation — it is excellent, worthy of Washington in doctrine and 
spirit. I presume it was written by Taney, the Attorney General, 
who is a Federalist. Livingston took different ground, I remember 
in his speech on nullification in the Senate from that assumed in the 
Proclamation. He differed from Webster, especially where Webster 
and Jackson coincide. That is as to the origin of the Government. 
Webster and the Proclamation saying that it was formed by the peo- 
ple of all the states as a whole. Livingston maintaining that it was 
a compact between the several states as such. I conclude, therefore, 
that he is not the author of this paper. Besides its whole spirit is too 
elevated. It is a striking proof of Jackson's imbecility that he can 
put his name with so much composure to documents which differ so 
entirely in doctrine as the Veto Message and the Proclamation. I 
should feel still more rejoiced at the character of the latter if I thought 
the old gentleman really understood it, or knew what he said. I 
should not be surprised to find that when called to act on the princi- 

232 POLITICS. [1833. 

pies just avowed, he should allow Amos Kendall to prepare a pro- 
clamation worthy of the most atrocious Jacobin, and sign it without 
remorse, or even the consciousness of his folly. Still what we have 
is a great good, for which we should be thankful. And if the Presi- 
dent be true to his text, I would be for voting him a statue and for 
evoking the spirit of Phidias to make it. 

Your brother, C. H. 


January 23, 1833. 

My Dear Brother: — ^We should ail be very thankful that God has 
led Jackson to do his duty in the present crisis so promptly and ably. 
1 like the Proclamation, however, better than the Message, though 
the latter will do. The true policy now for the NuUifiers is to secede 
from the Union (1. /., according to their own principles). Their laws 
and ordinance rendered the collection of the revenue under the 
existing laws of the Government out of the question. Jackson pro- 
poses to alter those so as to secure the revenue, and render nugatory 
all that Carolina has done. If they go no further they are ridiculous. 
Besides standing on the ground of nullification they stand alone. 
The whole South as well as West and North pronounce that a heresy 
— ^but the advocates of the right of secession are ten to one to those 
who advocate nullification. As soon as they assume the position of 
seceders, they have the opinion and sympathy of a large portion 
of the South in their favor. If Virginia holds the right of secession 
how can she either aid or allow the exercise of that right being de- 
nied to a sister state ? Beside the casus contemplated in the ordi- 
nance has so nearly arrived should the President's suggestions be 
acted upon, that it would be folly in them to think of hesitating for a 

This seems to me so clearly the policy of these disorganizers that 
I much fear they will pursue it, and then, unless God in mercy pre- 
vents, we shall have hard times. 

Your brother, C. H. 


January 28th, 1834. 

My Dear Brother: — Nothing, I think, has yet appeared compara- 
ble to Binney's speech, except Webster's short expos6 of his views. 
Gold coin drops from his lips whenever he opens his mouth. He is 
still among the statesmen facile primus. 

Your brother, C. H. 

iBT, 39.] POLITICS. 233 


August 1st, 1837. 
My Dear Brother: — \^ it true that Maryland is going with the Ad- 
ministration ? ! ! It is beyond all comprehension, and affords 
another proof of the ascendency of the rabble. If we could have a 
Republic with the right of suffrage restricted to householders, who 
can read and write, and have been at least ten years in the country, 
we could get along grandly. But a democracy with universal suffrage 
will soon be worse than an aristocracy with Queen Victoria at the 
head. I feel such an interest in that youthful sovereign, that I could 
acknowledge her authority with far more complacency than that of 
Martin Van Buren. 

Your affectionate brother, C. H. 


January 9th, 1834. 
My Dear Brother : — I have been reading Major Downing's Life 
and Letters. It is a most excellent and useful book ! not merely for 
excellent humor and point, but for a complete exhibition of the whole 
nature, machinery and chicanery of American politics. It is grand. 
There are a multitude of letters which I never saw in the papers, and 
some of the best of the Portland, or real Major's production. Of the 
New York Major there are only two or three given by way of appen- 
dix. Your brother, C. H. 


August 17th, 1837. 
) My Dear Brother : — It seems that, notwithstanding all the country 
has suffered, the elections are going in favor of Van Buren, almost 
as much as ever. I do not believe we can stand it much longer. 
We must get rid of universal suffrage or we shall go to ruin. 

Your brother, C. H. 


June 7th, 1839. 
My Dear Brother : — ^The little Queen has my hearty approbation ! 
Which she will no doubt appreciate duly. Sir Robert Peel has made 
a great mistake as far as I can see. He moved too soon. He ought 
not to have displaced the ministry until his road was clear, but hav- 
ing done it, to be frightened back by these ladies of the bed-chamber, 
appears ridictdous. 

Your affectionate brother, C. H. 


Although heartily and conscientiously an American 
patriot, maintaining that the United States is a Nation, and 
loving it and admiring its institutions as more excellent 
than those of any other, he was ever proud of his part in 
the inheritance of Anglo-Saxon traditions and glories. 
Great Britain was loved and honored as the Mother- 
country, and her history and prestige were sacred to him. 
Above all was he a life-long admirer of the Duke of Wel- 
lington, and the history of all of his campaigns and battles 
was known to him in all its various versions and critical 


The portion of his life allotted to this chapter was for the 
greater part a long scene of severe physical suffering and 
confinement. His affliction was an obscure affection of the 
thigh of the right' 1^ ; as to the nature and proper treat- 
ment of which different opinions were given by different 
physicians ; and the views of the same physicians wavered 
with the changing aspects of the case. The final judgment 
was that it; was an inflammation of the thigh-joint, which 
was arrested by entire rest and depleting treatment in its 
earlier stages, after which the cold douche and gradual ex- 
ercise restored the tone and usefulness of the limb. 

He had suffered much pain, and undergone treatment for 
the same trouble in the earliest years of his professorship. 
During his residence of two years in Europe, he was almost 
entirely relieved from any inconvenience from this source, 
so that he was able to climb over the ascents and the gla- 
ciers of the Alps for days. A result which Mr. Hodge 
attributed to the salubrity of the climate. After he came 
home, for the first four years, he suffered only as he was 
limited in his powers of locomotion, by the weakness and 
tenderness of that leg. But in the spring of 1833, he was 
commissioned to canvass the Presbyterian Churches of the 
city of New York, for the purpose of collecting money for 

--■T. 35-41.] LAMENESS, 235 

die erection of the new chapel for Princeton Seminary. He 
made several visits to the city, and spent many days in 
going over its vast distances on foot The result was a 
violent and permanent aggravation of his disease. The 
pain became severe, the distress occasioned by walking un- 
bearable, and the limb shrank in size. He returned home, 
and was put almost at once upon his back, and subjected to 
a most violent system of counter-irritants. While in Phila- 
delphia consulting several eminent physicians, Dr. Archi- 
bald Alexander wrote to him from Princeton, August i8th, 

Princeton, August i8th, 1838. 

My Dear Sir : — I hope you will not suffer your mind to be dis- 
turbed about Seminary affairs. It is in every way for the interest of 
the institution that you should take the most effectual measures for 
the restoration of your health. Make this for the present your only 
object. Composure of mind is one of the best medicines in all 
diseases. " Be careful for nothing." Roll all your burdens on the 
Lord. He knows best how to dispose of you» and what afflictions 
are necessary. We shall, I trust, get along very comfortably here. 
The students, when I was attacked, wished to have a suspension of 
all exercises for a week or two, but it was judged inexpedient. 
Several, however, have gone home, and will not return this session. 

Yours, affectionately, A. Alexander. 

When Mr. Hodge came back he was put flat upon his 
back upon a hard paliasse, resting upon a narrow couch, 
moving on rollers. The policy of absolute rest was tried 
in the first instance, his body was perfectly and rigidly 
horizontal, and his right leg fixed immovably in a wooden 
splint For months he was kept in that position, night and 
day, without change, until at last it was only gradually, and 
interrupted by many turns of &intness and dizziness, that 
he could be accustomed again to assume a sitting or stand- 
ing position. In January, 1834, the methods of cure began 
to be so ias ameliorated that his limb was released from the 
wooden splint, which was replaced by a splint made of 

236 HIS 57 UD Y CHAIR. [1839. ' 

straps of steel, more elastic and capable of being easily car- 
ried while he was in a vertical position, and of being put 
on or off as occasion required. While reclining horizon- 
tally, by far the greater part of the time upon his couch, he 
now began to move somewhat about upon crutches. In 
June, 1834, he tried sea-bathing at Old Point Comfort, the 
site of Fortress Monroe, Virginia. During August of the 
same year he tried the same agency with little effect at 
Cape May, New Jersey. On his return he was again almost 
entirely confined to the house, and by &r the greater part 
of the time to a horizontal position. He slept by himself 
in the back parlor, where after so many years he died. His 
couch occupied during the day, from September, 1833, pre- 
cisely the same position in his study as that subsequently 
occupied by his chair until the time of his death, a period 
of forty-five years. The chair in which all his students 
and surviving friends remember to have seen him either 
sitting or reclining was given to him by his brother, Novem- 
ber, 1839, and was thenceforward used by him exclusively 
as long as he lived. Indeed he did not leave it until about 
the end of his last sickness. He said pathetically a few 
days before he died, " this chair and I for forty years have 
been growing to each other very closely." This fact is a 
striking and characteristic illustration of his constitutional 
trait of conservatism — ^forty-five years reclining and sitting, 
reading, writing, praying and talking in one spot of one 
room. During all these years also he omitted on no single 
morning, when at home, to record the direction of the 
wind, and the state of the thermometer, and of the sky. 
He likewise, until almost his last years, resisted all the 
efforts made by a younger generation to induce him to have 
his clothes made elsewhere than at the same old shop 
which he had patronized from the first, through all its suc- 
cession of occupants. There was no element of his nature 
inclined to new measures, any more than to new doctrines. 
During this time, from the early autumn of 1833 to 


t < 


AT. 35-41.] ffIS LAMENESS. 237 

1836, he was most heroically treated with violent counter- 
irritants. His hip, and thigh, and knee were over and over 
again blistered, cupped, rubbed with tartar emetic and 
iodine; treated with issues, and setons,- and the moxa, i>., 
burnt with actual fire from the hip to the knee. All this 
he bore, not only with bravery and resignation, but with 
habitual cheerfulness, and continued without serious inter- 
ruption, constantly engaged in his studies and writing. In 
the fall of 1834, his distinguished friend. Professor Joseph 
Henry, brought his battery to Mr. Hodge's study and 
applied galvanism to his limb, without any known effect. 
In the spring of 1838, he believed that he had made no 
progress toward recovery, and becoming impatient of the 
old methods, he urgently pressed upon his physicians the 
propriety of his trying either the hot springs of Baden in 
Germany, or those of Virginia. After much discussion 
and many plans, he settled down to trying the effect first 
of warm baths, and then in October, 1838, of the cold 
douche upon his lame hip and thigh, in his own home. 
With the use of the latter, the tone and strength of the 
limb gradually returned, and he slowly increased his exer- 
cise, and laid aside first one crutch and then the other, and 
finally settled down upon the support of a cane which he 
used until the end of his life. 

All this time of languishing pain and confinement, his 
general health was preserved almost in perfection. He not 
only was well, but he appeared to others unusually fresh 
and youthful. This is to be attributed to the strength of 
his constitution — ^the placidity and sunny cheerfulness of his 
disposition, his Christian faith, and his remarkable tempe- 
rance in food, and regularity of habit. Few men have ever 
been known who possessed a more complete control over 
their appetites, and although his emotions were always 
strong, and on occasion uncontrollable, he was characterized 
to a remarkable degree by the faculty and habit of throwing 
off from his mind all painful or disagreeable subjects. On 

238 BIS LAMENESS. [i833-40- 

December 3d, 1834, he writes to his brother, " I have not 
walked across the room without a crutch for a year and 
a half." He has marked as a note attached to his daily 
record of the weather, under date of July i6th, 1842, 
" Preached in Elizabethtown for the first time since 1833 ;" 
that is this was the first instance of his preaching in that 
time. Again, under the date of September i8th, 1842, 
" Preached in the Chapel for the first time." And on the 
19th of June, 1843, "Walked to town (the village) for the 
first time in ten years." 

During the worst of this time, the latter part of 1833 and 
the first of 1834, he employed at his own expense, with the 
assistance of a friend or two, of whom the sainted Dr. Miller 
was the principal, the Rev. Austin O. Hubbard, of the last 
graduating class, as an assistant Mr. Hubbard relieved 
him of the Hebrew, while Mr. Hodge continued to lecture 
on Introduction and Exegesis. Mr. Joseph Addison Alex- 
ander was appointed assistant in his department^ and en- 
tered upon its duties immediately upon his return fi'om 
Europe in May, 1834— -declined his election of Adjunct 
Professor of Oriental and Biblical Literature in 183$! and 
accepted it, and was formally installed in 1838. 

From the summer of 1833 to the 22d of February, 1836, 
with a trifling exception, in June, 1834, Dr. Hodge met his 
classes in his own house, sometimes in the study and 
sometimes in the back parlor. The rooms being crowded 
up to the edge of his couch with settees during class time, 
while during the intervals the settees were pushed together 
to the walls. 

Meantime, it was evident that he was conducting his 
studies and using his pen under the most serious f^ysical 
embarrassments. From 1833 to ^^4^ inclusive, he wrote 
twenty-eight articles for the Repertory, besides reading and 
editing all the rest While at the worst, l)ring perfijctly 
horizontal, and at times, at least, with his right leg in a 
splint, he wrote his reviews of Stuart on the Romans, and 


of Barnes on the Romans, his two articles on the Act and 
Testimony, which shook the Church, and shaped its history, 
and his own commentary on the Romans. He learned 
then to write upon a board covered with leather held upon 
his breast by his left arm. This plan he practiced exclu- 
sively until 1853, when he was with some difficulty induced 
by his wife to substitute for the board the table, which in 
the wood-cut of the study is represented as standing at the 
side of the chair. His later articles, commentaries and his 
" Systematic Theology," were written sitting at that table. 
While confined to his couch his books were placed in part 
in a revolving case, and stood in every available place on 
stands and chairs by his side, while, of course, at Uiat time 
he fell back constantly upon the assistance of members of 
his fiimily, to get his books and place them in convenient 
positions, and to read to him while he copied or translated 
passages for quotation. 


The fact of his long confinement, and the further fiict that 
he was in age and general qualities the central man, the 
common bond of intercourse and action among the Prince^ 
ton Professors of that day, caused his study to be for many 
years the meeting place and intellectual exchange of both 
Institutions. Here during all these years the &culty of 
the Seminary held all its meetings. Here the Associa- 
tion of gentlemen which conducted the Repertory met 
for the reading and criticism of articles, and for the 
discussion and decision of £he policy of the Review. 
Here all debates and consultations of general interest 
were held, and here literary strangers, visitors to either 
Institution, were brought to meet the gentlemen of the 
town. Here almost every night for long years came 
Professors Dod and Maclean, and frequently Professors 
James W. Alexander, Joseph Henry, and the older Profes- 
sors, A. Alexander, and Samuel Miller, President Camahan, 


and frequently when visiting the town, Professors Vethake 
and Torrey, and Dr. John W. Yeomans. Thus at least 
in the eyes of the young sons, gleaming out from the 
comers, from the shadows of which they looked on with 
breathless interest, this study became the scene of the most 
wonderful debates, and discourse on the highest themes of 
philosophy, science, literature, theology, morals and poli- 
tics. When Professor Dod was here alone, the time was also 
improved by playing chess, at which he was a distinguished 
master. Mr. Hodge at that time attained to such skill in 
this intellectual game, that he held his own respecta* 
bly, not only with his habitual antagonist, Professor Dod, 
but also upon occasion even with Professor Henry Vethake 
of the University of Pennsylvania, one of the most distin- 
guished chess players of the United States. 


August 2d, 1836. 

My Dear Brother : — I am glad you were in season to welcome 
your fourth son into the world. There is no reason for turning up 
your nasal member at boys. They are not to be despised. Happy 
is the man who has his quiver full of them, he shall talk with his 
enemy in the gate. If he turns out to be a good man, that is better, 
because a harder and a rarer thing than a good woman. Train him 
up in the right way, and leave the result to God. 

Your affectionate brother, C. H. 


January nth, 1838. 

My Dear Brother : — I have had Dr. Sweet to see me ! What a 
fall was there, my countrymen ! I, the son, the brother, the hus- 
band (?), the father, it may be, of a doctor, harboring a quack, 
illiterate and presimiptuous. I suppose you will cut my acquaintance 
instanter. You must at least admire my courage in telling you. Send 
me a dose of pnissic acid. 

Yesterday afternoon when I came from recitation I found a plain, 
respectable old gentleman, about sixty, sitting in my study waiting 
my return. He handed me a letter from a clerical friend, begging 


to introduce Dr. Sweet, who, he assured me, had been effecting a 
multitude of marvelous cures in his neighborhood, and entreating 
me not to allow the fear of quackery to induce me to decline his 
services. Here then was the man himself, of whom I had heard so 
much, who had been recommended to me by lawyers, bishops, mer- 
chants, ministers, sent without any agency or preconcert of my own. 
Was this not Providential ? Would it not be a foolhardy rejection of 
a chance of relief to turn my back upon his offers of assistance 1 I 
confess I thought so, and felt quite moved. On conversing with him 
I found he was ignorant to a wonder. He informed me that the 
sciatic nerve was the round ligament; that the doctors were in a 
manner unaccountable to him, unable to discover a dislocation, when 
he could see it in a moment. His whole language was that of an 
illiterate roan. On the other hand there was much to inspire confi- 
dence. In the first place he was plain and serious, just such a man, 
they say, as General Harrison, whom you tried to make President of 
the United States. In the second place, his grandfather and his 
father had been bone-setters before him ; he himself has done nothing 
else for more more than forty years. If there is anything in a here- 
ditary gift, or if practice makes perfect, he surely might challenge 
confidence jn his own calling. In the third place, admitting one-half 
of his vaunted cures to be imaginary, there remains a multitude of 
cases which cannot be questioned. I know of several on the best 

human testimony. Young is one ; Mr. of Rahway, is 

another, who had been for years under Stevens & Mott, and could 
hardly walk on crutches, who was dancing in a ball-room within a 
month after Sweet took hold of him. He is sent for all over the 
United States. He went not long ago to Kentucky, to see a Mr. 
, who had not walked in ten years, In a week he was walk- 
ing about, and in three weeks he was riding on horse-back, and 
carrying on like a young man. For this cure he received five hun- 
dred dollars, and is to receive a like smn if the cture proves perma- 
nent. This last story is his own. He certainly has a wonderful 
memory, for he went into details, the most minute, about cases which 
I had heard of from other sources. Well, do you blame me now ? 
Only the other day he cured (he says) at Mount Holly, a young man 
whom Randolph had kept twenty-three months in a splint. He was 
walking about the streets when he (Sweet) left him. This is one of 
the cases my clerical friend referred to. 

When he examined my limb, he pronounced immediately that the 

hip was out of joint and the kn^e also ! ! This was really too much. 

However he convinced me that my diseased limb is nearly an inch 

longer than the other. At least I did my best to make the measure- 



ment accurate. He was not unduly urgent for me to submit to his 
operation. He said it would not last more than ten minutes, nor 
give more pain than drawing a tooth ; that it would require very little 
force, nor more than half his strength ; that I could immediately 
walk about the house without crutches, and in a week or two walk as 
well as ever ; that he never persisted in an operation when a patient 
complained or fainted ! but used all possible gentleness. 

Even Sarah began now to give way, and urged that I should let 
him begin, and make him stop when the pain became severe. But I 
refused, and manfully held fast to my integrity. So after he had sat 
here four hours and a half, I paid him ^5 for the expense of coming^ 
at the request of my friend, and dismissed him, saying, that as soon 
as I was convinced that my hip was out of joint I would send for him. 
Now if you do not glorify me at a great rate for this, I will send for 
him right off. For I am by no means sure that I have not acted like 
a big fool. He may be entirely mistaken in his absurd talk about 
dislocations, and yet, like those famous shampooers of the East, 
have a knack of cracking a man*s spine, neck and hmbs, greatly to 
his edification. I maintain I have performed a great action. Whether 
a wise or foolish one you must judge. 

Your brother, , C. H. 


January i6th, 1838. 

I feel unsettled and dissatisfied about myself, and you must not be 
surprised if (should we all live till spring) I should enter on some 
desperate enterprise. I have of late suffered more pain than usual, 
particularly at night. What gradual change there is in my limb 
is for the worse, I am sure, though I cannot trace its progress. I am 
also impressed with the belief that this limb is longer than the other. 
I have repeatedly had it measured since I first mentioned the fact, 
and always with the same result. The idea that is now haunting me 
is the possibility of getting to some hot mineral baths. I should 
greatly prefer those in Virginia, could I get to them. But how to 
travel so far is the question, and the accommodations for bathing, I 
am told, are very poor. I have thought that by getting a dearbbm 
wagon on easy springs, and large enough to hold my mattress, I might 
lie down and ride even over the rough roads, for the one hundred and 
fifty miles from Richmond. Were I rich I would venture on going 
to Baden, though I have no desire to cross the ocean again. By 
going first to London, then to Rotterdam, and then up the Rhine, I 
could reach those springs with little or no land carriage. 

Your brother, C. H. 


His brother, while with characteristic generosity offering 
him pecuniary assistance to execute his desire of visiting 
the hot springs of Baden, expressed his want of confidence 
in the proposed remedy, and in the virtue of natural mineral 
waters in general. Hence the following philippic against 
doctors in reply. 


January 29, 1838. 

My Dear Brother: — I am going to write a philippic against doctors, 
founded on your last letter. If the public have no confidence in the 
profession you have to thank yourselves for it. You not only call 
yourselves pretenders, vain boasters, etc., etc., but make assertions 
which shock the common sense of mankind. For example, you say 
that hot water is hot water whether it be in Germany, Virginia or 
Princeton. This of course means that the hot natural mineral baths 
have no greater remedial powers than artificial hot baths. Now this, I 
maintain, is contrary to reason, to testimony and to experience, 1. /. 
it is opposed to all the kinds and degrees of evidence that can by 
possibility apply to the case. It is contrary to reason that different 
things should have precisely the same effects, and hot water is a 
different thing from hot sulphureous water impregnated with iron, 
magnesia, and other matters. Secondly, a hot bath is a very different 
thing from those natural bathing places where the patient imbibes, 
exhales, inhales, absorbs and drinks down, for what I know, the 
fumes of these medicated waters hour after hour. Your assertion is 
contrary to the testimony of all classes of men. Dr. Johnson says, 
that though he cannot explain it, it is still the fact that one grain of 
iron in the natural mineral waters produces a greater tonic effect 
than one hundred grains administered as an artificial preparation. 
Besides this kind of testimony there is that of those who, having 
tried the artificial baths to no effect, have been essentially benefited 
by the use of the natural ones. And finally as to experience, those 
baths have been frequented, in some cases for six hundred years, 
by hundreds and thousands of people. Are all mankind crazy? 
Might all these people as well have stayed at home, and sat down In a 
tub of hot water? Is a medical fact (the most slippery thing in 
nature, I admit) utterly incapable of being established even by the 
experience of thousands of years and of thousands of individuals ? 

I know your answer to all this — " Charles wants to go, and he will 
pniYe it reasonable.*' But I Inve no fancy for the journey nor for 


the isolation from friends and home comforts. I should rejoice to 
be able to believe that all the advantages of these springs could be 
obtained at home. As to the French douches, you forget I tried 
them all one summer to no purpose. The idea of comparing such 
matters with one of nature's steaming caldrons, in which the patient 
lies for hours at a time beneath a vaulted roof, inhaling sulphureous 
fumes, while his body soaks in hot medicated waters, is like compar- 
ing a trickle of tepid water to a thundering cataract. So much for 
the philippic, in which there is so much good nature, I fear it will be 
but a hrutum fulmen. You must consider it as written in great wrath. 

Your affectionate brother, C. H. 

He, however, submitted to try first the hot and then the 
cold douche at home, and afterwards rapidly and perma- 
nently improved. 


June 5th, 1838. 

My Dear Brother: — ^We have had a visit of two or three days 

from the Rev. Samuel Hodge, of Tennessee, an humble, pious and 

sensible old gentleman. His grandfather came from the North of 

Ireland, and settled in North Carolina. He says the name is quite 

common in Carolina and Georgia, and he is inclined to think from 

the similar physique, that all who bear it are of one origin. " They 

are characteristically large men, with light complexions, friendly, 

ytt ready to fight** 

Your affectionate brother, C. H. 

When writing his " Constitutional History of the Presby- 
terian Church in the United States,** he consulted his bro- 
ther as to the best sources of information upon the subject 
of nervous epidemics, &c. This he sought by way of 
preparation for discussing the history of the physical phe- 
nomena accompanying the revival of religion in Kentucky 
in the early years of this century. 


August 15, T839. 

My Dear Brother: — You seem to think I meant to penetrate very 
far into the labyrinth of medico-metaphysical speculations about 


nervous diseases.* You need not be apprehensive on that score. A 
single page will probably embrace all that I have to say, but to write 
that page, I should like to read a volume or two. A page will con- 
tain a good many assertions, and I should like very much to be able 
to make them on good authority. The phenomena of fainting, con- 
vulsions, jerking, etc., which have in all ages attended strong and 
general religious excitements, I am persuaded are nothing but one 
form of an infectious nervous disease, generated by strong impres- 
sions on the imagination and lively emotions. If so they have noth- 
ing to do, properly speaking, with religion, and instead of being 
encouraged or tolerated, as they almost always have been by good 
men to the great injury of religion, they ought by all means to be 
guarded against and suppressed as much as epilepsy or hysterics. 

Your brother, C. H. 


October 10, 1839. 

My Dear Brother: — I was greatly concerned to hear of the suspen- 
sion of your banks. It must be a death-blow to the Whig party, as it 
will turn popular clamor against all banks and their advocates. There 
was great joy in Washington when the news reached there, beyond 
all doubt. The sub-treasury is now inevitable, and we shall have 
all the loco-focos dipping their straws into the molasses hogsheads 
of the people's money, and smacking their lips at a great rate. This 
is not the worst of it. I cannot see how the banks can retain their 
charters. If these are withdrawn, what a revolution of property must 
take place. How many hundreds, who depend on bank dividends, 
will have no income, until they can get their money back and re- 
invested, should the banks prove ultimately able to pay their stock- 
holders. However, the Lord reigns. 

With regard to your physico-theological investigation, I fear I can 
give you little assistance. You are beyond my depth. I do not 
know of any speculation on the subject, and I suspect we all know 
just nothing. We can only reason from analogy. A plant is a plant 
the moment the seed begins to sprout. It has all that is essential to 
its nature, not only as a plant, but as a plant of a certain genus or 
species. It has its own specific vis farmatwa, if that is anything 
more than an infidel expression for the divine energy. Still it has its 
own character from the beginning. So with regard to every animal. 
I should suppose it must be granted that it has its specific character 
from the commencement of its organization. If this is so, why must 
it not be allowed that the himian being is a human being from the 


beginning ? There is no greater difference between the new bam 
infant and the embryo, than between the infant and a full-grown man. 
I should say, therefore, that the moment life begins, it is the life of a 
human creature, having all the essential attributes of such a bein^. 
And life begins when development or growth begins. The human 
soul, as I understand the matter, has no separate existence (in this 
world) from the body, nor the body from the soul. 

If I can hear of anything on this subject, I will let you know. Do 
write to me and let me hear how the world wags. 

Your affectionate brother, C. H. 


October 15, 1839. 

My Dear Brother : — I am happy to hear of your professional suc- 
cess, and hope you may meet with many such instances to make up 
for your sleepless nights and laborious days. 

I feel very much concerned about the poor Bank of the United 
States, not only, and, as I fear, not chiefly because of the distress 
which her misfortune must occasion, but I am mortified as a Whig, as 
a Philadelphian, as an American. It is a shame, no doubt, to blame 
Mr. Biddle and the Bank for measures, which, before the issue was 
known, were almost universally regarded as wise and salutary. Still 
his reputation must suffer, as there can be no doubt that the present 
result has proceeded mainly from his measures. The general causes, of 
which you Philadelphians speak, will account for the general pres- 
sure on the money market, but not for the peculiar pressure upon 
the United States Bank. You may remember that Mr. Biddle, in his 
last letter to Mr. Adams, said, that instead of restricting its operations 
during the suspension of '37, the Bank greatly enlarged them ; that 
it advanced freely to planters and banks on the pledge of cotton » 
and he boasted, and with great reason, that he had thus saved the 
country millions, and had enabled it to pay honorably its debt to 
England ; and now, he added, the bank should resume its appropri- 
ate sphere as a Bank. Unfortunately, however, the Bank was not 
able to get out of its mercantile business. It was still obliged to deal 
largely in cotton. Whether this arose from the premature resump- 
tion of specie payments, or from hope of gain, it is acknowledged 
that the Bank did deal immensely in cotton. It subjected itself, 
therefore, not only to banking, but also to mercantile risks, and now 
that cotton has come down, the Bank suffers. I have seen these 
things said over and over, and long ago in the English papers, and 
Mr. Biddle censured for making the Bank a great trading concern. 

MT. 27,] THE *• PRINCETON RE VIE Wr 247 

Add to all this, the large investments which the Bank has made in 
other banks, in railroads, &c., &c., thus locking up its capital, and I 
tlunk there is no great mystery in the result. I sincerely hope she 
may weather the storm, though it be at a great loss. 

Some of the newspapers are perfectly atrocious in their abuse. The 
Journal of Commerce calls it a broken conqprn mercantilely and 
morally, exhorts all the Philadelphia banks to throw out its paper as 
bankrupt rubbish, or they will all sink with it, &c., &c., and points 
with exultation to its stock at 70. 

This is rather a strange letter for me to write. It is written before 

breakfast, while waiting for the lazy part of the family, and therefore 

may be a little crusty. 

Your affectionate brother, C. H. 


As has been above noticed, Mr. Hodge began in Janu- 
ary, 1825, the publication of a quarterly journal, under the 
title of the " Biblical Repertory. A Collection of Tracts in 
Biblical Literature/' The design of this publication was 
"to assist ministers and laymen in the criticism and in- 
terpretation of the Bible." It had been occupied for the 
first four years almost exclusively with reprints and transla- 
tions of the essays of European scholars. Prof Robert B. 
Pattoh had acted as editor during Mr. Hodge's absence in 
Europe. The translations had been prepared for the most 
part by President James Marsh, then of Hampden Sidney, 
Virginia, Drs. James W. and Joseph Addison Alexander, 
and by Professor Patton and Mr. Hodge. In January, 1829, 
the entire plan and management of the journal was changed, 
and the " New Series " of Volumes date from that year. It 
was thenceforward entitled "The Biblical Repertory and 
Theological Review." Its object is declared in a long Ad- 
vertisement to be 1st, to furnish Christian readers with " fa- 
cilities for a right understanding of the divine oracles;" 2d, 

2 48 THE ** PRINCE TON RE VIE WP [ 1825. 

" to bring under strict, impartial review the philosophy and 
literature of the time, and show their influence, whether for 
good or evil, on biblical interpretation, systematic theology, 
and practical religion, in doing which it will be necessary to 
correct and expose the error of founding religious doctrines 
on isolated passages, and partial views of Bible truth, or 
forcing the Scriptures to a meaning which shall accord with 
philosophical theories;" 3d, "To notice and exhibit the 
dangers of the particular form of error prevailing in the 
period;" 4th, *'To present the history of religious doctrine 
and opinion, to notice the revival of old and exploded doc- 
trines, and their effects on vital religion ;" Sth, " To con- 
sider the influence of different principles of ecclesiastical 
polity on piety, morals, literature and civil institutions;** 
6th, " To observe and sustain the various enterprises of 
Christian benevolence, especially the vast and growing in- 
terest of Sabbath-schools;" 7th, "Such attention as the 
limits of the work will admit, will be bestowed on the im- 
portant interests of general knowledge, and select literary 
information will be given in every number;" Sth, "The 
work is not designed to be controversial in its character, 
but to state temperately and mildly, yet firmly and fear- 
lessly, Bible truth in its whole extent" This commenda- 
tory advertisement is signed by the following leading 
ministers of the day: Ashbel Green, Samuel Miller, 
Archibald Alexander, John H. Rice, Ezra Fisk, Ezra Styles 
Ely, Francis Herron, Thomas Cleland, Samuel H. Cox, 
Thomas H. Skinner, James Hoge, Henry B, Weed, Wil- 
liam Nevins, Joseph Sanford, Thomas J. Biggs, Samuel L. 
Graham, Luther Halsey. Thus some of the strongest and 
most prominent partizans of each of the two Schools, into 
which the Presbyterian Church divided in 1 831, were in 
1829 united in laying the foundations of the Biblical Reper- 
tory, destined to take so decided a part in the coming con- 

The new Review henceforth instead of bearing the name 

Mt, 27-74.] riTB " PRINCE TON RE VIE Wr 2 49 

of a single man, was edited by an "Association of Gentle- 
men in Princeton." These were Rev. Drs. Archibald Alex- 
ander and Samuel Miller, the Rev. Mr. Hodge of the 
Seminary, and President Carnahan, and Professors Maclean 
and Dod, of the College. The Rev. James W. Alexander, 
then of Trenton, New Jersey, and Mr. Joseph Addison Alex- 
ander, then of the College, and afterwards of the Seminary, 
were from the beginning copious and most important con- 
tributors to the Review, and they soon beg^n to take a 
leading position in its editorial management. In 1837 the title 
was changed to "Biblical Repertory and Princeton Review." 
In January, 1840, the " Literary and Theological Review" of 
New York, hitherto edited by the Rev. Mr. Pigeon, in the 
interests of the old orthodoxy, was merged into the " Bibli- 
cal Repertory and Princeton Review." Although conducted 
by an association of gentlemen from 1829 to 1855, Mr. 
Hodge was the actual working editor during the greater part 
of the time, to whom fell the correspondence, the procuring 
of contributions, and in the first instance, their examination. 
In 1856 he again put his name on the title page as sole 
editor, which position of unrelieved labor and unshared 
responsibility he maintained until the end of the year i868- 
Thes he was fortunate enough to secure the consent of 
Rev. Lyman H. At water, D.D., of Princeton College, to act 
as his colleague in the Editorship. Dr. Atwater had abun- 
dantly proved his pre-eminent fitness for this great office, by 
the ability and steadfast orthodoxy of his contributions to 
the Review for many past years. And henceforth, although 
Dr. Hodge's name continued to appear on the title page as 
senior Editor, and he continued to share in its direction and 
to contribute to its pages. Dr. Atwater discharged the major 
part of the work. After the reunion of the two branches of 
the Presbyterian Church, the "Biblical Repertory and 
Princeton Review'' was in 1872 combined with the "Amerir 
can Presbyterian Review " of New York, with the title of 
" Presbyterian Quarterly and Princeton Review^' under the 

2 50 " PRINCE TON RE VIE W. " [ i8 J9-56. 

editorial management of Rev. Dr. L. H. Atwater, and Rev. 
Dr. H. B. Smith. And in the latter end of 1877 it wa9 sold 
to the present editor of the new ''Princeton Review** a 
transfer for which Dr. Hodge was in no degree responsible. 
He was the founder of the Review, and he continued in 
connection with it as sole or joint editor, from January, 
1825, to December, 1871, a period of forty-six years. 

Of the management of the Review by an "Association 
of Gentlemen/' which continued from 1829 to 1856, Dr. 
Hodge writes in his " Retrospect of the History of the 
Princeton Review** published in the Index Volume in 1868: 
" The Association above-mentioned was not defined within 
very strict limits, nor was it controlled by any special terms 
of agreement. It consisted of the more frequent contribu- 
tors to the pages of the journal, who were willing to assume 
the responsibility before the public of its character and con- 
tents. It included the Professors of the Theological Semi- 
nary, and some of the officers of the College. Although 
the laboring oar was still in one pair of hands, it was of 
importance that the work had the sanction of a number of 
gentlemen who had the confidence of the public; and it 
was a real advantage that all contributions touching delicate 
or difficult questions were read and canvassed by the Asso- 
ciation before being committed to the press." 

The most eminent and frequent contributors were Dr. 
Samuel Miller, Drs. Archibald, James W. and Joseph Addi- 
son Alexander, Profs. Dod, Maclean, Stephen Alexander, 
J. H. Mcllvaine, Wm. H. Green, James MofTatt, Lyman H. 
Atwater and John Forsyth ; the Hon. Chief Justice Lowrie, 
the Hon. Stephen Colwell, of Pennsylvania, and Samuel 
Tyler, of Washington. Dr. Samuel Miller contributed be- 
tween 1830 and 1842 twenty-five articles; Dr. Archibald 
Alexander in all seventy-seven articles ; Dr. Joseph Addi- 
son Alexander, ninety-three; Dr. James W. Alexander, 
one hundred; Dr. Lyman H. Atwater contributed from 
1840 to 1868 sixty-six articles; and Dr. Hodge in all con- 

AT. 27-74.] DR. HODGE AS A RE VIE 9VER. 2 $ I 

tiibuted one hundred and forty-two articles, averaging with 
his proportion of the literary notices, at least five thousand 
octavo pages, or ten ordinary octavo volumes. These arti- 
cles of Dr. Hodge were in the form both of essays and of 
reviews, didactic and controversial, and they ranged over a 
wide circle of subjects, including besides theology and bib- 
lical criticism, discussions in metaphysics and psychology, 
in personal, ecclesiastical and political ethics, and in all the 
range of ecclesiastical polity, constitutional and administra- 
tive, theoretical and practical, springing from the passing 
events of the time. 

The grand characteristics of these reviews are knowledge, 
clearness and iaith. These, in the degree and combination 
in which they existed in Doctor Hodge, gave them the 
qualities of breadth, independence, moderation, conserva- 
tism, clearness of thought and style and eminent conviction. 
His religion was a personal experience. The most close 
and critical observer never in any moment of his living or 
dying hours saw in him the least symptom of doubt. That 
Christ is what he is set forth in the Scriptures to be, and 
that the Bible is the infallible word of God, were facts insep- 
arable from his personal consciousness. The logical force 
and habit of his mind made him see and grasp all things in 
their relations. All that he saw to be logically involved in 
a vital truth by which he lived, was to him part of that 
truth. Thus he experienced the whole Calvinistic system, 
and would defend it at all cost as the truth of God, from 
loyalty to Christ, and love for human souls. The whole 
was a matter of conscience and of life and death. Hence, 
also, he was apt sometimes, as his critics have successfully 
pointed out, to go beyond the warrant of historical &ct, in 
asserting that the Church had everywhere and always held 
as he held as to secondary matters. Hence, also, he saw 
all truths in their relations. Defect at the circumference 
threatened heresy at the centre, and defective theistic con- 
ceptions of men of science in the various spheres of nature 

252 DR. HODGE AS A REVIEWER. [1829-^. 

threatened atheism, and were to be met and vanquished at 
the time and place of their birth, before they had gathered 
strength, or extended their pernicious influence. Hence, 
also, from his logic, came the symmetrical form into which 
his essays were arranged, like an army skillfully set for 
battle ; and from his faith came that momentum and pene- 
trating force of absolute conviction which rendered the 
serried ranks of the attacking army irresistible. Hence he 
was transparently disinterested and essentially impersonal. 
He fought only in obedience to the Master, for the honor 
of Christ and the salvation of souls. It was God's cause, 
and all personal share in it was swallowed up in that awful 
fact, always and perfectly realized. He cherished inimical 
feelings to no man, or class of men, except in as &r as he 
thought he saw they were opposing God's truth, and were 
thus knowingly or ignorantly dishonoring Christ and im- 
periling souls. Only once in all his life did he strike out 
with an angry, personal intent, and that was in the article 
entitled " The Princeton Review and Cousin's Philosophy," 
April, 1856. The occasion was that Caleb S. Henry, D.D., 
after waiting seventeen years, had attacked Dr. Hodge's 
friend, Albert B. Dod, eleven years in his grave, for an arti- 
cle on Transcendentalism published in 1839. ^^ ^i^ strike 
in wrath the man who tore open the grave of his friend. 
But with regard to all other opponents, he had no other 
thought or feeling than that involved in the reverent defence 
of the ark of God. If others praised him, he rejoiced in 
their love, and thanked God, to whom only praise belongs, 
and from whom alone all graces come. If others angrily 
scourged him in their attacks or replies, then, after the first 
sentence in which he detected the flavor of the hostile ani- 
mus, he closed the page, and refusing even to hear what 
had been said, he banished the whole thing from his mind. 
He certainly missed much improving discipline, which his 
antagonists have laboriously prepared for his good. There 
probably was never another warrior of equal extent of ex- 


perience who sat so habitually in placid unconsciousness of 
the missiles of the enemy, whether from the ambush or the 
open battle, whether the pistol or rifle of the newspaper, or 
the siege-guns of the great reviews. 

The same qualities caused him to be both conservative 
and moderate. He was conservative because the truth he 
held was not the discovery of the progressive reason of 
man, but the very word of God once delivered to the saints, 
and therefore authoritative and irreformable ; and because 
reverence for that word repressed in him all ambition for 
distinction as the discoverer of new opinions, or as the 
improver of the faith of the Church. The consistency with 
which, under all changes of times and party-combinations, 
he for fifty years maintained without shadow of change 
absolutely the same principles was very remarkable, and 
without any parallel in this age. He held precisely the same 
doctrines in his age as in the early controversies of his 
youth, and the same principles as to the relation of govern- 
ment to moral and religious questions, and as to temperance 
and slavery after the war as he did years before. He was 
always moderate also, because his loyalty to the Master 
made party spirit impossible, and because the amount of his 
knowledge and force of his logic caused him to see things 
in all their relations in all directions, by the aid of the side- 
lights as well as by the aid of those shining in the line of 
his direct vision. Of the fact of his moderation, his whole 
controversial history is an illustration. Dr. Ward, the 
editor of the Independent, notices this trait in an editorial 
on occasion of Dr. Hodge's semi-centennial celebration, 
April, 1872. The form and spirit of his "Systematic 
Theology" abundantly and conspicuously show it when 
compared with the representatives of the extreme par- 
ties of the Reformed Churches, as Beza and Gomarus, on 
the one hand, and Amaraldus and Placaeus, on the other 
The same is shown by his position as to the questions 
of slavery, temperance and Romish baptism. At first 


he Opposed the ultra Old School men in 1836 who 
were bent on the division of the Church, because the New 
School brethren were too bad to live with. Again, he op- 
posed the same men and their successors in 1866 and '8, 
who would precipitate the re-union of the two branches, 
because the same New School brethren were too good to 
live without "As early as 1855, some of our southern 
friends who had taken extreme ground as to the policy of 
boards, raised a further question as to the prerogatives of 
the Church respecting matters that had secular relations 
and bearing. Dr. Hodge, in the Review^ earnestly opposed 
the extreme action carried by a small majority at Indiana- 
polis. A harmonious understanding, however, seemed to 
have been reached, after the warm, though courteous, de- 
bate at Rochester in i86a But when the Church in 1861 
(the Spring Resolution) apparently leaned over to the op- 
posite extreme, he still adhered to the principles of the Ro- 
chester action. No articles from his pen have attracted 
more general attention or called forth more praise and cen- 
sure than those on the state of the country and affiliated 
subjects. During the excitement of the times, the radical 
friends of the North and the ultra friends of the South cri- 
ticised him with unmeasured severity; but the Church and 
the country appears to be gradually returning to his mode-* 
rate position." Thus the rock in the sea by maintaining 
through all tempests an unchanged position, at once op- 
poses and measures the oscillations of the changing tides 
and of the restless waves. 

He possessed in perfection that kind of bravery which, 
while perfectly consistent with humility, love of approba- 
tion, and love of ease, yet makes it easy for a soldier to do 
his duty regardless of opposing odds and of consequences. 
It is an historical fact that he quietly took the personal re- 
sponsibility of the Princeton side of all the controversies for 
the forty years of the most momentous controversies ever 
known to the American Church. He just as often stood up 


in defence of his opinions in the face of opposing majorities 
33 with their support. He alternately opposed both sides, 
and often stood almost alone, as before the General Assem- 
bly in Philadelphia in 1861. The press of the city, the mob 
in the street, the majority in the Assembly, the constituen- 
cies at home, were all violently excited at the futile opposi- 
tion made to their wishes. Many men were swept off their 
feet by excited feeling, and many more were intimidated. 
One confessed to Dr. Hodge : " I am opposed to these re- 
solutions, but if I vote against them, I can never go home." 
But then, as under all other circumstances, for fifty years 
Dr. Hodge stood fast where the Master put him. Not one 
of his debates or controversies was ever prompted by am- 
bition, or by any inspiration of the mere gaudia certaminis, 
but in every instance he spoke by way of obedience as the 
servant and soldier of Jesus Christ. " Here I stand, and 
cannot do otherwise. God be my help. Amen." 

Of the general character and conduct of the Review, Dr. 
Hodge himself wrote in his Retrospect of the History of the 
Princeton Review, in the Index Volume, 1868 : " The con- 
ductors of the Princeton Review, however, were Presbyteri- 
ans. They firmly believed that' the system of doctrine con- 
tained in the Westminster Confession of Faith, the system 
of the Reformed Church and of Augustinians in all ages, is 
the truth of God revealed for His glory and the salvation of 
nien. They believed that the upholding that system in its 
integrity, bearing witness to it as the truth of God, and its 
extension through the world, was the great duty of all those 
"W^ho had experienced its power. They believed also that 
the organization of the Presbyterian Church, its form of 
government and discipline, was more conformed than any 
other to the Scriptural model, and the best adapted for pre- 
serving the purity and developing the life of the Church. 
It was, therefore, the vindication of that system of truth and 
of the principles of that ecclesiastical polity, the conductors 
of this Journal, from first to last, had constantly in view. 


In this world life is a constant struggle against the causes 
of death. Liberty is maintained only by unsleeping vigi- 
lance against the aggressions of power ; virtue is of neces- 
sity in constant antagonism to vice, and truth to error. 
That a Journal consecrated to the support of truth should 
be controversial is a matter of course; it is a law of its ex- 
istence, the condition of its usefulness. The Bible is the 
most controversial of books. It is a protest against sin and 
error from beginning to end. To object to controversy, 
therefore, is to object to what is in this world the necessary- 
condition of life. It is, consequently, no just ground of re- 
proach to this Journal that it has been engaged in contro- 
versy during the whole course of its existence. If it has 
always contended for the true and the right, and done this 
with due humility and charity, it has fulfilled its destiny. 
That it has often failed — ^at least in spirit and maAner — ^may, 
and we fear must, be conceded. All such &ilures are to 
the surviving conductors matters of regret ; but they can 
honestly say they have ever labored to support the truth of 
God and to promote the interests of His kingdom to the 
best of their understanding and ability." " It is with un- 
feigned and humble gratitude to God that the conductors 
of the Biblical Repertory and Princeton Review can look 
over the comparatively long period of its existence with the 
conviction that from first to last it has been devoted to the 
vindication of that system of doctrine contained in our 
standards, and which, as all Presbyterians believe, is taught 
in the word of God. No article opposed to that system has 
ever appeared in its pages. It has been the honest endea- 
vor of the conductors to exhibit and defend the doctrines of 
our standards under the abiding conviction that they are 
the doctrines of the word of God. They have advanced no 
new theories, and have never aimed at originality. Whe- 
ther it be a ground of reproach or of approbation, it is be- 
lieved to be true that an original idea in theology is not to be 
found in the pages of the Biblical Repertory and Princeton 

^' ^7-74.] ^^^ QUALIFICATIONS AS A RE VIE ITER. 257 

Review from the beginning until now. The phrase ' Prince- 
ton Theology/ therefore, is without distinctive meaning." 

The following interesting testimonies as to the character 
and conduct of this Review is furnished by independent and 
competent witnesses. The British Quarterly Review, in an 
article on the American Press, January, 1871, says: "The 
Princeton Review is the oldest Quarterly in the United 
States. It was established in 1825 by Charles Hodge, the 
well-known commentator on the Epistle to the Romans, a 
Professor in Princeton Theological Seminary. It is beyond 
all question the greatest purely theological Review that has 
ever been published in the English tongue, and has waged 
war in defence of the Westminster standards for a period of 
forty years, with a polemic vigor and unity of design with- 
out any parallel in the history of religious journalism. If 
we were called to name any living writer who, to Calvin's 
exegetical tact, unites a large measure of Calvin's grasp of 
mind and transcendent clearness in the department of sys- 
tematic theology, we should point to this Princeton Profes- 
sor. He possesses, to use the words of an English critic, 
the power of seizing and retaining with a rare vigor and te- 
nacity the great doctrinal turning-points in a controversy, 
while he is able to expose with triumphant dexterity the 
various subterfuges under which it has been brought to 
elude them. His articles furnish a remarkably full and ex- 
act repository of historic and polemic theology. The great 
characteristic of his mind is the polemic element ; accord- 
ingly we find him in collision with Moses Stuart, of Ando- 
ver, in 1833, and with Albert Barnes in 1835, on the doc- 
trine of imputation ; with Prof. Park, in 1851, on 'The The- 
ology of the Intellect and the Theology of the Feelings ;' 
with Dr. Nevin, of the Mercersburg Review, in 1848, on 
the subject of the ' Mystical Presence ;' with Prof. Schaff, in 
1854, on the doctrine of historical development; and with 
Horace Bushnell in 1866 on vicarious sacrifice. In fact, a 
historical duel has been going on between Andover and 


Princeton for over forty years, the leading controversialists 
of Andover being Stuart, Park, Edward Beecher, Baird and 
Fisher, and those of Princeton Hodge, the Alexanders and 
Atwater. The articles in the 'Princeton Review' on sci- 
ence, philosophy, literature and history have generally dis- 
played large culture and research. The review of Cousin's 
Philosophy, in 1839, ^V Professor Dod, was one of the 
most remarkable papers that appeared on the .subject in 
America, and was afterward reprinted separately on both 
sides of the Atlantic." 

Prof James Macgregor, D. D., of the New College, Ed- 
inburgh, in an article in the " British and Foreign Evan- 
gelical Review" for July, 1874, on "Dr. Charles Hodge 
and the Princeton School," says : " In thus speaking of Dr. 
Alexander we are not led away from Dr. Hodge. The 
two men are only two parts of one whole. We might set the 
matter thus: — Alexander was the Socrates of the Princeton 
School, and Hodge has proved to be its Plato and Aristotle. 
The two between them have been the leading power in 
eliciting a school of Christian thought, which more and more 
manifestly, is destined to be the dominant thought of Chris- 
tian America. 

" The Princeton school has been markedly Biblical in its 
thinking. Dr. Archibald Alexander was all his life-long an 
enthuisiast in biblical studies, especially in relation to her- 
meneutics and criticism. His son, Joseph Addison, author 
of the learned commentaries on Isaiah and the Psalms, who 
was reckoned a prodigy of linguistic erudition, devoted his 
whole life to the study and exposition of Scripture. The 
* Princeton Review ' was at first, for some years a ' Biblical 
Repertory^' directly devoted to the expiscation of questions 
regarding Holy Writ. Dr. Hodge, the now acknowledged 
Coryphoeus of the school, had been twenty years Professor 
of Biblical Theology before he became Professor of Sys- 
tematic Theology. The influence of this biblical culture 
appears not only in his production of commentaries on the 


Romans and Corinthians, but appears most clearly and 
fully of all in his great work now completed of Systematic 

" The manner of the Princeton School has been peculiar. 
Controversy is perhaps not a good test of Christian charac- 
ter. The proverbial odium theologicunt may be really cre^ 
ditable to the theologians as a class, because evincing the 
glowing earnestness of their convictions. Still we cannot 
close our eyes to the fact that controversy brings about sur- 
prising revelations of natural character. Some men, here- 
tofore supposed to be simply saints, will betray a frailness in 
the fibre of their manhood. Other men will evince a firm fibre 
of manhood, either by sweet and uncomplaining acceptance 
of defeat, or by magnanimous forbearance and kindness to- 
wards those over whom they have got the upper hand. This 
greatness of nature has been exhibited in remarkable mea- 
sure from first to last by the Princeton school in general, 
and by Dr. Hodge in particular. They have in their con- 
troversies been earnest, eloquent, warm, even passionate; 
but so 6tr as we know, they have invariably spoken as true 
Giristian gentlemen, who in relation to adversaries make 
due allowance for the fact that — speaking more Americano 
—'there's a good deal of human nature in man.' They 
have shown themselves to be manly men of the heroic type." 

Dr. Charles P. Krauth, the great theologian of the 
Lutheran Church, testified at Dr. Hodge's semi-centennial 
celebration in 1872, "that he (Dr. Hodge) had always 
treated the doctrines of Churches and parties differing from 
his own with candor, love of truth, and perfect fairness." 

Dr. Irenxus Prime, of the New York Observer^ said at 
Dr. Hodge's semi-centennial, April, 1872, "I think, and I 
have had connection with the Press for thirty years — I 
think Dr. Hodge the ablest reviewer in the world. Any 
one who has carefully studied the ' Princeton Review * for 
Ae last thirty years will bear witness when I testify to the 
trenchant power with which he has defended the truth, and 


put forth the peculiar views which have made that Revieiv 
a power in the Church and in the world." 

And in an editorial in the " N, K Observer** the week 
after Dr. Hodge's death, June 27th, 1878, Dr. Prime says: 
"The * Princeton Review' in his hands was an army with 
banners. It did not array itself on the side of tlu Churcht 
or of any party in the Church. It was the organ of his 
opinions. And they were set forth with no dogmatic stub- 
bornness, but with such Christian meekness and deference 
to the Divine word, that they carried weight with them as 
if his was the flagship of the fleet, iron-clad, that sailed in 
with victory on its prow. We recall a case in which the 
General Assembly, after one of the ablest debates ever held 
on its floor, came to a decision on an important ecclesiastical 
question (Romish Baptism) with almost entire unanimity. 
Dr. Hodge reviewed the decision in the * Princeton Review* 
with such masterly power, as to set back the opinions of 
the Church, and hold it on the other side to this day. And 
to us this power of his appears the more wonderful, as we 
believed then, and do now, that he was wrong, and the As- 
sembly was right" 

The editor of the life of Dr. Lyman Beecher says, with 
reference to the article of Rev. Prof* Albert B. Dod, July, 
1837, on " Beecher's Views in Theology," that "the Prince^ 
ton Review was the most powerful organ in the land." 
Autobiography, etc., of Lyman Beecher by his Son, Vol. 
II., p. 402. 

Mr. Hodge, whom henceforth we' will style by his title 
of doctor of divinity, which was conferred upon him in 
1834 by Rutgers College, New Brunswick, N. J., contri- 
buted to the Review^ during the eleven years now under 
review from January, 1829, to April, 1840, thirty-six arti- 
cles as follows : 

1829. Introductory Lecture. — Public Education. — Reply 
to Dr. Moses Stuart's Examination of the Review of the 
American Education Society. 


1830. Reply to Dr. Moses Stuart's Postscript to his Let- 
ter to the Editors of the Biblical Repertory. — Regeneration 
and the Manner of its Occurrence. — Review of an Article 
in the Christian Spectator on Imputation. 

1 83 1. Sunday Mails. — Sprague's Lectures to Young 
People. — Doctrine of Imputation. — Remarks on Dr. Cox's 

1832. Hengstenberg on Daniel. — ^The New Divinity 

1833. Suggestions to Theological Students. — Stuart on 
the Romans. 

1834. Lachmann's New Testament — ^The Act and Tes- 

1835. The Act and Testimony. — Barnes on the Epistle 
to the Romans. — ^The General Assembly. — ^Narrative of 
Reed and Matheson. 

1836. Riickert's Commentary on Romans — Slavery. — 
The General Assembly. 

1837. Voluntary Societies and Ecclesiastical Organiza* 
tions. — Bloomfield's Greek Testament — ^The General As- 

1838. Oxford Tracts.— The State of the Church.— The 
General Assembly. — West India Emancipation. 

1839. Clapp's Defence of the Doctrine of the New Eng- 
land Churches. — ^The General Assembly. — Dr. Dana's Let- 
ters. — ^Testimonies on the Doctrine of Imputation. 

1840. January. Latest Forms of Infidelity. 

The most important of these articles may be classified as 
follows for the purpose of a brief notice : 

I: Those relating to the controversy with Professor 
Moses Stuart as to the American Education Society. Dr. 
Hodge, in his ** Retrospect of the History of the Princeton 
Review, 1871/* says on this subject: "The first controversy 
on which the Repertory took an active part was the Educa- 
tion Question. In 1829 the General Assembly had reor* 
ganized the Board of Education, and called upon the 


churches to sustain it in providing for the expenses of can- 
didates for the ministry in their preparatory studies. At 
the same time the American Education Society, a voluntary 
society having its origin in New England, and its chief seat 
of operations in Boston, Mass., offered to grant its aid to 
all suitable candidates for the sacred office in any part of 
the United States. Branch societies were organized in dif- 
ferent parts of the country, and a large number of Presby- 
terian churches contributed to its funds in preference to the 
treasury of our own Board. In the July number of the 
volume for 1829, the late Dr. Camahan^ President of the 
College of New Jersey, published an aiiticle on " The Gene- 
ral Assembly's Board of Education and the American Edu- 
cation Society," in which the objections to the plan of the 
American Society were briefly and clearly stated. This 
called forth a long communication from Professor Stuart of 
Andover, in reply. Professor Stuart's article was printed 
at length in our October number, with a rejoinder from the 
conductor (Dr. H.) of this Review. A separate edition of 
Professor Stuart's article, with a postscript of sixteen pages, 
being published, that postscript was reviewed in our num- 
ber for January, 1830. This ended the discussion as &x as 
this journal was concerned. 

'' In this controversy, the general question of ecclesiastical 
boards and voluntary societies was not brought under dis- 
cussion. The simple point was the wisdom, propriety and 
safety of the plan adopted by the American Society. That 
society not only required its beneficiaries to malce a quar- 
terly report, detailing hdw the amount they had received 
had been expended, and what each had received from other 
sources, but regarded its contributions as loans. All the 
candidates under their care were required to give their notes 
for the sums received, payable in one, two and three years 
after the close of their preparatory studies, with interest 
after the same had become due. All the candidates for the 
ministry were thus placed in the relation of debtors to the 


society, and must enter on their work burdened by this 
load of pecuniary obligation. 

"To this it was objected, I. That the whole plan pro- 
ceeded on a wrong principle. It assumed that the candi- 
dates had no right to the aid afforded ; that it was a pure 
gratuity, which the donors, if they pleased, were authorized 
to demand should be refunded. This placed the candidates 
in the position of " charity scholars/' Being so regarded 
by their patrons, they were so regarded by their associates 
and by themselves. This was an injustice and an injury. 
This journal took the ground, 'that whenever a man devotes 
his whole time and talents to the service of any community, 
at its request^ it is obligatory on that community to provide 
for his support' The recognition of this principle changes 
the whole status of the candidate. He ceases to be regarded 
as an object of charity. All ground for the minute inspec- 
tion into his receipts and expenditures is done away with. 
He is regarded as a man receiving no more than he is enti- 
tled to, and for which he renders a full return. This prin- 
ciple, it was contended, was scriptural, lying at the founda- 
tion of the institutions and commands of the Bible. It was, 
moreover, evidently just and reasonable, and was acted on 
by all civilized governments in the education of young men 
designed for the public service, especially in the navy and 

" 2. It was objected to the plan of the American Society 
that it was unjust to bring young men into the ministry 
burdened with debt. The salaries of young ministers are 
very seldom more than sufficient for their support, and in 
the majority of cases utterly inadequate for that end. If> 
in addition to providing for their necessities under these 
circumstances, they had to pay the money advanced for 
their education, they could not fai( to be painfully embar- 
rassed and harassed. To be in debt is to be in a state of 
depressing anxiety. 

"3. Thp Scriptures say: 'The borrower is servant to the 


lender/ If the plan of the American Society had been fully 
carried out, the great body of the younger ministry in the 
Congregational and Presbyterian Churches would have 
been in this state of bondage to that society. Every one 
knows that virtually and eflfectively the power of such 
societies is in the hands of the executive committee. Thus, 
some half dozen men, with no official relation to our church, 
would have this controlling power over our ministers. 
This was evidently intolerable. The objection was not that 
the power had been abused, but that it existed. It was a 
power of dictating to a large proportion of the pious youth 
of the country in what academy, college or theological 
seminary they shall pursue their studies. It is the power 
of deciding under what theological influences our future 
ministers are to be formed. It is the power of holding and 
influencing these ministers as bondmen when they come 
out into the Church. 

" 4. This society was, in a great measure, independent of 
public opinion ; first, because it elected its own members ; 
and, secondly, because its income, so £ir as derived fix>m 
the payment of the notes given by the beneficiaries, was 
not derived from the churches. 

" The General Assembly's plan was not subject to these 
objections: i. Because the Assembly did not elect its own 
members, but was renewed every year by the Presbyteries. 
2. Because its Board was not the creditor of those aided by 
its funds. 3. Because the candidates for the ministry were 
not under its control." 

II. Two of these articles, that on " The General Assem- 
bly, 1836," and another in the January number of the vol- 
ume for 1837 relate to the respective advantages of volun- 
tary societies and ecclesiastical boards. Of this Dr. Hodge 
said in his *' Retrospect," etc. : " Much greater interest 
attached to the controversy respecting the conduct of the 
work of missions, foreign and domestic. The General As- 
sembly in 1828 reorganized its Board of Domestic Missions. 


The American Home Missionary Society was at that time 
in operation, and rapidly increasing in influence. At first, 
it seemed to be hoped that the two organizations might 
operate harmoniously over the same field. The General 
Assembly, as did Dr. Green and Dr. Philips and other 
leading friends of the Assembly's Board, expressed their 
cordial willingness that all Presbyterians should be left to 
their unbiassed choice as to which organization they should 
support But it was soon found that in the existing state 
of the Church, harmonious action was impossible. There 
were so many interests at stake ; so many causes of aliena- 
tion between what became known as the Old and New 
School parties, that the Assembly's Board, under the control 
of the one, and the American Society, under the control of 
the other, came into constant and painful collision. This 
of necessity gave rise to serious conflicts in the General 
Assembly. The friends of the American Society took the 
ground that the Assembly had no right to conduct the 
work of missions; that it was incompetent for that purpose; 
that voluntary associations were more trustworthy, more 
efficient and more healthful ; that two organizations for the 
same purpose were not only unnecessary, but injurious. 
They endeavored, therefore, in every yrd^y to embarrass the 
Assembly's Board. In the Assembly of 1836, they nomi- 
nated as. members of that Board men known to be hostile 
to its very existence, and secured one hundred and twenty- 
five votes in their &vor. In the same Assembly they suc- 
ceeded in preventing the Assembly establishing a Board of 
Foreign Missions. One of the reasons most strenuously 
urged against the appointment of such a Board, was that 
the Assembly had no right to conduct such operations. 
On this point, Dr. James Hoge, one of the wisest and most 
moderate ministers of our church, said: *As the subject 
has been proposed in other forms, I have always objected. 
But the question is now brought before us in a new form, 
and is to be decided on the naked ground of the power and 


rights of the Assembly to conduct missions. And on this 
ground I cannot abandon it while I love the &ith and order 
of the Presbyterian Church. He further said, that if the 
majority pursued the course which they did actually take, 
* it would convulse the church to the very centre.' And so 
it did. The action of the Assembly of 1836 in reference to 
matters of doctrine and to the Boards of the Church, was 
the proximate cause of the disruption which occurred in 
the following year. 

'^ The question of Voluntary Societies was not an isolated 
one. Its decision did not turn uponlhe point, which mode 
of conducting benevolent operations was in itself to be pre- 
ferred. It was far more comprehensive. The friends of the 
Assembly's Board not only contended that the Assembly 
had the right to conduct the work of Missions, Foreign and 
Domestic, but that it was highly expedient that that work 
should be under the constituted authorities of the Church ; 
that the selection, sending forth, and locating ministers, was 
properly an ecclesiastical function, and that it was to the 
last degree unreasonable and dangerous that that work 
should be committed to a societ}^ meeting annually for a few 
hours, composed of all who chose to subscribe to its funds, 
(which was the fact with the American Home Missionary 
Society), and to a large degree controlled by Congrega- 
tionalists, hostile on principle to our polity, if not to our 
doctrines. Besides the objections founded on principle, 
there were others not less cogent founded on the action of 
the American Home Missionary Society. It was regarded 
as a great party engine, devoting, apparently, its immense 
influence to revolutionizing the Church. It sent out men 
educated in New England, holding sentiments condemned 
not only by Old School Presbyterians, but by the Woods, 
Tylers, Nettletons, of New England, and by such men as 
Drs. Richards, Fisher and GrifKn of our own church. Its 
friends and beneficiaries voted en masse in the General As- 
sembly against the condemnation of those sentiments, and 

^WP. 32-35.] HIS ARTICLES ON ^IMPUTATION;' 6*^. 267 

in &vor of allowing men never ordained as elders, sitting 
and voting in our highest judicatories. It is no wonder, 
therefore, that this controversy excited so much feeling. 
Throughout the struggle this journal sided uniformly and 
earnestly with the friends of the Assembly's Boards." 

III. A third class of articles are those on " Imputation/' 
'* Regeneration, and the Manner of its Occurrence," and the 
" New Divinity Tried," which together with his Commen- 
tary on the Romans, first established Dr. Hodge's reputa- 
tion as a theologian. Of these articles he says in his '' Retro^ 
spectl' &c., 1 87 1 : — " As early in the history of this Journal 
as 1830, Dr. Archibald Alexander published two articles, 
one on 'The Early History of Pelagianism ;' the other on 
*|The Doctrine of the Church on Original Sin;' and, in 
1832, another on *The Articles of the Synod of Dort' To 
the first of these the Christian Spectator for June, 1830, pub- 
lished a critique, over the signature of 'A Protestant,' 
(Prof. Stuart), which was reviewed (by Dr. Hodge) in our 
October number for the same year. The discussion was 
continued in the Spectator ^ in the number for March, 183 1, 
which contained two articles in reply to our review ; one 
from ' Protestant,' and the other from the editors, con- 
tinued and completed in the June number. Of these arti- 
cles this journal contained a review published in October of 
the same year, (on * The Doctrine of Imputation,' by Dr. 
Hodge). See also the article entitled * Testimonies on the 
Doctrine of Imputation,' 1839, of which twenty-four pages 
are filled with quotations from the Protestant Confessions 
and Theologians, in support of that doctrine. The same 
subject was discussed in review of Professor Stuart's Com- 
mentary on the Epistle to the Romans, 1833, and of Mr. 
Barnes' Commentary on the same Epistle, 1835, and inci- 
dentally -in several other communications in subsequent 

''At the same time the doctrine of Regeneration was 
under discussion. It was maintained, by some prominent 


theologians among us, that regeneration was the sinner's 
own act; that it consisted in his making for himself 'a new 
heart/ What that was, was differently explained. Accord- 
ing to some it was loving God ; according to others, it was 
the purpose to seek happiness in God instead of in the world ; 
according to others, it was the purpose to seek the happi- 
ness of the universe. According to all the new views man 
was active in regeneration. The idea of passivity, as it was 
called, was held up to ridicule. The old doctrine, common 
to all Christian Churches, that regeneration is the act of 
God ; that man is the subject, and not the agent of the 
change ; and that it consists in the quickening of the soul, 
or imparting to it a new principle of life, a new disposition, 
or, in the old scholastic language, ' a new habit of grace,' 
was vindicated in the article on 'Regeneration, and the 
Manner of its Occurrence,* (by Dr. H.). To this article Dr. 
Samuel H. Cox replied at length in our number for Octo- 
ber, 183 1, which number contained our answer (by Dr. H.) 
to his ' Remarks.' " 

IV. In 1835 he began to write a series of annual articles 
in review of the action of each successive General Assembly, 
in which he furnished a brief recapitulation and analysis of 
the proceedings, and discussed the doctrinal and ecclesiasti- 
cal principles involved. He contributed each of the articles 
of tills series from 1835 to 1867 inclusive, with the excep- 
tion probably of 1841. They contained a summary of the 
arguments used by the prominent speakers on each side of 
disputed questions ; they are to this day of great historical 
value, affording information not elsewhere accessible. 

He says of them himself: " It is not the object of these 
accounts of the proceedings of the Assembly to give the 
minutes of that body, or to record all the motions and de- 
bates, but simply to select the topics of most importance, 
and to give the best view we can of the arguments on either 
side. We make no pretensions to indifference or neutrality. 
The arguments of those from whom we differ, we try to 

-«r- 35-38.] RE VIF. WS OP- STUAR T AND BARNES. ' 2 69 

give with perfect fairness, as far as possible, in the language 
of the reports given by their friends. But we do not un- 
dertake to argue the case for them. This we could not do 
honestly or satis&ctorily. On the other hand, we endeavor 
to make the best argument we can in tdLVor of the measures 
we approve, using all the speeches of the supporters of those 
measures, and putting down anything which may happen 
to occur to ourselves." 

Hence it has come to pass that they contain an exposi- 
tion of his views of all the fundamental principles underly- 
ing the constitution of the Church, and its administration, 
and of the practical application of these principles to the 
various historical conditions experienced by the American 
Presbyterian Church during that long period. These, to- 
gether with a series of articles upon the "Idea of the 
Church" and its various attributes, which appeared from 
1845 to 1856, are the source from which the important 
posthumous work on '* Church Polity " has been compiled 
by one of his best pupils, Rev. Wm. Durant 

V. His reviews of the Commentaries on the Epistle to 
the Romans of Stuart, 1833; of Barnes, 1835; of Ruckert, 
1836. For Professor Stuart, Professor Hodge felt and 
expressed the strongest admiration and gratitude. "We 
have, therefore, long been in the habit of regarding Prof 
Stuart as one of the greatest benefactors of the Church in 
our country, because, he has been the principal means of 
turning the attention of the rising generation of ministers 
to this method (philological and exegetical) of studying the 
Bible. This we doubt not is the great service of his life : a 
service for which the whole church owes him gratitude and 
honor, and which will be remembered when present differ- 
ences and difficulties are all forgotten. We do him, there- 
fore, unfeigned homage as the great American reformer of 
biblical study; as the introducer of a new era, and the most 
efficient opponent of metaphysical theology. Alas, that he 
^ould have himself fallen on that very enchanted ground, 

tt, 70 ^£ VIE WS OF STUAR T AND BARNES. [1833-36. 

from which it was the business and glory of his life to with- 
call his younger brethren." 

Mr. Hodge's criticisms are directed to the exposure of 
Prof. Stuart's false and inconsistent metaphysical theology, 
as fiu" as that was involved in his interpretation of the Epis- 
tle to the Romans. " We have now surely seen enough to 
convince the reader of two things : First, that the doctrine 
of imputation is not touched either by Prof Stuart's exegesis 
or metaphysics. It is precisely where it was before ; and, 
second, that his whole exposition of Rom. v. 12-19 ^s so 
inconsistent with itself that it cannot possibly be correct 
In reading this portion of his commentary we have been 
reminded of a remark of Lord Erskine in reference to one 
of Burke's efforts in the House of Commons : ' It is a sad 
feiilure; but Burke could bear it'" Dr. William Cunning* 
ham, "Reformers and the Reformation," speaks in the 
highest terms of this article. 

With reference to Mr. Barnes' book, Mr. Hodge asserted 
that "he had plucked his pear before it was ripe." That it 
gave evidence of prejudice and crudity of opinion, and was 
transparently inconsistent in the various statements of doc- 
trines it contained, was the product of a perverting contro- 
versial animus. " We beg our readers to bear in mind that 
our review is not of an aggressive character. The book, 
which we have been examining, contains a violent, and, as 
we think, gratuitous attack upon some of the more impor- 
tant doctrines of the' church. If there be, therefore, an 
offensive and defensive attitude in relation to this subject, 
we certainly are in the latter. Had Mr. Barnes adhered to 
his design and given, according to his own views, ' the real 
meaning of the epistle without any regard to any existing 
theological system/ what a different book would he have 
produced ! So far, however, from his having no regfard to 
any system, the system of doctrines contained in the stan- 
dards of the Presbyterian Church seems to have been con- 
stantly before his mind. Instead of simply stating and 


defending his own views, he frequently and at length attacks 
those of the Confession of Faith. He goes out of his way 
repeatedly for this very purpose ; introducing these topics 
where the passage on which he comments gives not even a 
plausible pretext for so doing." 

VI. There remain a number of important articles, the 
consideration of which, for various reasons, we must defer 
to a subsequent chapter. The articles on the "Act and 
Testimony," October, 1834, and January, 1835. ^md on the 
"State of the Church," 1838, will be considered in connec- 
tion with the "Disruption of the Presbyterian Church,'* 
under the next chapter. The article on "Slavery" will be 
considered in connection with that on "Abolitionism," 
under the date of the latter article, 1844. '^h^ article on 
" The Oxford Tracts" belongs to a class of articles on the 
Church appearing from 1845 to 1856. 


It was during the period embraced in this chapter that 
Dr. Hodge published his first books. His Commentary on 
the Romans was written during the darkest days of his 
confinement, the winter of 1834 and '35, while stretched 
horizontally on a couch, and his right limb often bound in 
a steel-splint. It was published by Grigg & Elliott in 
Philadelphia, but soon afterwards passed into the hands of 
Wm, S. Martien. A cheaper and abridged edition for the 
use of Bible*classes was published in 1836. A new edition 
revised and in a great measure re-written was published in 

Every good commentary on such texts as that of Paul's 
Epistle to the Romans must possess in greater or less de- 
gree two distinct qualities. It must show evidence of 
scholarship and exegetical tact and skill in the interpreta- 
tion in detail of the words and sentences constituting the 
original text It must also discover a comprehension of 
the subject discussed, and of the design of the writer and 

272 COMMENTAR Y ON R OMANS. [ 1835. 

the scope of the ideas which constitute the subject-matter of 
the treatise commented on. It is self-evident that in Dr. 
Hodge's Commentary the latter of the two characteristics 
predominates. He has done his best honestly to get at 
what the words and sentences mean. But he has written 
in a prevailingly doctrinal interest. And in expounding 
that doctrine he is as clear as a crystal in the sunlight He 
gives an analysis of the epistle as a whole. He gives tfa^ 
contents of each chapter; an analysis of each logical sub- 
division of the apostle's argument; then a commentary, or 
exegetical discussion of each clause and verse; and then he 
presents a minute statement of all the doctrines taught in 
the section, and closes with a series of remarks illustrative 
and practical. The church at that time was convulsed with 
the controversies growing out of the intrusion into a com- 
munity deriving its Presbyterianism from Scotland and the 
Westminster Assembly, of the new anthropology gf the 
New England School. These "improvements" were rather 
negative than positive, and involved a rejection of the con- 
sensus of the Reformed Churches as to the imputation of 
the g^ilt of Adam's sin to his descendants, as to original 
sin, as to inability, and as to the part of God in man's 
regeneration. From early in 1830 the Biblical Repertory 
had been engaged in an active controversy with the cham- 
pions of the New Theology on these points. Dr. Stuart 
and Mr. Barnes published Commentaries on Romans, in 
which the new doctrines were brought into association with 
the word of God. Dr. Hodge wrote his Commentary under 
these moral and ecclesiastical conditions, and he has striven 
to defend the ancient faith of the Reformation by a iaithful 
appeal to exegesis, on the side which that faith presents to 
the hostile lines of what was then known as the " improve- 
ments" in theology imported from New England. 

In his new edition published in 1864, he again reviewed 
his whole work, and re-stated and defended his interpreta- 
tion with the added light of Meyer and other German com-* 


mentators, and with additional notice of the realistic theo- 
ries, which lie over against the truth on the side opposite 
to those New England theories against which, in his first 
edition, his energies were chiefly directed 

While writing his original Commentary, because confined 
to his couch, Dr. Hodge communicated with Dr. A. Alex- 
ander by an interchange of notes. Although they were all 
designed for a temporary purpose, and no effort was made 
to preserve any of them, it happens that a few of these waifs 
have drifted into the hands of the compiler. They are 
given because they illustrate the relations of the two men, 
and because they prove, what has sometimes been denied, 
that Dr. Hodge never departed from the theology of his 
beloved teacher. 


My Dear Sir : — I have read over with some care the whole of 
these sheets. I am truly thankful that you have been enabled to 
write so much in the diseased state of your body, and I sincerely* 
rejoice that God has helped you so thoroughly to expound this diffi- 
cult and important portion of divine revelation. In the main, I am 
deeply persuaded that you have brought to view the doctrines which 
the Holy Ghost intended to reveal by the pen of Paul. In a few 
minor points I hesitate as to the correctness of your interpretation. 
It seems to me that there is less clearness and lucid order in your 
exposition of the fourth chapter than of any other, as far as you have 
gone. Indeed, this part is more involved and intricate than any 
other. I think your exposition of the latter part of the fifth chapter 
is admirable. It exhibits the truth with a lustre that cannot easily be 
resisted. I cannot easily express how much good will probably result 
from the publication of this exposition. The language of the whole 
is characterized by simplicity and conciseness, and needs no improve- 

The parts entitled "Doctrines" and "Remarks," especially the 
latter, might be advantageously amplified. There are too many 
parentheses. Often the sentence would be more perspicuous by 
leaving out the dashes and parentheses. 

Some method must be invented to prevent the Commentary from 
being encumbered with the references. Consult James and Addison 



on this point The text of each chapter had better be placed at the 
beginning of the Commentary. 

When your exposition depends on a criticism of the original words» 
it will be best to subjoin a critical note at the bottom of the page ; but 
let the text of your Commentary be pure English. By this means it 
will be studied by all intelligent PresbyteHans, and will become a 
h£Md'book for teachers of Sunday Schools and Bible Classes. 

I entreat you to go on with the work as speedily as you can, I am 
anxious to have it in general circulation. It ought to be so continued 
as to make an 8vo. volume of 500 pages. 

I assure you I have not for a long time read anything with so much 
interest as these sheets. 

I am affectionately yours, 

A. Alexander. 


My Dear Sir: — Few things in my life have given me more pleastu^ 
than the approbation which you expressed of the part of the Com- 
mentary on the Romans, which you were kind enough to look over. 
I trust, too, that I shall derive great good from having the prospect 
of usefulness presented as something attainable. 

I will endeavor to profit by all your suggestions. I feared that the 
Commentary on the fourth chapter would not be satisfactory to 
others, as it is not to myself. I find great difficulty oflen where there 
seems to be the least. Though I would not make the remark as an 
apology for my failure in this case, yet there seem to be many pas- 
sages in which the sacred writers, who wrote as men, are obscure and 
confused in themselves. In many cases of apparent confusion there 
is a real principle of logical arrangement which it requires only a 
little attention to discover and exhibit. But in others there seems to 
be no such principle any more than there is in the 119th Psalm. 
This remark, I know, very rarely applies to the writings of Paul, and 
certainly not to the former part, at least, of the fourth chapter. 

I now send you the Commentary on chapters vi. and vii. As a great 
part of the paper is written upon only on one side, it appears much 
longer than it really is. In looking over the Commentary on the 
early part of the sixth chapter, which I think peculiarly difficult, I 
feel a good deal dissatisfied. It has to myself the appearance of 
being written during the actual process of studying out the meaning 
of the passage, and might, perhaps, be improved as to clearness by 
being written over again. 

I (eel grateful to you for taking the trouble to read my manuscript. 


You can hardly know how much peace of mind your imprimatur, my 
revered Father, gives me. 

Very respectfully, 

C. Hodge. 


My Dear Sir: — I have cursorily read your manuscript on the sixth 
and seventh chapters of the Romans. As before, I think you have done 
best on the most difficult and disputed part. The opinion which I have 
formed of the exposition of the two chapters bears a near analogy to 
tbe opinion which I have already expressed on the fourth and fifth. I 
do not think of anything that could improve the seventh. It comes 
up fiilly to my ideas of the apostle's meaning; and I have no objec- 
tion to make to the exegesis of the sixth, but it is not so luminous as 
the exegesis of the seventh. The only thing which I would like to 
have added is a few observations on the meaning of the phrase 
"buried with him in baptism," to show that it does not necessarily 
relate to immersion. Readers will expect something of this kind. 

If you live to execute this work, you may be contented to say, if 
it should be the will of God, " Now lettest thou thy servant depart in 
peace, etc." I do believe that it will do more to confirm the ortho- 
dox ^th of our church than any book which has been published for 
a century. I must still exhort you, therefore, to labor at it as much 
and as fast as you can. Some measures ought to be taken to have 
the printing commenced by the beginning of winter. 

Yours affectionately, A. A. 


Hfy Dear Sir: — The eighth chapter of Romans is, at the same time, 
one of the most precious and difficult portions of Scripture. 

Forty years ago I was led to study the first part of it from hearing 
an Arminian preacher expound it very ingeniously on Arminian 
principles. For some time I hesitated whether his exposition was not 
correct, but after studying it intensely, as I travelled on my mission, 
I came ultimately to the same views of its meaning as those which 
you have given in your Commentary. And all subsequent examina- 
tions have confirmed the opinions then adopted. But I can scarcely 
designate a portion of Scripture in which all the expressions are so 
susceptible of a double meaning. 

On the very "vexed passage" about "the creature being subject to 
Tanity" you have also given my opinion exactly. Dr. J. P. Wilson, 


Dr. Green, and, I believe. Dr. Miller, held that by Krioit die body 
should be understood. "The redemption of our body*' they con- 
sidered as expository of the whole passage. Perhaps you ought to 
notice thb interpretation, though I doubt whether it can be found in 
any respectable commentator. 

The only passage in which I have any difficulty in adopting your 
explanation relates to the " witness of the Spirit,'* which you seem to 
consider of the nature of the direct suggestion of a truth to the mind. 
Now this would partake of the nature of inspiration, and lays a foun- 
dation for enthusiasm. My opinion is that the witness is indirect by 
the illumination of the mind through the word, thus filling it with 
love and peace, and these graces, in piesent, conscious exercise, are 
" the witness of the Spirit." Please to re-examine the comment on 
this passage. 

I am gratified exceedingly, and thankful to God, that you have 
been enabled to go forward so expeditiously in this work. My opin* 
ion of its value increases with the perusal of every new portion. As 
soon as you have reached the twelfth chapter you ought to prepare a 
prospectus and subscription paper. It will not be necessary for you 
to run any risk in the publication. A sufficient number of subscribers 
can soon be obtained to authorize the publication of a large edition. 
It will possess an incalculable advantage over Stuart's and other 
learned works, as it can be read by the plain, intelligent Christian, 
who knows nothing of the original. 

Please let me have the ninth chapter as soon as it is completed. 

This will be easy after you have surmounted the difficulties of the 

eighth, except verse 3d. 

I am affectionately yours, A A. 


My Dear Sir: — I send, agreeably to your request, the Commentary 
on the ninth chapter, and a few verses of the tenth. 

I cannot tell you how much your approbation cheers and encou- 
rages me, and especially the coincidence of the Commentary with 
your own views of the apostle's meaning. Fashioned as I have been 
by your hands, you can indeed hardly be surprised at finding your 
own opinions more or less correctly reflected from anything which I 
may write. 

I find, on reverting to the passage, that what is said of the " wit- 
ness of the Spirit" is inaccurately expressed. I did not intend to 
intimate that the Spirit conveyed any new truth to the mind, but 
rather produced a new feeling. As when he " sheds abroad the love 


of God in the heait,** he produces an inthnate persuasion that the 
soul is the object of divine favor. And when he bears witness to the 
truth he produces a like persuasion that the gospel is of God. In the 
case referred to in the eighth chapter, I suppose Paul meant to say 
that the Spirit produced the conviction that God regards us as His 
children. All these cases seemed to me to be analogous. All that 1 
meant to say was what I understood our Confession to say when it 
refers our full persuasion and assurance of the truth " to the inward 
work of the Holy Spirit, bearing witness by and with the word in our 
hearts.** This secured to me something different from the mere 
judgment of the mind on the evidence afforded by the nature of its 
feelings to the fact of the divine favor. It appeared to me that the 
apostle, if the oi>v in avufutprvpet is to be uiged, meant to distinguish 
between the evidence which consists in filial feelings towards God 
and the persuasion of the divine favor which the Spirit sweetly insin- 
uates into the mind when those feelings are in exercise. 

I should be glad to know whether you still think my views, as thus 
explained, incorrect. For, if you do, the Commentary can easily be 
still further modified so as to express the idea more generally, and 
consequently in a way less liable to objection. 

Should Providence permit me to get to the end of the ninth chap- 
ter, I have thought it would be best to turn back to the beginning. 
The plan of the work has been so much enlarged as I advanced that 
the Commentary on the first three or four chapters must be re-written 
in order to make the work uniform. When the Commentary on the 
first eleven chapters is completed the printing might commence at 
any time; the residue could. Providence permitting, be got ready 
before it was required. 

With filial respect and affection, 

Yoiurs, C. Hodge. 

Early in 1841 this Commentary was published in France. 
The translation was made by the Rev. Adolphe Monod of 
Montauban, at the instance of the venerable Professor V. A. 
Stapfer, who had made Mr. Hodge's acquaintance in Paris 
in 1826, and had subsequently corresponded with him. The 
means to meet the expense of the enterprise were collected 
through the agency of Rev. Robert Baird, D. D., the emi- 
nent agent in Europe of the Foreign Evangelical Society. 
In his prefiice Dr. Monod said : 

" I am authorized to say that Mr. Stapfer attaches the 


highest value to the Commentary of Dr. Hodge, and that 
of all the works which have in our day been devoted to the 
Epistle to the Romans, there is none which appears to him, 
upon the whole, superior, nor perhaps equal to this. 

" It possesses qualities that are among the most valuable 
that can be desired in such a work, and which we have sel- 
dom found elsewhere so combined and carried to such 
extent. A pure and vigorous spirit ; a simple and precise 
style; an intelligent and clear exegesis; a constant care to 
dwell upon those points which embarrass the reader of the 
Bible; a profound examination of all the great questions; 
substantial observations; solid and well-drawn inferences. 
When we add that there is evident in every part a spirit 
which is jealous for the divine doctrine and the divine glory, 
a soul deeply pious and ripe in the experience of the Chris- 
tian life ; in fine, an unction of mingled sweetness and 
gravity, which would almost lead one to conjecture that 
our Commentary was painfully written upon a bed of suf- 
fering, — our readers will understand the continued interest 
with which we have read the work from beginning to end. 

" Dr. Hodge belongs to the religious opinion known in 
America by the name of the ' Old School.' His doctrine is 
precisely that of our own churches, and it is exhibited in 
the Commentary with remarkable distinctness and vigor. If 
we may venture the inquiry, we would ask as to this point 
whether the matter is not rather more precise and formal in 
Dr. H.'s exposition, than in the Bible itself. We have 
learned from this Holy Book to have some dread of for- 
mulas that are too straitened, and of what Felix Neff, with 
his usual originality calls ' squared doctrines.' Happy are 
the authors who know how to preserve the proportions and 
balance which the Holy Spirit has observed in the de- 
velopment of the various topics of divine revelation." 

The editor of the " London Patriot," in a notice of Barnes' 
" Notes on the Romans," naively remarks : — ^" Mr. Barnes 
acknowledges his obligations to Calvin, Doddridge, Mac- 


knight, RosenmuUer, Tholuck, and Flatt We regret that 
he does not appear to have seen Dr. Hodge's admirable 
Exposition of this Epistle, which would have been of more 
use for his purpose than all the rest" 


In the early part of 1839, he published the first volume 
of his " Constitutional History of the Presbyterian Church 
in the United States/* and the second volume in the early 
part of 1840. This was for him the least natural, and most 
laborious work he ever undertook, 


Princeton, Oct. 12, 1838. 

My Dear Brother: — I have before now read volumes to feel au- 
thorized to make one assertion. I want to state in few words what 
were the constituent materials and peculiar views of our church at 
the beginning, and to do this requires a good deal of previous read- 
ing. I am not the man for such business. My lameness is more in 
my way now than it ever has been, as I have to depend on others to 
make search for old things in my behalf. 

Your brother, C. H. 

The design and character of this work is stated in his 
preface to the first volume, March, 1839. 

" During the past summer, the Rev. Dr. Hoge, of Ohio, 
wrote to one of his friends in Philadelphia, stating that a 
work was greatly needed, which should give a distinct 
account of the present controversies in our Church. He 
conceived that in order to the proper exhibition of the sub- 
ject, the documentary history of the formation of the first 
Presbytery, of the Adopting Act, of the great Schism, of 
the union of the two Synods, and of the formation of our 
present constitution, should be clearly presented to the 
public. The gentleman to whom this letter was addressed 
submitted it to a meeting of clergymen and laymen, who 


all concurred in the opinion that such a work ought to be 
prepared, and united in requesting the undersigned to 
undertake the task. The plan was afterwards enlarged, and 
the writer was led to undertake a general review of the 
History of the Presbyterian Church in the United States. 
The design of this work is to exhibit the true character of 
our Church ; to show on what principles it was founded 
and governed; in other words, to exhibit historically its 
constitution, both as to doctrine and' order. He has, there- 
fore, ventured to call the work ' A Constitutional History 
of the Presbyterian Church in th^ United States.' His 
readers will not expect more than this title promises. 

'' Recent events have led to various speculations on the 
origin and constitution of our Church. It has been said 
that we owe our ecclesiastical existence to Congregational- 
ists ; that the condition of ministerial communion among 
us was assent to the essential doctrines of the Gospel ; and 
that the Presbyterian form of government which our fathers 
adopted was of a very mitigated character. . . . The writer 
was, hence, led to inquire what foundation was laid for a 
Presbyterian Church in the character of the early settlers 
of our country. . . The next subject of investigation was 
the actual character of our Church before the year 1729, 
as far as it can be learned from its history and records. 
The third chapter contains the review of our history from 
1729 to 1 741. As the act by which the Westminster Con- 
fession of Faith was adopted by the Synod as their standard 
of doctrine, was passed in 1729, this seemed to be the pro- 
per place to exhibit in full the testimony furnished by the 
records, not only as to the true interpretation of the act, but 
as to the condition of ministerial communion in the Pres- 
byterian Church. 

" It is intended in a second volume to continue the his- 
tory from 1 741 to 1789. This will require an exhibition of 
the causes of the great schism, an investigation of the doc- 
trinal and constitutional questions involved in that contro- 


versy, and of the principle on which the Church was settled 
at the time of the union of the two Synods." 

It is believed that in the execution of this work Dr. 
Hodge fully proved that the founders of our Church in the 
United States intended to plant a true Presbyterian Church, 
a genuine daughter of the Church of Scotland, and that the 
terms of ministerial communion among us have been from 
the beginning, and by the constitution of the Church con- 
tinue to be, the real belief and honest profession that "the 
system of Doctrine taught in the Holy Scriptures," is the 
one contained in the Westminster Confession of Faith and 

The following letters of Dr. A. Alexander to Dr. Hodge, 
and of Dr. Hodge to Dr. Henry A. Boardman, on the sub- 
ject of disputed points falling within the period embraced 
by this History will explain themselves. 


My Dear Sir: — I do not know whether you expect any fuller expo- 
sition of opinion from me after making your explanations. The truth 
is, it is a matter in which I have no right to interfere otherwise than 
by expressing my opinion. I have no responsibility in the matter ; 
but yours is g^eat. You are writing a history which will probably 
connect your name with the orthodox Presbyterian name as long as 
it lasts ; and you are not at liberty to depart one iota from what ap- 
pears to you to be a correct statement of facts, and correct judgment 
on them. If other persons take a different view of either that is no 
reason you should change anything in deference to them. 

I must, however, in candor declare that my own opinion, as ex- 
pressed in a former note, remains unchanged. I object to the rule 
of the Synod on ground which applies to them just as it does to our 
Synods, namely, that the examination of candidates, with a view to 
ordination, is properly a Presbyterial and not a Sy nodical act. I ad- 
mit that the Synod, as then constituted, might, after consulting Pres- 
byteries, determine what should be required of candidates, and on 
what they should be examined, and might have censured the New 
Brunswick Presbytery for disobeying such rules ; but it was, in my 
judgment, improper for them to take upon themselves to make the 
examination. On this principle, as the protestants argued on the oc- 


casion, they might usurp all the prerogatives and powers of the Plres- 
byteries, and thus render them useless bodies. I never received the 
doctrine " that a Synod is merely a larger Presbytery/' and may do 
whatever Presbyteries can. Their business is to see that Presbyteries 
do their duty, and to attend to concerns which relate to the whole 

The year on which I was Moderator of the General Assembly this 
principle wsis largely discussed, and in the first instance decided in 
favor of the rights of Presbyteries ; but the Kentucky Synod came 
forward with great zeal and power, and had a different opinion pro- 
nounced next year. To this decision I never gave my assent, and I 
beUeve that more than one half of the ministers then were of like 

And I must remain of the opinion that when the schism took place» 
any attempt at a regular course of discipline would have been per- 
fectly futile and unwise. They might, and ought to have separated 
with less heat and violence than was manifest, but it is evident to me 
that a separation had become necessary. 

The subject of disciplining an organized body is an extremely diffi- 
cult thing. The General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, under 
the influence of the high-church principles of Dr. Robertson, under- 
took to discipline a Presbytery for resisting the exercise of patronage, 
and when it came to the punishment they selected one man out of the 
Presbytery and deposed him, not because he was worse than the rest, 
or a prime leader, but for other reasons. This very man laid the 
foundations of the relief Presbytery (now Synod). All that the ma- 
jority could have done would have been to suspend the whole Pres- 
bytery, which was the same (in effect ?) as what took place. 

Yours, &c., A. Alexander. 


Princeton, Jan. ist, 1840. 

My Dear Sir: ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ As to the History, all my feelings are in 
favor of your Board publishing it. It would be effectually done with- 
out putting my friends. Dr. Mitchell and others, to any trouble ; and 
I shall be gratified in doing something for the Board. My judgment, 
however, is decidedly against the plan. As I must bear the respon- 
sibility, I must feel perfectly free to write as my judgment and con- 
science dictate. I know I should feel trammelled and uneasy if I was 
always thinking that what I wrote was to come out with the sanction 
of the Board. I have little doubt that the History will give more or 
less offence to a great many of our friends. I mean that kind of of- 


fence which men feel when they see a difierent view of any subject 
than their own presented. For example, the next chapter, which re- 
lates to the Whitefieldian revival, I suppose will be considered by 
many as very objectionable. This will be but a small matter if I only 
say what is disliked ; but if your Board were to say it, it might be 
very offensive to many of our own friends. So of the 5th chapter, 
relating to the Schism, I am sure that many of our good old people 
will think it dreadful. I had received the impression that all the Old 
side were irreligious, unworthy men, and that all the New side were 
excellent and fervently pious. This impression, among the older 
ministers who received the traditionary accounts of that period, is so 
jrtrong as to take something of the character of the original party 
feeling. Dr. Alexander, after reading the manuscript, wrote me a 
long letter, telling me what he had heard about the character of the 
two parties when he was a young man, and how strong his feelings 
still were upon the subject, and his conviction that the Old side were 
a great deal worse and the New side a great deal better than I had 
represented them. This letter gave me, in one view, a great deal of 
uneasiness. I know that documents and books retain and transmit a 
very imperfect view of the spirit of any age, and therefore felt that 
my representation might be very far from the truth. But, at the same 
time, I must go by those documents, and to take the traditionary 
representations of those who had conversed with the actors in those 
scenes, and who had all the feelings of the conflict, would make a 
perfectly one-sided history. 

I answered the Doctor's letter, stating how I viewed the matter, to 
which he replied that he would not have me alter anything out of 
deference to anybody — that he had no responsibility, but that mine 
was very g^at. I do not mean to give you the idea that the Doctor 
thought the History very wicked, or that he would object to my pub- 
lishing it ; but I do not believe at all that he would take the respon- 
sibility of publishing it, or of sanctioning such a representation as I 
have given of the violence and disorders of the zealous men of that 
day. It would require the gift of prophecy for me to be able to state 
what will be the character of the last volume, should I live to write 
it. I no more knew beforehand what the character of the present 
volume was to be than a stranger did. I indeed question very much 
whether I shall have courage to undertake the labor of bringing 
down the History to the present time. It may be too soon to write 
the history of the last ten years. 

AU my friends here whom I have had the opportunity of consulting 
agree with me that your Board ought not to undertake the publica- 
tion. If any one chooses to attack and abuse me, what harm is it ? 


But to have your Board hauled up and abused is a very different 

affair. You have a very difficult and delicate task to perform, and 

will get abuse enough I doubt not. I think you ought, at least for a 

while, to confine yourselves to books of known character, and by no 

means to publish too many. 

Yours very truly, C. H. 

" The Constitutional History of the Presbyterian Church 
in the United States of America" was accordingly pub- 
lished by Wm. S. Martien in 1839 and 1840. But it was 
subsequently copyrighted and published by the Presbyterian 
Board of Publication in 185 1. 





WE are concerned here with the history of this great 
struggle only so far as this is necessary to the under- 
standing of the part taken by Dr. Hodge at that time. He 
was a young man, with no influence resulting from past ex- 
perience or achievement in church affairs, and for the greater 
part of the time involved in the struggle excluded from 
church courts and confined to his room and to his couch by 
physical pain and weakness. Nevertheless, he was the most 
active member of the " association of gentlemen " who edited 
the Repertory^ and the author of the articles which attracted 
the chief attention and were the objects of the most hostile 
criticism by the strong party men on both sides. 

The Presbyterian Church in America was founded by 



Scotch and Scotch-Irish immigrants. The Congregational 
Churches of New England were founded by English Inde- 
pendents. They originally agreed in doctrine, but were 
radically different in their principles of organization and 
polity, their traditions and their tendencies. The English 
Independents settled the New England colonies during the 
first half of the 17th century, the Scotch and Scotch-Irish 
immigrants settled New Jersey and Eastern Pennsylvania 
and Delaware in the last of the 17th and the first of the 
1 8th centuries. Subsequently, for the most part, the Pres- 
byterians moved westward and southw^u-d through Pennsyl- 
vania, the Valley of Virginia and the Valley of the Ohio, 
while the teeming population of New England moved west- 
ward through the State of New York, northern Ohio and 
the Valley of the great lakes. 

The two streams mingled in northern Ohio and western 
New York, and the exigencies of church extension in the 
new settlements led to the ** Plan of Union" contracted be- 
tween the General Assembly and the Congregational Asso- 
ciation of Connecticut in 1801. This plan was designed to 
promote harmony and to combine the heterogeneous ele- 
ments of the population in the new settlements in aggres- 
sive church extension. It proposed to effect this end not by 
forming a new and compromising form of church govern* 
ment, but by providing for the practical working together 
in the same congregations of ministers and people belong- 
ing to both denominations. Congregational ministers were 
to be pastors of Presbyterian churches, and Presbyterian 
ministers pastors of Congregational churches, and Presby- 
terian and Congregational communicants were to combine 
in one church, appointing a standing committee instead of 
a session to govern them and represent them in the Presby- 
terian ecclesiastical courts. The effect of this was at the 
same time to stop almost absolutely the multiplication of 
Congregational churches, and rapidly to extend the area of 
the Presbyterian church by the multiplication of Presby- 


teries and Synods, composed lai^ly of imperfectly organ- 
ized churches. 
In the meantime the American Education Society, in 

Boston, and the American Home Missionary Society, in 
New York, sprang into the most active exercise of their 
functions, equally within the spheres of the Presbyterian 
and the Congregational churches. They were both purely 
voluntary societies, subject to no ecclesiastical control, their 
officers elected and their action directed by self-perpetuated 
"Executive Conunittees." Their funds were drawn from 
the New England churches, and their affairs were con- 
trolled, in the larger part, by Cong^gationalists. New 
England, at this time, had in great part ceased to afford a 
field for home missionary effort, but on the contrary was 
full of energetic young men pressing into the ministry and 
ready to be educated and marshalled and supported in the 
field by the great voluntary societies above mentioned. 
These young men, of course, were educated as Congrega- 
tionalists, and were imbued with the religious and theo- 
logical sentiments at that time prevalent in New England. 
These sentiments may be classified as follows : (i) The old 
Calvinism identical with the original and constitutional or- 
thodoxy of the Presbyterian church. (2) That variation of 
Calvinism styled Hopkinsianism, which, while maintaining 
the essentials of Calvinism, denied the imputation of Adam's 
sin, the absolute inability of the sinner to repent, and a 
definite atonement. This type of doctrine, prevalent among 
Congregationalists, while foreign to the traditions, and 
uncongenial to the native Presbyterians, was yet never 
regarded as so far injurious as to be a bar to ministerial 
communion. (3) The heresies associated at that time with 
the School of New Haven, which were feir more radical, 
imperiling, if not destroying, the church doctrines of 
original sin, and vicarious atonement, etc., and which were 
abhorred and resisted by the larger and sounder masses of 
Congregationalists, as well as by Presbyterians. 


Thus it is evident that an immense and effective ma- 
chinery was in operation for the rapid destruction of the in« 
tegrity of the Presbyterian church, alike in its organic 
form and in the system of doctrines professed and taught 
New England was the fountain ; young New England mis* 
sionaries the stream bearing with them Congregational 
church polity and New England theology ; the American 
Education and the American Home Missionary Societies 
the powerful engines; and the Presbyterian church the 
depository into which these foreign and revolutionizing 
streams were poured. 

These were, in general, the unquestionable historical con- 
ditions of that epoch. It is evident that, without involving 
any one's fault on either side, sooner or later these condi- 
tions must precipitate a struggle for existence, and that the 
"fittest" must survive. Either Presbyterianism in America 
and Congregationalism outside of New England must alike 
perish, issuing in some better third form, or in ecclesiastical 
chaos, or they must separate and each recover its constitu- 
tional integrity. Sooner or later the time must come when 
the true Presbyterians must fight for the existence of their 
inherited system and save it by constitutional means if they 
can, by revolution if they must The Old School party 
among the Presbyterians of that day did fight for all Pres- 
byteriaas of all time. New as well as Old, and for pure Con- 
gregationalism as well. The event has vindicated them 
beyond question as to their general purpose. 

In a very few years after the disruption the New School 
Presbyterians followed the same course. They, in like 
mann/sr, abrogated the " Plan of Union," formed and ex- 
clusively patronized their own ecclesiastical boards, except 
in the department of foreign missions, and came into the 
Re-union in 1870 as thoroughly organized on exclusive 
Presbyterian principles as the other party, and tolerating in 
their terms of Ministerial Communion no variations fiiam 
the old orthodoxy, more extreme than that falling under 


the Hopkinsian or Edwardean variety, above referred to, 
which none of the sober-minded among the Old School 
had ever deliberately regarded as putting a man beyond the 
pale. At the same time the Congregational church emerges 
over the whole north-western country, as homogeneous as 
in New England itself. Yet there is absolutely no evidence 
that the same result would have been attained if the denomi- 
national consciousness of the two rival parties had not been 
aroused and intensified by the conflict and division of 

On the other hand, this same result, while it vindicates 
the general position and aim of the Old School party in the 
disruption period, vindicates specifically the peculiar position 
of the Princeton wing of that party. The subsequent 
course of the New School, as a separate denomination, 
clearly proves that in all essentials the majority of them 
were sound Presbyterians, alike in principles of order and 
in doctrine, the recognition of which fact in those days dis- 
tinguished the "Princeton" or ** Middle" party. There 
were in those days four parties in the church: (i) Those 
congregations and groups of congregations which were 
imperfectly organized, and those ministers and people 
who maintained the extreme type of error they styled 
" Taylorism." These occasioned all the trouble. Without 
them all the other parties could have coalesced together in 
a sufficiently homogeneous Presbyterian church. (2) The 
New School party as a body. These were in themselves 
sound Presbyterians, although somewhat tinged with the 
Hopkinsian quality of theology. Their peculiarity arose 
from the fact that from position, antecedents and associa- 
tions they were disposed to prevent the discipline of those 
whose opinions departed further from the type of normal 
Presbyterianism than their own, and to oppose the abroga- 
tion of the " Plan of Union/' and the re-organization, by force 
of ecclesiastical authority, of the churches formed upon it ; 
and to keep the church open to the operation of the Volun- 



tary Societies, to the exclusion of those under ecclesiastical 
control. (3) The "Princeton Party'' or "Middle Men." 
(4) The Old School party in Pennsylvania and part of the 
South, who, under the leadership of Drs. Green, R. J. 
Breckinridge, George Junkin and others, were convinced 
that the crisis was imminent, that the evils were so great as 
to be intolerable, and who, therefore, pressed urgently the 
prosecution of heresy, and demanded peremptorily either 
the speedy abatement of these evils or the division of the 

The Princeton or Middle party was wholly Old School, 
adhering in principle and affection to the original normal type 
of doctrine and church polity. Of this there never was any 
doubt on either side. They desired to have the " Plan of 
Union" abrogated; to have the churches organized on that 
basis re-organized or cut off by constitutional ecclesiastical 
authority; to have all ministers holding and teaching the 
graver errors then known as "Taylorism" tried and ex- 
cluded from office; to have new measures discouraged; 
and denominational Boards of Education, and of Missions, 
Home and Foreign, substituted in the place of the Volun- 
tary Societies, which were really the organs of the Congre- 
gational churches. Hence, as Dr. Hodge said, their " feel- 
ings were always, and their judgment generally, in harmony 
with their Old School brethren and their measures of re- 
form." But, on the other hand, they did not wish to see 
the church divided either by the voluntary departure of the 
extreme Old School wing, which for a long time appeared 
imminent, or by the forcible exclusion of the great body of the 
New School, which the Old School leaders at least appeared 
to desire. The Princeton men protested against some of 
the Old School measures, as, for instance, that : Hopkinsian 
peculiarities, which should be tolerated, were indiscrimi- 
nately confused with Taylorite errors, which must be 
excluded ; that some of the measures were unconstitutional 
and injurious, as the procedure by the Synod of Philadel- 


phia to try the appeal of Dr. Junkin in the trial of Mr. 
Barnes while the records of the inferior court were absent ; 
and the use of the "Act and Testimony" as a test of loyalty 
to Presbyterianism. They believed the measures pursued 
by the party men would divide the church, whereas the 
exigency for such a violent expedient haid not arrived. The 
New School for several years had held sway in the General 
Assembly, interrupted only in 1845, and regained in 1846. 
. If they had constituted the majority in the Assembly of 
1847 the wofst apprehension of the Princeton men would 
have been realized by the secession of the most determined 
of the Old School party without the succession and without 
the property, and the Presbyterian church would have been 
left predominantly New School, with a helpless Old School 
-minority. When the Old School party found themselves in 
power in the General Assembly of 1837, ^^^ "Princeton 
Men," as represented by Dr. Archibald Alexander, voted 
for the abrogation of the *' Plan of Union," for the estab- 
lishment of ecclesiastical boards, and for the excision of the 
Synod of Western Reserve. They regretted the peremp- 
tory excision of the three Synods in western New York 
yet passively acquiesced in the measure as one of " substan- 
tial justice," but would have preferred the plan offered by 
Dr. Cuyler, which summoned those Synods to purify them^ 
selves, and suspended their right to representation in the 
General Assembly upon their obedience. The " Princeton 
Men" regretted exceedingly the secession of the "New 
School" division of the church in 1848, but rejoiced in the 
assurance that neither they nor tHe Old School majority 
were responsible for that division, which they (the Prince- 
ton men) had always feared and had tried so loyally to. pre- 

Dr. Hodge says himself in his " Retrospect of the His- 
tory of the Princeton Review," 1871, " In all the controvert- 
sies culminating in the division of the church in 1837-8, the 
conductors of this Review were in entire sympathy with the 



Old School party. They sided with them as to the right^ 
and under existing circumstances the duty, of the church 
to conduct the work of education and foreign and domestic 
missions by ecclesiastical boards instead of voluntary in-^ 
dependent societies. They agreed with that party on all 
doctrinal questions in dispute; and as to the obligation 
to enforce conformity to our Confession of Faith on the part 
of ministers and teachers of theology under onr jurisdiction* 
They were so unfortunate, however, as to dii!er from many, 
and apparently from a majority of their Old School 
brethren, as to the wisdom of the measures adopted for 
securing a common object. In our number for January, 
1837, it is said : ' Our position we feel to be difficult and 
delicate. On the one hand, we respect and love the great 
mass of our Old School brethren ; we believe them to con- 
stitute the bone and sinew of the Presbyterian church ; we 
agree with them in doctrine ; we sympathize with them in 
their disapprobation and distrust of the spirit and conduct 
of the leaders of the opposite party; and we harmonize 
with them in all the great leading principles of ecclesiastical 
policy, though we differ from a portion of them, how large 
or how small that portion may be we cannot tell, as to the 
wisdom and propriety of some particular measures. They 
have the right to cherish and express their opinions, and to 
endeavor to enforce them on others by argument and persua* 
sion, and so have we. They, we verily believe, have no seliish 
end in view. We are knowingly operating, under stress of 
conscience, against all our own interests, so feir as they are 
not involved in the intdl-ests of the Church of God.' 

"The FIRST point of difference related to the Act and 
Testimony, and the measures therewith connected. 

"Such departures from the standards of the church 
in matters of doctrine and order ; such diversity of opinion 
as to ecclesiastical boards and voluntary societies; sudi 
alienation of feeling and agitating controversy had for 
years so disturbed the peace and impaired the efficiency 



of the church as to produce a state of things which on all 
sides was thought to be intolerable. With the view to re- 
form these evils, and secure the peace and purity of the 
church, a meeting of ministers and elders was held in Phil- 
adelphia, May 26, 1834. At that meeting it was deter- 
mined to issue an Act and Testimony, setting forth the 
evils under which the church was laboring, and proposing 
means of redress. This document was originally signed 
by thirty-seven ministers and twenty-seven elders. It was 
sent forth among the churches, and all the friends of sound 
doctrine and of Presbyterian order were exhorted to sign it 
' We recommend/ say the original signers, ' all ministers, 
elders. Church-sessions, Presbyteries and Synods, who 
aH>rove of this Act and Testimony, to give their public 
adherence thereto, in such manner as they shall prefer, and 
communicate their names, and when a church court, a copy 
of their adhering act' It was further recommended 'that 
on the second Thursday of May, 1835, a Convention be 
held in the city of Pittsburgh (where the General As- 
sembly was to meet), to be composed of two delegates, a 
minister and ruling elder from each Presbytery, or from 
the minority of any Presbytery, who may concur in the 
sentiments of the Act and Testimony, to deliberate and 
consult on the present state of the church, and to adopt 
such measures as may be best suited to restore her pros- 
trated standards.' 

"Many Old School men, as zealous as any others, 
could not sign this document. They did not object to it as 
a testimony against false doctrine; nor as a means for 
arousing the attention of the church; nor as designed 
to concentrate the energies of its sounder members for 
the reform of existing evils; but, i. Because it contained 
assertions as to matter of feet, and expressions of opinion 
(not, however, as to matters of doctrine) in which they 
could not conscientiously concur. 2. Because it operated 
as a new, unauthorized and invidious test of orthodoxy and 

294 '^^^ DISRUPTION. 

fidelity. Those who did not sigjn it were looked upon 
as timid and recreant The editor of the Presbyterian 
(Aug. 21, 1834) said, * We verily believe that every ortho- 
dox minister and elder, who refuses his sig^ture under 
existing circumstances, will throw his weight into the 
opposite scale, and strengthen the hopes and confirm the 
confidence of those who aim to revolutionize the church/ 
3. Because its obvious tendency, and as the event proved, 
its actual effect, was to divide, instead of uniting, the 
friends of orthodoxy and order. The document was never 
signed by a moiety of the Old School body. 4. Because 
the issuing a document of this kind, calling for the signa- 
tures of all sound men, who, by their delegates, were 
to meet in convention and prepare for further action, was an 
extra-constitutional and revolutionary measure, which many- 
good and true men could not approve. They believed that 
when evils exist in any organized community, civil or 
ecclesiastical, redress should be sought in the regular exer- 
cise of the constitution and laws, unless the evils be such as 
justify revolution. 5. From the natural tendency of the 
measures adopted, and from the open avowal of some of 
the leaders in this movement, it was believed that if the^ 
party represented by the Act and Testimony did not gain 
ascendancy in the church, the result would be secession 
and schism. Th^re were, however, many who believed that 
secession, under the circumstances, would be a violation- 
of principles and a breach of trust They, therefore, stood 
aloof and abstained from taking part in measures of which,' 
as it seemed to them, scliism was the natural consequence, if 
not the intention. They held that so long as the standards 
of the church were unaltered, and its ministers were not 
called upon to profess what they did not believe, or pre- 
vented preaching what they believed to be true, or required 
to do what their cortscience condemned, to withdraw from 
the church was the crime of schism, which the Scriptures sa 
expressly forbid. Moreover, they regarded the funds, the- 


institutions and the influence of the church as a trust com- 
mitted to their care, which they were not authorized to 
throw up or to leave in the hands of those whom they 
regarded as likely to abuse or pervert it. To abandon the 
church whenever an adverse majority gained ascendancy 
for a time in its administration, would lead to never-ending 
divisions and incalculable evils. Many of the signers of the 
Act and Testimony disclaimed any intention to secede from 
the church; but others, among whom was the venerable 
Dr. Green, openly declared that such was their purpose- 
Happily, the matter was not brought to that issue. The 
reform of* the church was effected without that sacrifice. 
Candid men, we think, will admit that the above-men- 
tioned reasons are sufHcient «to justify the course of those 
who dissented from the Act and Testimony movement. 
Their conduct, at least, can be accounted for on other 
grounds than those of &int-heartedness or unfaithfulness. 

" The SECOND point on which the Old School men were 
divided, was the proper grounds of ecclesiastical discipline. 
Our ministers and elders are required to adopt the Confes- 
sion of Faith, as containing the system of doctrine taught 
in the Holy Scriptures. No doctrine, therefore, inconsistent 
with the integrity of that system is the proper ground 
of discipline. It is not enough that the doctrine be 
erroneous, or that it be dangerous in its tendency ; if it be 
not subversive of one or more of the constituent elements 
of the reformed faith, it is not incompatible with the honest 
adoption of our Confession. It cannot be denied that ever 
since the Reformation more or less diversity in the state- 
ment and explanation of the doctrines of Calvinism has 
prevailed in the reformed churches. It is equally notorious 
that for fifty or sixty years such diversities have existed and 
been tolerated in our own church ; nay, that they still exist 
and are avowed by Old School men. If a man holds that 
all mankind, since the fall of Adam, and in consequence of 
his sin^are bom in a state of condemnation and sin, whether 


he accounts for that (act on the ground of immediate 
or mediate imputation, or on the realistic theory, he was 
regarded as within the integrity of the system. If he 
admitted the sinner's inability, it was not considered as 
a proper ground of discipline that he regarded that inability 
as moral, instead of natural as well as moral. If he taught 
that the work of Christ was a real satisfaction to the justice 
of God, it was not made a breaking point whether he said 
it was designed exclusively for the elect, or for all mankind, 
etc., etc. 

'' We do not say that the diversities above referred to are 
unimportant We regard many of them as of great import* 
ance. All we say is that they have existed and been toler- 
ated in the purest Calvinistic churches our own among the 

'' But within the last forty years other doctrines came to 
be avowed. Men came to teach that mankind are not bom 
in a state of sin and condemnation ; that no man is chai^- 
able with either guilt or sin until he deliberately violates the 
known law of God ; that sinners have plenary ability to do 
all God requires of them; that regeneration* is the sinner's 
own act ; that God cannot certainly control the a(its of free 
agents so as to prevent all sin, or the present amount of sin 
in a moral system ; that the work of Christ is no proper 
satisfaction to divine justice, but simply symbolic or 
didactic, designed to produce a moral impression on in- 
telligent agents ; that justification is not judicial, but in- 
volves a setting aside of the law, as when the Executive 
remits the penalty incurred by a criminal. The doctrines 
of this latter class were regarded as entirely inconsistent 
with the 'system of doctrine' taught in our Confession 
of Faith. In the General Assembly (O. S.) of 1868 a 
protest was presented against the adoption of the plan 
of union then before the churches, urging as an argument 
against the union the alleged fact that such doctrines were 
tolerated in the other branch of the Presbyterian church. 


The majority of the Assembly, in their answer to that pro- 
test, denied that allegation. They pronounced it to be 
incredible, on the ground that such doctrines were so obvi- 
ously subversive of our whole system, that no church 
professing to be Caivinistic could tolerate them within their 

"When in 1830, and the years immediately following, 
church discipline was invoiced to arrest the progress of 
error, the Presbytery of Philadelphia included among the 
doctrines to be condemned those belonging to the first as 
well as those belonging to the second of the classes above 
mentioned. This was objected to by a large class of Old 
School men, and by the conductors of this Review^ among 
their number. I. Because, if the errors in question do not 
affect the integrity of the system, they were not the proper 
grounds of discipline. One of these doctrines was ' that 
fidth is an act and not a principle.' But surely a man may 
hold this opinion and yet be a Calvinist. The immediate 
imputation of Adam's sin we regard as a very important 
doctrine ; not so much on its own account as on account of 
the principle of representative accountability on which it is 
founded, which principle runs through the Bible^ and is in- 
volved in the vital doctrines of atonement and justification. 
Nevertheless, it is notorious that the doctrine of immediate 
imputation has not been considered by our church as essen- 
tial to the integrity of the Caivinistic system. 

"2. It was considered unreasonable and unfair to Con- 
demn one man for errors which had been, and continued to 
be tolerated in others. 

" 3. This course was deemed unwise because it could not 
&il to embarrass the administration of discipline and to 
divide the friends of truth and order in the church. It was 
impossible that they could be brought with unanimity to 
concur in sustaining charges so heterogeneous, embracing 
doctrinal statements with which only a small minority 
of the church could agfree. We are constrained to say, 


with great respect for the Presbytery of Philadelphia, that 
the censures which that body pronounced in 1830 on the 
sermon entitled 'The Way of Salvation/ contained doc- 
trinal principles which we do not know a single minister in 
the Presbyterian church who is willing to adopt. It makes 
the penal character of the sufTerings of Christ to depend on 
their nature and intensity, and not on the design for which 
they were inflicted. We think that any candid man will ad- 
mit that those who disapproved of such a judicial judgment 
did not deserve, on that account, to be deemed lacking in 
fidelity or zeal for the truth. 

'* We do not wish to intimate that the books on which 
the Presbytery, and afterwards the Synod of Philadelphia, 
founded their judicial action did not contain errors which 
called for the exercise of discipline. We believe they did 
contain propositions which, according to the unanimous 
judgment of the Assembly of 1868, any minister should be 
required to retract as the condition of his remaining in con* 
nection with the Presbyterian church. The complaint is 
that matters were included in the charges which even the 
friends of sound doctrine could not regard as proper 
grounds of discipline. 

. " The THIRD point about which Old Schoolmen difiered 
was the wisdom of some of the acts of the Assembly 
of 1837. When that Assembly met, it was found that die 
Old School had a decided and determined majority. The 
opportunity had occurred to rectify some of the abuses 
which had so long and so justly been matters of com- 
plaint. It was not to be expected or desired that the 
opportunity should be lost. The abuse which was more 
immediately under the control of the Assembly was tfie 
admission of Congregationalists as constituent members 
of our church courts. This was as obviously unreasonable 
and unconstitutional as the admission of British subjects to 
sit as members of our State or National Legislature. To 
put an end to this abuse, the Assembly adopted the follow- 


ing report of their committee : ' In regard to' the relation 
between the Presbyterian and Congregational churches, the 
committee recommend the adoption of the following resolu- 

" ' I. That between these two branches of the American 
church there ought, in the judgment of this Assembly, to be 
maintained sentiments of mutual respect and esteem, and 
for that purpose no reasonable effort should be omitted to 
jMreserve a perfectly good understanding between these two 
branches of the Church of Christ. 

'* ' 2. That it is expedient to continue the plan of friendly 
intercourse between this church and the Congregational 
churches as it now exists. 

" ' 3. But as the * Plan of Union ' adopted for the new 
settlements in 1801 was originally an unconstitutional act 
on the part of that Assembly, — these important standing 
rules having never been submitted to the Presbyteries — and 
as they are totally destitute of authority, as proceeding from 
the General Association of Connecticut, which is invested 
with no power to legislate in such cases, and especially to 
enact laws to regulate churches not within its limits ; and as 
much confusion and irregularity has arisen from this unna- 
tural and unconstitutional system of union, therefore, it 
is resolved that the Act of the Assembly of 1801, en- 
titled a ' Plan of Union ' be, and the same is hereby abro- 

" These resolutions were carried by a vote of 143 yeas to 
110 nays. Dr. Archibald Alexander, and all the other 
delegates from the Presbytery of New Brunswick, voted for 
their adoption. 

** The question then arose, How was the above resolution 
to be carried into effect ? In other words. How was the 
Congregational element to be eliminated from our body ? 
Three methods were proposed. First: To cite the judica- 
tories, charged with this and other irregularities, to appear 
at the bar of the next Assembly. This was actually adoptedi 

300 THE DISRUPTION. [1837, 

but afterwards abandoned as likely to be cumbersome and 

" The second method was that proposed by the Rev. Dr. 
Cuyler, the substance of which was a direction to the judi- 
catories embracing Congregational churches to require 
them to become Presbyterially organized, or to withdraw 
from our connection ; and refusing to such judicatories the 
privilege of being represented in the General Assembly 
until this elimination of Congregationalism had been effected. 

"The consideration of these resolutions was postponed 
to await the report of a committee, consisting of five mem- 
bers, from either side of the house, to consider the question 
of the amicable separation of the church. That committee 
reported that they unanimously agreed, ist. That in the 
present state of the church such a separation was desirable. 
2d, They agreed as to the terms on which it should be ef- 
fected ; but 3d, They disagreed as to the time when it 
should be accomplished, and as to the legal succession. 
The committee representing the majority insisted that the 
separation should be accomplished at once, during the ses* 
sions of that Assembly ; the committee on the part of the 
minority insisted that it should be deferred for a year, by a 
reference of the matter to the Presbyteries. 

" On the failure of this attempt, the Assembly, instead of 
taking up the resolutions of Dr. Cuyler, proceeded to effect 
the separation from Congregationalism by its own authority. 
This was done by what are called the 'Abscinding Acts.' It 
was resolved, first, ' That by the operation of the abrogation 
of the Plan of Union of 180 1 the Synod of the Western Re- 
serve is, and hereby is declared to be, no longer a part of 
the Presbyterian church in the United States of America.' 

"And subsequently it was resolved ' That in consequence 
of the abrogation by this Assembly of the Plan of Union 
of 1 80 1 between it and the General Association of Connect- 
icut, as utterly unconstitutional, and therefore null and void 
from the beginning, the Synods of Utica, Greneva and Gen- 


esee, which were formed and attached to this body under 
and in execution of the said Plan of Union be, and are 
hereby declared to be, out of the ecclesiastical connection 
of the Presbyterian Church of the United States of America, 
and that they are not in form or in &ct an integral portion 
of said church.' 

" It was stated on the floor of the Assembly that less 
than one in four of the churches in the Synod of the West- 
em Reserve was Presbyterian. We do not see how any 
one can censure the Assembly for refusing to recognize that 
Synod as a Presbyterian body when three-fourths of the 
churches of which it was composed were Congregational. 
Dr. Alexander, who had voted for the abrogation of the 
Plan of Union, felt free, therefore, to vote for the disowning 
of the Synod of the Western Reserve as a constituent part 
of the Presb}rterian Church. For the resolution disowning 
the three S)mods in Western New York he could not vote, 

" The grounds on which the majority of the conductors 
of this Review dissented from the Act of the Assembly dis- 
owning the three Synods of Utica, Geneva and Genesee 
were : ist, That it was not a legitimate consequence of the 
abrogation of the Plan of Union that those Synods, with 
all their Presbsrteries and churches, were out of connection 
with the Presbs^terian Church in the United States, and 
neither in form nor in fact an integral part of that church. 
Even if originally formed on the Plan of Union, if they had 
become, and so far as they had become, Presbyterian in 
their organization, and had been duly recognized, they were 
entitled to be regarded and treated as Presbyterian churches 
and judicatories. This is all the constitution required. This 
the Assembly itself admitted, as it promised to recognize 
any of the constituent churches or judicatories of those 
Synods, as soon as they reported themselves as constitu- 
tionally organized. But if Presbyterial organization entitled 
them to recognition it was a valid reason why they should 
not be disowned. 

302 THE DISRUPTION. [1837. 

" 2. The presence of a few Congregationalists in a church 
court did not destroy its cliaracter nor afford a reasonable 
ground for refusing to recognize it as in connection with 
the church. Committee men (1. e, Congregationalists) have 
been allowed to sit as members of the Greneral Assembly; 
and so were the delegates from the several Associations in 
New England. If their presence rendered the Assemblies 
in which they sat unconstitutional bodies, then all the acts 
of those bodies were null and void, and we have lost our 
legal succession. 

" It is to be remembered that the excision of the Synods 
in question was not an act of discipline ; it was not founded 
on the prevalence of error in doctrine, or of " new mea- 
sures." This the Assembly expressly disclaims. In answer 
to the protest of the commissioners from those Synods it is 
said, * There is no judicial process instituted.' * Without 
impeaching the character or standing of the brethren com- 
posing those Synods, this Assembly, by a legpislative act, 
merely declares them, in consequence of the abrogation of 
the Plan of Union of 1 801, no longer a constituent part of 
the General Assembly of the Presbyterian church in the 
United States.' 

" The objection to this action is, that the presence of a 
small minority of Congregationalists in a church court 
did not so vitiate its character as to justify its being 

**3. There were Presbyteries within the bounds of the 
Synods of Albany and New Jersey composed in part 
of Congregational churches, and yet the Greneral Assembly 
did not disown either those Synods or the delinquent Pres- 
byteries. This was an admission that the presence of Con- 
gregational, members did not destroy the character of those 
bodies as Presbyterian organizations. 

"4. The action of the Assembly in disowning the Synods 
of Western New York was not necessary to secure the 
reform of the church. That end would have been attained 


by the due operation of the abrogation of the Plan of Union^ 
The legitimate effects of that abrogation were : ist, To pre- 
vent the reception of any new churches formed upon that 
plan. 2d, To render it obligatory on all the Presbyteries to 
require the churches within their bounds to adopt an organ- 
ization in accordance with our constitution, and to refuse to 
allow the representatives of Congregational churches to sit 
and act as elders. 3d, To justify, and it may be to render 
it obligatory on future General Assemblies to refuse to 
allow Presbyteries continuing their connection with Con- 
gregationalism to be represented in those bodies. This 
would have effectually accomplished the reform contem- 
plated by the abrogation of the Plan of Union of 1801. 
After having allowed for more than thirty years this union 
of Congregationalists and Presb)^erians in our church 
courts, all that the Assembly had the right to do was to 
require that such union should forthwith and thenceforth 
cease. This was the ground taken by Dr. Alexander and 
the majority of the conductors of this Review in 1837, and 
on which the few of their number who still survive (in 
1870) still stand. What, however, was regarded as very 
lukewarm Old-Schoolism in 1837 has now come to be 
looked upon as obsolete and narrow-minded. The Assem- 
bly of 1869, by a vote nearly unanimous, not only admitted 
(the abrogation of the Plan of Union notwithstanding) that 
Presbyteries do not forfeit their connection with the Pres- 
byterian Church, although they include Congregatipnal 
churches, but authorized, as far as it could do so, their 
being represented in the General Assembly for at least five 
years to come." 

It was suspected and has been since charged that the 
gentlemen at Princeton were not perfectly at one with re- 
gard to the various questions which emerged during the 
contest, and that Dr. Hodge was responsible for separating 
them from the more extreme Old School leaders. It is, 
however, certain that they were cordially agreed on all 

304 '^^^ ''PRINCETON MEN'' HARMONIOUS. [1837. 

points as &r as any men of independent minds could be on 
so wide a range of subjects. If there was any difference it 
was that Dr. Hodge was more urgently impelled to speak 
out his whole mind, while others at times counselled reti- 
cence for prudential reasons. That they were at one is cer- 
tain : — from the public action of Dr. Miller in the General 
Assembly of 1836, where he voted to sustain the appeal of 
Mr. Barnes, and then to condemn the errors contained in 
his book ; and the public action of Dr. Alexander in the 
Assembly of 1837, where he voted to abrogate the Plan of 
Union and to exscind the Synod of Western Reserve, but 
voted against the exscision of the three Synods of Western 
New York ; from the uniform assertions of Dr. Hodge to 
the end of his life, confirmed by the assertions of Dr. James 
W. Alexander, one of the actors in the scenes, in his 
Memoirs of his Father, p. 480, and by the assertion of Rev. 
Dr. Samuel Miller, Jr., in his Memoirs of his Father, p. 
271 ; from the fact that the article entitled " The Present 
State and Prospects of the Presbyterian Church " (Bib. Rep. 
Jan., 1835,) is claimed alike by the representatives of Dr. A. 
Alexander and Dr. Miller, and was certainly written by one 
of them. This article is, at leasts as decidedly and offen- 
sively opposed to the extreme action of the Old School 
leaders as anything written by Dr. Hodge. 

The only point as to which it is known that the conduct- 
ors of the Repertory differed among themselves was with 
reference to the action of the Assembly of 1837 in ex- 
scinding the three Synods of Western New York. They 
habitually met in Dr. Hodge's study to discuss every 
article of importance. With regard to this difference of 
opinion, Dr. Hodge has left a clear statement, drawn up at 
the time. 

Note in Dr. Ws Journal.— *']u\y 19, 1837.— The conductors 
of the Repertory met a second time to decide on the article on 
the Assembly. Drs. Miller and Breckinridge approved of 
the action of the Assembly respecting the three (New York) 


Synods in toto. Prof. McLean and Dr. A. Alexander 
thought it might be justified, although not on the grounds 
upon which the Assembly placed it, and would have pre- 
ferred Dr. Cuyler s plan (this plan was stated above). Pro- 
fessors James W. Alexander, Dodd and Hodge disapproved 
the Assembly's action, and would have preferred Dr. Cuy- 
ler's plan, and they wished this idea to be expressed in the 
Repertory. It was decided to leave out that portion of the 
article (written by Dr. Hodge) containing this expression, 
leaving it, as it was supposed, undecided how the conduct* 
ors viewed the matter. To this course all ultimately 
assented, except Dr. Hodge. He objected on the ground 
that the impression it would make, as it now stands, would 
be that the conductors decidedly sustained the measure in 
question. Dr. Alexander, Prof. Dod, and ultimately Prof 
J. W. Alexander thought that such an inference could not 
be feirly drawn from the language employed. The disap- 
proval of the action of the Assembly in relation to the 
third Presbytery of Philadelphia was sustained by all the 
conductors, except Dr. Breckinridge. Profs. J. W. Alexan- 
der, Dod and Hodge were afterwards strongly in favor of 
inserting a note of explanation." 

With reference to these questions Dr. Hodge wrote the 
following letters to his brother : 


Nov. 21, 1834. 

My Dear Brother : — ^As to church matters, I know not what to 
think, And you would find yourself in chaos were you to attempt an 
analysis. The Act and Testimony is doing what was from the first 
apprehended — splitting the Old School portion of the church. How 
far this will go it is hard to say. The Philadelphia men, Dr. Green, 
&c., &€., are driving matters to an extremity, and if they succeed we 
shall be ruined for the next ten or twenty years. That is if by their 
ultraism a portion of the Old School party is broken off, it will leave 
the remainder completely in the power of the New School men and 
give them the command of our Seminaries, Boards and Education 


and Missions, &c., &c. I still hope this consummation will be 
avoided^ It was to guard against .it, and to warn the Old School 
party of the evil and danger of thus splitting the church that the 
article on the Act and Testimony in the Repertory was written. It 
has had the effect of making whole classes of signers declare that 
they do not wish nor look for a schism in the church. But on the 
other hand, the obvious tendency of the measure and the avowed 
design of some of its authors are to that result. That article has 
given prodigious offence to the Philadelphia men. The Synod passed 
a v«te which amounts to a formal declaration of want of confidence 
in the Seminary. They propose transferring their patronage to 
Pittsburgh, or to found a new institution. I do not believe this will 
hurt anybody but themselves. No person here regrets as yet the 
publication of our article. We all think it will do good on the whole. 
As far as I know, the Synod of Philadelphia is the only one in the 
whole church which is what we call ultra. It is the only one, 
I am persuaded, which would have entertained for a moment the 
proposition about a new seminary on the grounds then urged, and 
therefore I feel a strong hope that they will find themselves in so 
small a minority as to be induced to keep quiet. 

Your brother, 

Charles Hodge. 


Princeton. June 11, 1837. 

My Dear Brother : — I have at once to prepare a history of the 
doings of this momentous Assembly, in which the New School have 
experienced a Waterloo defeat. Their only resource is now to the 
law, which I suspect will give them small consolation. I think sub- 
stantial justice has been done, though there may, in some cases, 
have been some informality in the mode of doing it. I have little 
doubt the public sentiment of the church and of other denominations 
will sustain the proceedings of the Assembly as soon as they arc 
fairly understood. The simple truth is, that the church has tolerated 
the Congregationalized portion of the body until its very existence 
was in danger, and it has aroused and shaken them off. I presume 
that the New School will form themselves into an American Presby- 
terian Church, and we shall have two denominations. I am very 
sorry the Assembly dissolved the third Presbytery of Philadelphia, 
and that in an unconstitutional manner. It looks badly, and was 
done by a very small vote. 

Your brother, C. H. 



Princeton, July 26, 1837. 

My Dear Brother : — ^Dod seems to have produced a great commo- 
tion among, the gentlemen of the Old School party in Philadelphia. 
They sent a message up to entreat and expostulate, besides a multi- 
tude of letters filled with lamentations and prophecies of coming 
eviL These letters were, some of them, from very moderate men. 
such as Mr. &c., &c. I presume Dod stated clearly enough how 
the matter stood to the few persons he spoke to, but the accounts 
were doubtless greatly magnified as they diffused themselves abroad. 
1 do not believe that what I wished to do would have done any harm 
or have given any offence. The fact is that we are all agreed as to 
all the principles involved in the questions before the Assembly, and 
agreed also as to their application, except as to one case (the case of 
the three Synods of Western New York). With regard to this some 
were satisfied, and some were not (1. e. by the action of the Assem- 
bly). The Repertory, speaking the language of all the conductors, 
could not say anything which a portion of us could not assent to. 
My difficulty was that I believed the article, as altered by the major- 
ity of the conductors, did, at least impliedly, express approbation of 
Ihe act of the Assembly in reference to the three Synods. I had no 
right to say that it should not do so, but I certainly had a right to say 
that the majority should not make me say so. I therefore insisted on 
stating in a note that some of the conductors, meaning Dod, J. W. 
Alexander and myself, felt that we had not as yet a sufficient know- 
ledge of the facts in the case to enable us to see the propriety of this 
measure. This was resisted with great earnestness by some one or 
two as likely to do great harm. It was, however, a point which I 
could not yield, and which those who agreed with me were also un- 
willing to give up. The note was finally thrown into a form by J. W. 
Alexander, to which Breckinridge assented, and to which I agreed, 
though with a good deal of reluctance. It is less explicit than I 
wished it, and yet may be understood to mean more than even I 
wanted to express, and it now speaks the language of the whole and 
not of a part. After saying in the text that the summary plan of ex- 
clusion was undoubtedly constitutional in its application to all those 
Synods which could be clearly proved to be irregularly organized, 
we add in a note, that as the facts in regard to the three Synods in 
New York are in a constant process of disclosure, the full discussion 
of this question is deferred to a future occasion. 

I had two reasons for assenting to this. The first was that all I 
wished was to satisfy my conscience, and not to be made to say 


what I did not believe. This note answers this purpose by saying 
that though satisfied as to the principles, we must wait for more facts 
before we can say anything as to their application. My second 
reason was, that I really believe, or rather expect that facts will soon 
be brought forward which will show the substantial justice of the 
action of the Assembly. How far this evidence was before the As- 
sembly I do not know, and therefore cannot say, how far they acted 
in the dark. But if substantial justice has been done, that is the 
main point. 

I never had such a time in my life. On the one hand my own 
views of duty and propriety and even expediency were clear and un- 
wavering. On the other hand the opinion of almost all my 
friends, and the vehement expostulations, appeals, and forebodings 
of a good many of them. Dr. Alexander did just what he ought to 
have done. He said he could not see the grounds of my scruples, 
and thought the thing inexpedient, but gave his cheerful assent to 
my saying in the note just what I pleased. You may depend upon 
it it is very hard for a man to act upon his own opinion, when op- 
posed not only to the opinion of those he has been accustomed to 
reverence, but to the ardent expostulations and dreadful forebodings 
of others. I believed, to be sure, it was all nonsense ; that no such 
terrible consequences would follow. However, I feel thankful the 
thing is arranged without producing a breach, and that I have still 
a good conscience. Dod and Maclean both think that the note, as 
it now stands, is a great deal worse for the Old School than what I 
wanted to say. You will wonder when you see it, how little a matter 
has kindled such a flame. The Repertory will not be made a party 
concern I am persuaded. Its conductors would rather see it die. 

Your affectionate brother, C. H, 

It was inevitable, under all the conditions of the case, 
that the excited leaders of the Old School majority in these 
conflicts should have been annoyed by the independent po- 
sition of the " Princeton gentlemen " and those who agreed 
with them. This annoyance naturally led to hard thoughts 
and derogatory language. No one at any time doubted 
their doctrinal soundness, but the entire class of men, 
wherever resident, was called the " Princeton Party " in 
order to belittle it. They were characterized as ** moderates,** 
"trembling brethren,** "compromisers." They were sus- 
pected of want of courage, if not of a supreme regard to 


their supposed temporal intejrests. Some New School men 
held them as weakly succumbing to the will of the Old 
School majority when, after protesting against the earlier 
steps in the controversy, they afterwards consented to the 
abrogation of the Plan of Union and the excision of the 
Synods. Some of the Old School charitably excused them 
on the ground that as secluded professors they were neces- 
sarily less perfectly informed as to the actual condition 
of affairs than active pastors."*" 

However natural these derogatory representations were 
at the time, they were absurdly untrue. The accuracy and 
wide extent of their knowledge of the state of the church, 
and the wisdom of their judgment has been vindicated 
abundantly by the events which, after thirty years, led to 
re-union. That they were right in voting to abrogate the 
Plan of Union a;id establish denominational Boards has 
been established by the action of the New School Assem- 
bly itself while a separate denomination. That they were 
right in resisting the confusing of the lesser with the graver 
doctrinal errors, and in believing that the latter were not 
prevalent among the majority of those acting in the New 
School party, has been demonstrated in re-union and its 
consequences. That they were eminently brave and disin- 
terested is abundantly proved by the very fact complained 
of, that instead of sheltering themselves in the mass of 
either conflicting army, they chose to expose themselves to 
the conspicuous and unsupported position of independent 

•The Presbytery of Newton,'of the Synod of New Jersey, appointed a com- 
mittee February, 1835, '* to confer, by letter or otherwise, with the Professors 
of the Theo. Sem. in Princeton " with reg^ird to their stand against the Act and 
Testimony. And in the autumn of 1836 " a company of gentlemen were desig- 
nated by a lai^ and respectable number of the Old School to proceed in a 
noiseless and unobserved manner to wait on the Professors at their homes, to 
reason and remonstrate with them, if possible, to concur with their brethren in 
the public actions of the church." These gentlemen met in the study of Dr. 
Hodge. Their appeals were respectfully heard, but little effect was ever attri- 
buted to them. 


soldiers, following reason and conscience without r^ard to 
the pleasure or displeasure of nien. That they were not 
inconsistent with their past convictions or pledges when 
they finally consented to the abrogation of the Plan of 
Union and the exscision of the Synod of Western Reserve 
has been shown plainly above. 

Dr. E. H. Gillett, in his account of these events, (vol. 
ii., p. 496) sneeringly says : ** The Princeton Review of 
July of that year (1836) still pleaded for union. . . Only a 
few weeks after the Review had denounced division, New 
Brunswick Presbytery (to which all the Professors be- 
longed) unanimously declared themselves unable to see any 
prospect of good in the continued union of the discordant 
parts of the church." 

This inuendo is borrowed from "A Plea for Voluntary 
Societies, and a Defense of the Decisions of the General 
Assembly of 1836 against the Strictures of the Princeton 
Reviewers, New York, 1837," in which the conductors of 
the Repertory are charged with insincerity because their 
Presbytery so ^soon made a deliverance inconsistent with 
the spirit and professed aim of their article, and made it by 
a vote reported to be unanimous. This might have been a 
natural suspicion in the excitements of 1837, ^^^ >* is an 
inexcusable insinuation as coming from Dr. E. H. Gillett, 
the professed historian of the Presbyterian Church in 1864, 
The explanation was in his hand in an article in the Re- 
pertory for January, 1837, reviewing "The Plea for Volun- 
tary Societies," aforesaid : " Of the eight ministers resident 
in Princeton only one of them was present at that meeting 
of their Presbytery, or knew anything of the resolutions 
until after they were passed. . . But we have still further to 
remark, that the only one of their number ('Association of 
Gentlemen in Princeton*) who was present when these reso- 
lutions were adopted exerted all his influence to have them 
reduced to the standard which he and his friends had al- 
ready adopted." 


Out of the attitude assumed by the conductors of the 
Repertory towards the Act and Testimony there sprang 
a personal misunderstanding. In the month of May, 1834, 
in the height of his physical affliction, Dr. Hodge stayed 
for a few days with his friend, Professor Dod, at the house 
of his brother, in Philadelphia. While there t)r. R. J. 
Breckinridge, the author of the Act and Testimony, with 
whom he was on terms of intimate friendship, called to see 
him, and consulted him on the subject of the character 
of the document he was preparing. From this it came to be 
currently rumored that Dr. Hodge was one of the authors 
of the Act and Testimony, and hence much painful surprise 
was felt by many when his articles appeared in the Re^ 
pertary in October, 1834, and January, 1835, vigorously 
criticising that document, and opposing the use to which it 
was applied by its friends. In his *' Plain Statement" in the 
Presbyterian^ April 16, 1835, Dr. R. J. Breckinridge affirms 
" That Dr. Hodge dictated, with the aid of the manuscript 
put into his hands by me, and drawn in part from Dr. Miller's 
letters, then recently published, the very words and letters 
now found under the head of ' Errors ' in the Act and Tes- 
timony. . . And so far from his making any general objec- 
tions, such as he has since reiterated, I left him, confidently 
hoping that he would favor, if not actually sign, the Act and 
Testimony.*' It was a question of "impression" and 
" hopes," which must always depend largely upon subjec- 
tive conditions of opinion and feeling and temperament. 
Under all the circumstances, it is not wonderful that 
Dr. Breckinridge should have misunderstood Dr. Hodge. 
But that he did entirely misunderstand him, and hence that 
this " Plain Statement" misrepresents him, is absolutely cer- 
tain. Dr. Hodge, in his address to the " Christian Public," 
in the Presbyterian^ April 30, 1835, says : " The facts of the 
case, to the best of my recollection and belief, are briefly 
these : During my short stay in Philadelphia, in May last, I 
received a note from a friend that he would call upon me in 


company with Dr. R. J. Breckinridge on important business, 
but without any more special reference to the object of his 
visit At the hour appointed they came. The first annun- 
ciation of their special object was in nearly these words: 
' Brother Hodge, we want you to draw up a statement 
of the doctrinal errors prevailing in the Presb3rterian 
Church.' I answered that this was work for a month ; that 
I was incompetent to the task, it being out of my line, and 
that I was to leave town the next morning for the sea-shore. 
I was, of course, at this time entirely ig^norant of the pur- 
pose for which the statement was wanted. In order to 
make known this purpose, and that I might understand 
precisely what was desired of me, Mr. Breckinridge stated 
that there had been a meeting on the preceding evening of 
the minority of the General Assembly, and of some other 
gentlemen, at which he \eas appointed the chairman of a 
committee to draft an address to the churches. This ad- 
dress he then read, and said he wished to introduce into it 
a statement of the prevailing errors, and that it was in pre- 
paration of this statement he desired my assistance. This 
led to a conversation especially as to the class of errors 
which it would be proper to notice. In this conversation 
Professor Maclean, Mr. Breckinridge, his friend and myself 
all took part. It was agreed that the statement ought to 
be confined to errors of the more important kind. After 
this Mr. Breckinridge took his pen and with the aid of his 
notes previously made, wrote down the several specifica- 
tions in the form which, after mutual consultation, was 
thought to be the best. In this point there was generally 
a coincidence of views : as to one of the articles, however, 
that respecting imputation, Mr. Breckinridge diflfered from 
his friends, and wrote it down as it now stands, in opposi- 
tion to their judgment. This was the whole of my agency 
in the business. It was not only unsolicited on my part, 
but was entirely unexpected ; it was performed as an office 
of fiiendship, and it was neither different nor greater than I 


both could and would, under similar circumstances, per- 
form at the present moment, and with my present views 
and feelings respecting the Act and Testimony. 

** To the best of my recollection, there was but one other 
prominent topic of remark, and that was the article respect- 
ing Elective Affinity bodies. To this I strongly objected 
on the grounds afterwards urged in the Biblical Repertory ^^ 

Professor, now ex-President Maclean, wrote to the Pres- 
bytirian^ April 17, 1835. " In the Presbyterian of last week 
allusion is made by the Rev. R. J. Breckinridge that I was 
present at the interview which took place between him and 
Rev. Professor Hodge, on the subject of the Act and 
Testimony. I feel constrained to let the readers of the 
Presbyterian know that my impression with regard to the 
views then entertained and expressed by Professor Hodge, 
differs entirely from Dr. Breckinridge's. Both Professor 
Hodge and myself expressed our apprehension that the 
measures suggested were to say the least of doubtful ten- 
dency, and that they might be productive of serious diffi- 
culties. ... I recollect that after Mr. Breckinridge had 
expressed his determination to have the document under 
discussion sent forth, by the minority of the last Assembly 
and their friends, as an official paper declarative of their 
views and course of action, Professor Hodge observed that 
if it were a settled point that the Act and Testimony was to 
be issued, it was important that the statement should be 
limited to serious and important errors, and that particular 
care should be used in specifying these errors, so that the 
same errors should not be presented in different forms, and 
that those clearly related should be classed with each other. 

" Mr. Breckinridge then avowed that his object in read- 
ing the paper to Professor Hodge was to get his aid in 
doing this very thing. Prof. Hodge consented to aid him, 
not, as I understood the matter, that he would, upon these 
alterations being made, be willing to give his countenance 
to the measures proposed, but merely because he wished 


the Act and Testimony to be as free as possible from objec- 
tion, and because he felt a disposition to aid a friend, as &r 
as he could do it conscientiously. Yours, 

John Maclean." 

Also on the same day Professor Albert B. Dod wrote to 
the Presbyterian, 

''During the time that Dr. Hodge was in Philadelphia 
last spring, I lodged at the same house with him. In the 
evening of the same day on which the Rev. R. J. Breckin- 
ridge called upon Dr. Hodge to consult him in relation to 
the Act and Testimony, I had much conversation with 
him on the subject of this interview, and of the character 
and probable effects of the instrument. The opinions and 
views which he then expressed were substantially the same 
with those that have since been published in the Biblical 
Repertory, I cannot be mistaken in my recollection of the 
nature of his remarks, as they had a decided influence in 
forming my own views of the Act and Testimony, and in 
leading me to decline, before leaving Philadelphia, to afKx 
my signature to it." 

In consequence of the " Exscinding Acts " passed by the 
General Assembly of 1837, the stated clerk, in making up 
the roll of the members of the Assembly of 1838, omitted 
the names of all the delegates from the Presbyteries com- 
prised in the exscinded synods. Motions to recognize them 
were declared by the Moderator, Rev. Dr. David Elliott, to 
be out of order until after the Assembly was duly con- 
stituted by the making out of the roll. Mr. John P. Cleve- 
land, of the Presbytery of Detroit, then read a paper, of the 
nature of a protest and declaration of the necessity of revo- 
lutionary methods. In ^pite of being called to order by 
. the constitutionally presiding officer, he nominated Dn 
Beman to the chair. Dr. Beman took his station in the 
aisle of the church, and put the motion whereby Drs. E. 
Mason, and E. W. Gilbert were proposed for clerks, and 


Dr. S. Fisher for Moderator. These gentlemen, with their 
sjrmpathizerSy then withdrew to the First Presbyterian 
Church, where they formed the New School Assembly. 

The trustees of the General Assembly had been incor- 
porated under a charter from the Legislature of Pennsyl- 
vania, approved March 28, 1799. The funds entrusted to 
their care had been raised in by far the largest part by the 
adherents of the Old School party, and fully four-fifths 
belonged to Princeton Theological Seminary. The New 
School Assembly, on the assumption that they carried the 
legal succession, necessarily chose new trustees in the place 
of those of the existing body adhering to the other party. 
Just as necessarily the existing members of the Board of 
Trustees, holding that the other Assembly carried the true 
succession, refused to recognize the new appointments of 
the new Assembly. Hence the New School applicants 
brought suit for the establishment of their rights as trustees, 
and hence for the legal settlement of the question of suc- 
cession from the historical line of General Assemblies, 
before the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania. 

The trial was brought in the first instance before Judge 
Rogers at Nisi Prius and a special jury, March 4, 1839. 
Under the ruling of the judge the jury brought in a verdict 
in fevor of the New School trustees and Assembly. The 
Old School trustees appealed to the Supreme Court in 
Banc for a new trial, when the case was heard and decided 
by all the supreme judges together. On May 8th, 1839, 
Chief Justice Gibson, read a judgment in which all the 
judges except Judge Rogers concurred, which reversed the 
finding of the lower court They affirm that " the apparent 
injustice of the (exscinding) measures arises from the con- 
templation of it as a judicial sentence pronounced against 
parties who were never cited nor heard ; which it evidently 
was not. Even as a legislative act, it may have been a 
hard one, though certainly constitutional and strictly just." 
" We hold that the Assembly which met in the First Pres- 


byterian Church was not the legitimate successor of the 
Assembly of 1837; and that the defendants (Old School 
trustees,) are not guilty of the usurpation with which they 
are charged." 

This bare statement of facts is sufficient to explain the 
following letters : 


Princeton, N. J., March 27, 1839. 

My Dear Brother: — ^As you may well suppose, the decision of the 
protracted law-suit against us has taken us altogether by surprise. 
No one here considered such a result as more than possible. We 
thought it probable the jury would not agree, and should not have 
been astonished at an unfavorable verdict. But that the Judge should 
be against us, and that with bitterness, never appeared as even pos- 
sible. All our friends, legal and clerical, had perfect confidence in 
our ultimate success up to the moment when the Judge pronounced 
his opinion. Our opinion of the justice of our cause, of course, re- 
mains unchanged. Whatever errors may have been committed in 

1837, the assumption that the New School Assembly, organized in 

1838, was regularly organized appears perfectly preposterous, and 
therefore the Judge's decision is a mystery. I have long taken pains 
to find out what disinterested and intelligent persons thought on this 
subject, and I have never seen or heard of one who expressed a doubt 
upon it. 

I regard the decision as a very great calamity, and as a very severe 
judgment of God, and bow to it accordingly. I firmly believe the 
New School party, as a party, to be the promoters of error and dis- 
order ; that the interests of religion are deeply involved and greatly 
endangered by the weight of power and influence which this decision 
will give them. God will doubtless bring good out of evil, as he will 
make the success of the Unitarians in New England, and the Hicks- 
ites in the Middle States, ultimately a blessing. His bringing good 
out of evil is his great prerogative, but the evil still remains evil. 

I have very great fears as to the result to the Old School party. If 
they had cohesion enough to hang together, and act together with 
vigor, they might soon recover from this blow. But there are so 
many geographical and sectional causes of disunion 'that I am very 
much afraid that if once deprived of the bond of a common and ven- 
erated name, and of common property, we shall be split into insignifi- 
cant fragments. We are, in the eye of the law, a secession from our 


own church ; the New England men have succeeded in getting that 
church to themselves. 

A re-union appears out of the question ; and I can hardly conceive 
of any arrangement by which the Seminary can be preserved should 
the decision of Judge Rogers be confirmed by the Judges in banc, I 
trust our leaders in Philadelphia will be preserved from rashness and 
imprudence and all evil speaking. A dark cloud is hanging over us, 
and our ways seem to be hedged up. It is very painful to think of 
Princeton Seminary going to ruin ; for it must go to ruin in the hands 
of New School men. They have a Seminary in New York, and can- 
not possibly supply both with students. Still, the Lord reigns, and 

He will do all things well. 

Your brother, C. HoDce. 


Princeton, Feb. 28, 1839. 

My Dear Sir: — ♦»»»»» The important crisis in our church's 
history is just at hand. Its importance constantly rises in my view. 
The funds and institutions, though matters not to be slighted, are but 
a portion of the great interests at stake, and to have these interests 
committed to twelve men, taken up at random, is a very serious mat- 
ter. It seems to be one of God's purposes in this dispensation to 
make us feel that we are completely in His hands. The decision of 
a jury in such matters is very little different from the casting of the 
lot ; and I should feel nearly as I feel now if the great question at 
issue were to be decided on Monday by the throwing of dice. I hope 
this will make us all feel disposed to wait upon God, and earnestly 
to plead with Him to plead our cause and sustain the right. And 
should the cause be decided in our favor I trust there will not be one 
word of exultation uttered from any quarter. 


Princeton, March 28, 1839. 

My Dear Sir: * * ♦ ♦ I hope soon to get through with my revi- 
sion of the Commentary on the Romans to prepare it for translation 
into French, and will then go at my History. Perhaps it is now more 
important than ever that the work should be done, if, as I hope may 
be the case, it will tend to increase the respect and affection of Pres- 
byterians for the church of their fathers. We shall need now every 
bond to keep us together ; we must increase in mutual love and zeal 
for the truth, and for the order of our church, and for its real useful- 
ness. The danger is that if we lose our old name and standing and 


common property we shall break into little fragments and cease to 
have much power to do good. 

I hope God may guide by his wisdom the brethren who are now to 
decide on our course. The interests at stake are far too momentous 
to be abandoned while there is any prospect of saving them. Tay- 
lorism never received such a mighty impulse as when Judge Rogers 
pronounced the New School Assembly the true General Assembly of 
the Presbyterian Church, and if that judgment is confirmed I shall 
think God has sore judgments in store for our land. This unexpected 
blow, after all our confident hopes, I trust will make us humble and 
lead us to submit to God without murmuring at Him or complaining 
of one another or of the opposite party. 

If the Old School could hang together now and do their duty we 
should, with God*s blessing, soon recover from this severe stroke. 

Let me hear soon what has been determined upon ; and if the 
cause goes to the Judges in danc, when it is likely to be heard. 

Yours affectionately, C. Hodge. 


Princeton, April 13, 1839. 

Jify Dear Sir: — I want to say a few things to you about the present 
position and prospects of our church, in which, I presume, you and I 
will not differ much. 

There can be no doubt that the present is one of the most trying 
periods in our whole history. It will try not only the principles but 
the graces of the church. And our future prospects depend, under 
God, very much upon the manner in which we shall now act. The 
great object is to produce unanimity ; to prevent any such diversity 
in counsels or measures as shall cause a division in our own ranks. 
You do not appear to fear this as much as I do. I have heard, how- 
ever, so many and such discordant expressions of confident opinions 
and purposes that I shall regard .it as a special indication of God*s 
power if the Old School party are led to act harmoniously and to keep 
their ranks unbroken. This can be effected in no other way than by 
humility and mutual concessions. No one man, and no few men, 
ought to attempt to decide what course the church should pursue in 
this emergency. We should remember that we are brethren, and 
that no one has a right to dictate to others, but that subjection to our 
brethren in the Lord is part of our ordination vows'. As this is the 
case, I think we ought to keep ourselves unconmiitted and unpledged 
until the meeting of the Assembly. It is impossible to know till then 
what the church generally will think right, and the way ought to be left 


open for it to take that course which the great body of the brethren shall 
deem to be right. It is on this account that I regret to see our papers, 
the Presbyterian and Watchman^ pronounce so confidently what the 
party will or will not do ; and the latter even denouncing beforehand 
any who should advocate union with the opposite party even for an 
hour. I doubt not there will be found a large portion of sound Old 
School men who, on the supposition of an ultimate decision against 
us, will be in favor of a temporary union of the two parties with a 
view to such a separation as shall prevent litigation and secure our 
property and legal standing. We have heard here that Messrs. Alex- 
ander Henry, Bevan, Newkirk, Chauncey, Kane, Bayard, are all in 
favor of this course. Mr. Musg^ave is in favor of it ; and I was told 
that a clergyman who was among his friends in Western Pennsyl- 
vania, when the news of the decision arrived, said that was the gen- 
eral feeling there. It will be found, also, I suspect, the general feel- 
ing in New York. Now, what a spectacle shall we exhibit if we go 
to denouncing each other; if difference of opinion as to the best 
means of attaining the same end be made a breaking point 
among us. 

My own opinion is that this plan will be found impracticable. It 
obviously cannot be done at all unless there is a general unanimity 
in favor of it. Of this I have very little expectation ; and therefore 
think that those who would prefer it ought by all means to give way 
to their brethren. Even if a considerable minority were opposed, it 
could not be urged. Still, I think it unfortunate that it should be de- 
cided and given eut beforehand, that we can and will in no case and 
% for no purpose go back. This is the very position that the New 
School papers are driving us by taunts and insults to take. We are 
playing into their hands, therefore, by joining in this cry that the Old 
School cannot go back. They do not want us back ; they ought to 
feel that they are not quite secure from such visitation. 

A second plan is to stand aloof and claim to be the true church. 
This is beset with difficulties. We shall be seceders in the eye of the 
law, in Pennsylvania at least, and all titles to church property will 
be unsettled. In the second place, it will give rise, in all probability, 
to protracted litigation in all parts of the country, to the great scan- 
dal of the church and injury to religion ; and it will be voluntarily 
throwing in the hands of the friends of error and disorder immense 

A third plan is a legal compromise. This seems to me so ob- 
viously necessary and desirable for both parties that I do not believe 
the mass of the New School could be brought by their leaders to op- 
pose it. There may be legal difficulties in the way which I cannot 


appreciate. It has occurred to me, however, that it might be effected 
by some such plan as this : According to our present charter, the 
General Assembly has two rights in relation to the Boau'd of Trus- 
tees — ^first, to appoint its members ; and second, to control the appli- 
cation of the funds. Why may not the charter be so altered as to 
confer these rights on the two Assemblies ? Let each have nine 
trustees in the Board, and each be authorized to direct the applica- 
tion of the funds, which, according to mutual agreement, shall be 
recognized as belonging to each. Such a contract could not be 
broken when once made, and our funds would be entirely under our 
own control. Neither party would then be in the position oi seced- 
ers, and all litigation would be prevented throughout the country. 
The more I have thought of this plan the more does it appear 
to be practicable and desirable. I wish you would consult Mr. 
Chauncey and others on the subject. I have mentioned it to several 
brethren, who seem to think it would be wise. Among others, I 
talked with Dr. Nott about it, who was here yesterday, and who went 
from here to Philadelphia. The Doctor, I suspect, feels that the 
Philadelphia brethren have not as much confidence in him as he feels 
he deserves. But I am convinced that his aims are right, and that 
he could be of immense service to the church in adjusting our 
present difficulties to the satisfaction of all parties, if they would but 
confide in him. 
We, of course, are looking forward with great anxiety to the result 

of the argument next week. 

Yours truly, C. Hodge. 







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BER, 185 I. 



AT the suggestion of Dr. A. Alexander and the Board of 
Directors the General Assembly, in May, 1840, made 
a readjustment of the chairs in the Seminary, in view of the 
advancing age of the Senior Professor. Dr. Alexander's 
title continued thenceforth till his death Professor of Pas- 
toral and Polemic Theology. Dr. Hodge was transferred 
to the chair formerly occupied by his venerable teacher, Dr. 
A, Alexander, and his title was made Professor of Exegetical 
and Didactic Theology. And Dr. J. A, Alexander became 
full and sole Professor of Oriental and Biblical Literature. 
At the death of Dr. Alexander Polemic Theology was ad- 
ded to the title of Prof Hodge. In the meantime he re- 
tained to the day of his death his exegetical lectures to the 
Junior Class on the Pauline Epistles. While Dr. Addison 
Alexander took beside the Old Testament, the historical 
books, and the entire literature of the New Testament. 
21 3" 



This change, which was one of the capital and most ad- 
vantageous turning points of Dr. Hodge's life, was not only 
not sought by him, but regarded at first with decided aver- 


Princeton, May 11, 1840. 

My Dear Brother : — How did you hear so soon of my being made 
Dr. Alexander's adjunct ? The thing is not done yet, nor is it likely 
to be done in a hurry. It must pass the Assembly unanimousiy, or 
lie over for a ^ear. That no one should object to it I should consider 
well nigh miraculous. I have felt it to be my duty to be perfecdy 
quiet, and to make no intimation of my own wishes on the subject 
For two reasons — First, because I do not think my wishes ought to 
have a*hything to do with the business. I ought to be willing to do 
just what the church bids me. The second reason is, that I would 
not presume to p\xX. my wishes in opposition to those of Dr. Alexan- 
der. I think he ought, so far as I am concerned, to be allowed to do 
just as he pleases. To you, however, I may say in confidence, that I 
would give five thousand dollars, if I had them, to be let off. The 
new arrangement knocks all my plans in the head, and will increase 
my official labors for years to come fourfold. You must not say this 
to anybody, because, having given my consent to be disposed of as 
they see fit, it would be unfair to raise any obstacle, either directly or 
indirectly. I live in great hopes that it will fall through without any 
agency of mine. And then I shall have a clear conscience as well 

as a merry heart. 

Your affectionate brother, C. H. 

This feeling is remarkable in consideration of the &ct 
that, from our point of view, his natural qualifications for 
the attainment of eminent excellence and usefulness in the 
new chair were for greater than any he possessed for the 
attainment of the same rank in the old one. Yet, it was 
surely not the least of the many singularly favorable provi- 
dential adjustments of the conditions of his life that he 
should have been required, by official duty, to exercise him- 
self for twenty years in a department of theological study to 
which his natural tastes did not dispose him. Thus, in a 
way in which for him it was alone possible, he was led to 
make acquisitions in the original languages of Scripture 


and in the science and practice of Biblical exegesis, which 
are professedly the basis of systematic theology, and yet 
are the qualifications in which the vast majority of specula^ 
tive theologians have been more or less deficient Conse- 
quently, it is confidently believed that very few of the emi- 
nent authors of our classical theological literature have 
equalled the subject of this memoir in the consistency in 
which they carried out their common principle of making 
the £iithful and natural interpretation of the inspired Word 
the basis of all doctrinal induction, and in the Scriptural 
form and spirit, as well as substance, of their systematic 

For the first eight or nine years of his work in the new 
department Dr. Hodge's method was such that he was 
enabled to accomplish the best results of his life in class 
instruction. Dr. Alexander continued to read his former 
theological lectures to the classes until Dr. Hodge had his 
course prepared. The first lectures the latter wrote were 
those on the Church, which were delivered during the win- 
ter of 1845-6. The first lectures forming parts of the 
theological course proper were written on the topics of the 
"Will" and the "Second Advent," and were read to the 
class the same year. In the meantime he met both the 
Middle and Senior Classes twice a week each, Tuesday and 
Thursday, or Wednesday and Friday afternoons respect- 
ively. Before the first meeting of either class for the week 
the Professor assigned a topic and a corresponding section 
of Turrettine's Institutes of Theology in Latin for pre- 
vious study. When they met the hour was occupied by a 
thorough discussion of this subject in the form of question 
and answer. In this form of discipline his chief excellence 
as a teacher was brought into play. He questioned with 
consummate skill, forcing the pupil to do his own thinking, 
drawing him irresistibly to the conviction of the truth, or 
overturning his false positions with an inevitable reducHo ad 
ttbsurdum. As the truth was thus evolved, or as the Pro- 


fessor fiaally amended the result in his own words, the stu* 
dents eagerly wrought to fix the whole in their note books. 
At the same time the Professor gave them a list of questions 
on the topic, numbering fix>m twenty-five to forty, answers 
to which, written out in full, were to be read to him at the 1 
meeting of the class nine days afterwards. These answers 
were elaborated out of materials drawn fi-om Turrettine, 
and the notes taken in the class-room, and from any other 
source rendered accessible by the Seminary library. The 
highest enthusiasm was excited, and the most earnest dili- 
gence. The students built up to a degree their own systems 
of theology, and were vigorously exercised in criticism, 
construction and expression. Many carried away from the 
Seminary from two to six quarto volumes of manuscript 
filled with the results of this exercise, which, having afforded 
them the most profitable discipline in the past, continued to 
supply them with digested and arranged material for 
preaching which lasted during several of the early years of 
their ministry. 

About 1847-8 he began to lecture, at first in connection 
with the questions and answers written by the pupils, and 
afterwards without them. For years, although he re-wrote 
his lectures several times, he was harassed with the inevit- 
able experience of lecturers, in having his lectures system- 
atically taken down by stenographers, and subsequently 
copied from hand to hand and given back to him verbally 
at recitation. Long afterwards, for the few years that he 
taught after his " Systematic Theology" was published, his 
teaching became much more satisfactory to himself^ when 
he used his work as his text-book and devoted the entire 
time allotted to his class in the old effective exercise of 
drill by questions and answers. 


In 1841 the American Sunday School Union published 
his "Way of Life.*' This is a duodecimo of 380 pages, in 

irr.43.] ""THE WAY OF LIFEr 325 

which his design is to set clearly before the minds of edu- 
cated youth the great truths involved in the Gospel method 
of human salvation. The book is eminently luminous ; its 
characteristic attribute is light suffused with love. The doc- 
trines of Evangelical Protestantism are clearly and fully stated, 
yet in non-technical language, and with such simplicity and 
$df'evidencing power that the compiler of these memoirs 
has constantly advised his theological students to read the 
"Way of Life" on the subjects of "Conviction of Sin," " Faith," 
^Justification," " The Sacraments and Profession of Religion," 
and "Holy Living" in connection with the discussion of 
the same topics in the " Systematic Theology." It is so 
ridily and definitely theological- that Dr. Archibald Alexan- 
der, after reading the manuscript, while expressing his cor- 
dial approbation of it, declared his conviction that the Pub- 
lishing Committee of the Sunday School Union, consist- 
ing of the representatives of all evangelical denominations, 
could not agree in giving it their imprimatur. Yet, in fact, 
ao suspicion even was manifested, except by the representa- 
tive of our then freshly antagonized New School brethren, 
and his apprehensions were easily set at rest, and the book 
was adopted unanimously. It was immediately reprinted 
by the London Religious Tract Society, and was subse- 
quently translated into Hindustani. Thirty-five thousand 
copies have been circulated in America, and the author's 
heart has been often filled with grateful joy from informa- 
tion of its having been, in many specific instances, owned of 
God in the conversion and edification of souls, alike in 
America and in Europe and in Asia. 

His own account of it is thus given in the Preface : " It is 
one of the clearest principles of divine revelation that holi- 
ness is the finit of truth ; and it is one of the plainest infer- 
ences from that principle that the exhibition of the truth is 
the best means of promoting holiness. Christians regard 
the Word of God as the only infallible teacher of those 
truths which relate to the salvation of men. But are the 

326 "^ THE WAY OP LIFE!" [1841. 

Scriptures really a revelation from God ? If they are, what 
doctrines do they teach ? And what influence should those 
doctrines exert on our heart and life ? 

*'The Publishing Committee of the American Sunday 
School Union have long felt the want of a book which 
should give a plain answer to these questions, and be suit- 
able to place in the hands of intelligent and educated young 
persons, either to arouse their attention or to guide their 
steps in the way of life." 

The New England Puritan (March, 1842,) said of it: 
** We know not where the evidence of the divine origin of 
the Scriptures is presented in a way so well adapted to take 
effect upon the mind. It wins while it convinces. Here, 
in our opinion, is the sterling excellency of Dr. Hodge. 
While his mind is endowed with such clearness that it can 
throw a blaze of light upon any given subject, his heart is 
impregnated with such benevolence towards his fellow-men 
that almost every one who comes within the sphere of its 
attraction becomes a willing convert to his opinions. 
While he convinces the judgment, he carries captive the 

" But the evidence of the divine origin of the Scriptures 
is not the best part of the volume. The author was most 
at home on the doctrines, and there he is primus inter pans. 
No one, we think, can read the volume under consideration 
from the 5 3d to the 245th page — ^almost two-thirds of the 
whole work — ^without coming to the conclusion that no- 
where else within the same compass, out of the Sacred 
Record, can he find so much to instruct and to satisfy his 
mind and to edify his heart The chapter on Justification 
especially pleased us." 

Yet, it is true that the expositions of Baptism and the 
Lord's Supper, of the Nature and Necessity of the Public 
Profession of Religion and of Holy Living are as exquisitely 
executed and as precious as any other parts of the work. 

Mt. 430 *• T^£ IVA y OF LIFEr 327 


May II, 1841. 

I have read the greater part of your manuscript and find nothing 
from which I feel disposed to dissent. Indeed, your views of the 
subjects treated correspond very exactly with those which I enter- 

On the subject of faith, while there is a substantial agreement, 
there may be some slight shades of difference. For example, I make 
no difference between a naving and a justifying faith. I think that 
you make a difference with Dr. Owen. 

The chapters are entirely too long. It is of much importance that 
ip such a work the chapters should be of moderate length. The 
first chapter ought undoubtedly to be divided into three. But even 
where the same subject is continued, it is better to have it divided. 
I find that in my own reading I am often turning to see how many 
pages remain before the termination of the chapter. 

As you have written the book for the Sunday School Union, it is 
useless to offer any remarks on that subject, otherwise I would 
strongly recommend the Board of Publication. It struck me as 
doubtful whether the S. S. Union could publish all that you have 
written without offence to some of their friends. For, to say nothing 
of Arminians who patronize that Institution, there are few of the New 
School ministers who believe in the imputation of Christ's active 
obedience, which is made prominent in your book. I would not 
have you, on any account, to alter a word for that reason, which 
would be disloyal to the truth. This is the great defect of the Insti- 
tution, that they cannot teach the whole truth, but only that part of it 
in which all their patrons are agreed. 

Yours, &c., A. Alexander 


Baltimore, Feb. 15, 1842. 

If I were to write to you, my dear Charles, as often and as much 
as I muse about you, you would have to complain of the tax upon 
your time and your purse. Fortunately for you, my musings end 
where they begin, in my own mind and heart, and whilst they afford 
me no small amount of pleasure, inflict nothing upon you. If you 
desire to know how it comes to pass that they insist on expression 
now, understand that you alone are answerable for it I have been 
reading your book, and it is not in me to refrain from communicat- 

528 « THE WA Y OF LIFE}' [i8*X 

ing the proud satisfaction with which I have perused it. Will yon 
believe it ?— I was silly enough to feel all the while as if I had a hand 
in it myself, and my enjoyment was increased by a fiction, which I 
had no disposition to resist, that I was somehow honorably concerned 
in the production. One thing, however, is certain, I shall use it as 
freely as if it were all my own, and shall find it serviceable to my- 
self in a way in which it cannot be a help to its author. I have sent 
it out into my congregation with an unqualified endorsement, and 
hope soon to find it in every family under my care. I am sure it will 
be received with as much favor by the evangelical portion of our 
communion as among your own people, and do great good where, 
perhaps, you littie anticipated it 

'Wi^ fifth chapter I read with peculiar satisfaction. It is so simple, 
so clear, so scriptural, I do not see how any one who bows to the au- 
thority of the Word can except to a single sentence, or how a sinner, 
conscious of his own guilt, can fail to acquiesce in it as indeed the 
Way of Life. The succession of arguments is stated conclusively, 
and the Biblical illustrations are most happily set forth and ap* 
plied. ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ 

The passage from page 184 to the bottom of page 186 strikes me 
as the best of all the good things in the book. It has furnished me 
with a new form of presenting die subject to such as seek salvation, 
and I hope to be able to employ it for tiie guidance and relief of anx- 
ious minds. 

I admire the calm dignity with which you have written from die 
beginning to the end, yet with quite as much earnestness as is neces* 
sary to rouse and retain the interest of the reader. 

On the whole, those who dan*t know you personally will form a 
very good opinion of you from this book, and to those who do^ it will 
disclose nothing to disturb such impression. 

Now let me write a little about the Doctor (Hugh Hodge). I sup- 
pose you know he has had my dear wife under his care ever since I 
was with you in September last. * * Hugh received me with a 
brother's interest, and has rendered us such services, and in such a 
spirit, that, apart from early and long cherished affection, he has 
bound me to himself by the strongest obligations. 

Truly your brother, J. Johns* 

The publication of the " Way of Life " was the occasion 
of his receiving from his old friend, Ludwig von Gerlach, 
then President-Justice of the province of Magdeburg, the 
following letter : 

. 49] «' THE WA Y OF LIFEP 329 


Magdeburg, August 8, 1847. 

My Dear Sir: — By these lines a friend wishes to be recalled to 
your memory, who twenty years ago was connected with you in 
Christian fellowship, and who has never met you since that time, nor 
expects to meet you on this side of eternity. It is your tract " The 
Way of Life," which has led me to call on you by this probably un- 
expected letter ; for during an official joiuney through the province 
of my jurisdiction, I have read this work ; and my feeling of union 
i^th you in faith and profession of the great fundamental truths of 
religion, has by this reading, become so strong and so lively, that I 
cannot forbear io express it, and to thank you for the spiritual bless- 
ing you have conferred on me by this book. These feelings are the 
more powerful on my mind on account of the difference of my 
present tendency from that of your tract. For this very minor dif- 
1 ference is shedding a brighter light on the essential unity, which our 
* blessed Saviour, by His grace, His word, and His Spirit, has estab- 
lished between us ; and which, I trust, He will maintain through 
time and eternity. The development of Germany, in a religious and 
in a political respect, makes the Christians of our country to long 
after catholicity, and perhaps after the essential truth of what you 
would call " sacramental religion.*' It is not the way of salvation, 
which is now the prominent subject of our minds, but rather the high 
articles of the Divine Majesty, which occupied so much the primitive 
Church, and about which there was no difference of opinion between 
the contending parties of the i6th centiuy. Being surrounded by 
Atheists and Pantheists, we strive to establish a consciousness of the 
essential unity of all Christians, Romanists not excepted ; and the 
great fact of the whole Church being the body of Christ is foremost 
in our minds. It will not do with us to take it for granted that the 
Bible— ^e "sacred volume," — as the English-speaking Christians 
call it— is a whole (ein Ganzes) without inquiring how it came to be 
such, for the New Testament no where exhibits the idea of the New 
Testament as a book. And we cannot suppose, as you perhaps are 
entitled to do, that our inquiries are standing vis-d-vis of this book, 
and examining it as a whole. They oblige us to take higher ground, 
and to develop the ideas of authority and of inspiration, etc., in order, 
to establish on firm ground the, for us, all important doctrine of the 
Church. But all this shall only give you an idea of the feelings with 
which I have thankfully perused your excellent tract, which exhibits 
in a very clear way and with great force those blessed doctrines, 
which constitute the true Way of Life, and in which it is delightful 

330 *• THE WA Y OF LIFEr [iS4a* 

for me to think that you on that, and I on this side of the ocean so 
heartily coincide. God grant that this coincidence be a pledge that 
we shall be united for ever before the throne of grace. 

You know that my brother Otto is now " Hof>prediger '* of our 
king. I am president of the court of justice of this province. Dur* 
ing the summer of 1844 I was in England, Scotland and Ireland, 
chiefly to study the law-institutions of those countries. But even this 
voyage has not prevented you, as you see, your being troubled by 
the very bad English of this letter, since I have very little occasion 
of speaking this language. 

I remain, through the Lord's grace, your very thoftkful. 

Von Gerlach. 

P. S. — I do not know if you are reading the Evangeltsche Kir- 
chenzeiiung. If you do you will find in the papers of June 1847, ^^ 
article on the " Indivisibility of the Church," from my pen, which 
may give you some idea of the questions — ^very important ones I 
trust — now occupying our German minds. 

The chapter of your tract on baptism and the Lord's Supper is the 
only one from which I must dissent on any essential point. Your 
doctrine of the sacraments, as it seems to me, does not quite do 
justice to the ** objective content and import " of these ordinances, 
but subjects them too much to the state of mind of the recipient, 
whom they are destined to justify and to sanctify. It is not clear to 
me, how, according to your doctrine, you can avoid rejecting pedo- 
baptism. I hold the sacraments to be in their nature, the actual 
means, not only signs and seals of grace, though the grace, by 
man*s sin may be converted into curse. 


Paris, July 27, 1842. 

My Dear Friend : — ^A long time has again elapsed since I last 
wrote to you. Meanwhile I have passed four months in England, 
" the country of your forefathers," as you remarked when leaving 
Berlin. When there I was upon point of following my inmost desire 
and visiting North America, and again, as I can truthfully say, 
seeing you my friend, who has become so dear to me. 

The bearer of this letter is your fellow-countryman, Mr. Prentiss, 
from the State of Maine. He is one of the worthiest and most 
estimable Americans I have ever met. He is acquainted with all 
the particulars concerning my journey In England and will relate 
them to you. 

1842.] " THE WA Y OF LIFE*' 33 1 

While in London I had many thoughts of you, and I also pur- 
chased your " Way of Life." In fourteen days I hope to be in 
Berlin again. I am residing there now in very great activity, which 
also yearly increases. Our king has not only introduced a general 
tolerance, but he will also elevate the standard of the established 
Church, in order that it may manifest its own wants. Advisory 
synods have already arisen in a greater part of the land. It is un- 
true that he wishes to introduce the English Episcopal Church, as is 
urged against him especially in France. He has, indeed, a liking 
for certain of its institutions, but not, however, for the organization as 
a whole. Moreover, generally speaking, he will not introduce any- 
thing into the Church by virtue of his kingly authority, but only 
upon decision of the Church itself. That the bishopric in Jerusalem 
should point toward this is therefore false. I disapprove of some 
things in this organization so much that I can only regard the present 
situation of our Church on the whole as most highly gratifying and 
rich in blessings — ^for which all Christians, who, like myself, are not 
English Episcopalians, and do not wish to become so, ought to thank 
God. On the whole I hope that the Christian life will progress, as 
indeed the sorrowfid condition of our great cities especially causes 
terror. In this respect we can now learn much in England, for it is 
truly wonderful how many churches have arisen there. 

Indeed, if Puseyism should be more widely spread, a terrible crisis 
might threaten the English Church, and I believe that this tendency, 
although in a more moderate form, is spreading considerably. The- 
ological learning is lacking very greatly in English evangelical 
works, and therefore the people cannot withstand the evidently igno- 
rant, but yet more influential and important men of the Puseyite 
sect. I spent several days at Oxford in dispute with Dr. Pusey. He 
is a very poor, weak man. How much would I have to say to you 
in regard to all this. Yet I must draw my letter to a close. 

Pray let me hear from you again as occasion may present itself. 
In sincere love I remain, as ever. 

Your friend, 

Otto Von Gerlach. 

Though he subsequently received some letters from Tho- 
luck, yet from this time his correspondence with his Chris- 
tian German friends practically ceases. Time and distance, 
and occupation with new scenes and persons made active 
intercourse impossible. Yet the affection was immortal, 
and in his very last days the photographs of Ludwig von 


Gerlach, of Tholuck, and of Bishop Johns were around his 
desk and kept in constant recognition, while those of many- 
friends of more recent acquisition were pushed aside for 


During this decade he wrote no book except the " Way 
of Life/' But his pen was more active than at any other 
period of his life in writing his lectures on the Church and 
on Theology, his articles in the PrineeUm Review^ and 
innumerable letters in answer to applications made for his 
opinion, or aid to others in forming their opinions on 
all conceivable subjects. 

His contributions to the Princeton Review during this 
period were: 1840— Presb5^erianism in Virginia; Dr. 
Hill's American Presbyterianism ; New Jersey College 
and President Davies ; The General Assembly ; Discourse 
on Religion by Mr. Coit. 

1 841 — Bishop Doane and the Oxford Tracts (with Pro£ 
J. A. A.). 

1842 — The Theological Opinions of President Davies ; 
Milman's History of Christianity; The General Assembly; 
Rule of Faith. 

1843 — Rights of Ruling Elders ; The General Assembly. 

1844 — General Assembly of the Church of Scotland 
(with Prof. J. A. A.) ; Claims of the Free Church of Scot- 
land ; ^he General Assembly ; Abolitionism. 

1845 — Beman on the Atonement ; Thomwell on the 
Apocrypha; SchafTs Protestantism; The General As- 

1846 — Theories of the Church ; Is the Church of Rome 
a part of the Visible Church? The General Assembly; 
Neil's Lectures on Biblical History; The Religious State of 
Germany ; The late Dr. John Breckinridge ; The Life and 
Writings of Dr. Richards. 

1847 — Finney's Lectures on Theology; The Support of 

«r. 3g^6.] SLA VER Y. 333 

the Clergy; The General Assembly (with Dr. Hope); Bush- 
nen on Christian Nurture. 

1848 — ^The Doctrine of the Reformed Church; The Gen- 
eral Assembly"; Dr. Spring on the Power of the Pulpit 
(with Prof. J. A. A.). 

1849 — The American Board, Special Report of the Pru- 
dential Committee; Bushnell's Discourses; The General 
Assembly; Emancipation. 

1850— The Memoir of Walter M. Lowrie; The General 
Assembly ; Prof. Park's Sermon. 

185 1 — Civil Government; Remarks on the Princ^an 
Review; The General Assembly; Prof. Park and the 
Princeton Review. 

The most important of these may be classified as fol- 


I. The articles *'0n Slavery/' April, 1836, and "On 
Emancipation as accomplished in the West Indies/' Oc* 
tober, 1838, and "On Abolitionism/' October, 1844, and 
" On Emancipation as proposed by Dr. R. J. Breckinridge 
in Kentucky," October, 1849 form an important class. The 
first and the last of these were included in a selection from 
his articles, and published in a volume in 1856, and again 
in 1879, under the title of "Essays and Reviews," by 
Charles Hodge. 

It was his most conspicuous and uniform characteristic, 
all his life, and in every region of thought, to make the 
inspired Word of God, and neither his intuitions, nor his 
sentiments, nor the opinions of mankind, the absolute rule 
of his thinking and of his convictions. Hence he was 
equally out of sympathy with the pro-slavery men who re- 
garded the institution divine and to be perpetuated as good 
in itself, and with the "Abolitionists," who held the holding 
of slaves to be a sin in itself, to be in every case visited • 
with Christian condemnation and ecclesiastical discipline. 

334 SLAVERY. [1836^44* 

He was, on the other hand, in hearty sympathy with the 
many Southern Christians who strove to follow the will 
of Christ under the providential conditions He had im* 
posed upon them, and with the Colonization Society, and 
with the noble efforts of Dr. R. J. Breckinridge and his co- 
adjutors in the work of emancipation in Kentucky. This 
position he maintained, in all respects unchanged, to his 
dying day. His own explanation of his position on these 
delicate points is given in his " Retrospect of the History 
of the Princeton Review" written in 1871 : "The conduct* 
ors of this Review have always endeavored to adhere fiuth- 
fuUy to the principle that the Scriptures are the only infiili- 
lible rule of faith and practice. Therefore, when any matter, 
either of doctrine or morals, came under discussion, the 
question with them was, * What saith the Lord ? ' Nothing 
that the Bible pronounces true can be &lse ; nothing that it 
declares to be false can be true ; nothing is obligatory on 
the conscience but what it enjoins ; nothing can be sin but 
what it condemns. If, therefore, the Scriptures under the 
Old Dispensation permitted men to hold slaves, and if the 
New Testament nowhere condemns slave-holding, but pre- 
scribes the relative duties of masters and slaves, then to 
pronounce slave-holding to be in itself sinful is contrary to 
the Scriptures. In like manner, if the Bible nowhere con- 
demns the use of intoxicating liquors as a beverage, if our 
Lord himself drank wine, then to say that all use of intox- 
icating liquor as a beverage is sin, is only one of the many 
forms of the infidelity of benevolence. It is as much con- 
trary to our allegiance to the Bible to make our own notions 
of right or wrong the rule of duty as to make our own rea- 
son the rule of faith. 

*' It is well known that both slavery and intemperance 
Were matters of national importance, and awakened earnest 
and continued controversy. As to slavery, so far as the 
North was concerned, it was universally regarded as an evil, 
which ought in some way to be brought to an end. The 

3^6.] SLAVERY. 335 

difference of opinion related to the means by which that 
end was to be accomplished. The Abolitionists, so called, 
maintained that all slave-holding, as inconsistent with the 
inalienable rights of man and with the law of love, is 
sinful ; and, therefore, that immediate and universal emanci- 
pation was an imperative duty. Another necessary conse- 
quence of the assumption that ' slave-holding is a heinous 
crime against God and man,' is that no slave-holder could 
properly be admitted to Christian fellowship. As the people 
of God, under the Old Dispensation, were allowed by law to 
purchase slaves, and to hold those of heathen origin in per- 
petual bondage; as slavery existed among the Romans, 
Greeks and Jews during the apostolic age; as neither 
Christ nor his apostles denounced slave-holding as a crime, 
nor taught that emancipation was an imperative and imme- 
diate duty ; and as, beyond doubt, the apostles admitted slave- 
holders to the communion of the Christian Church, the con- 
ductors of this Review^ from first to last, maintained that the 
doctrine that slave-holding is in itself a crime, is anti-scrip- 
tural, and subversive of the authority of the Word of God. 
" The principles maintained in the articles above named 
are, (i) That .slavery is, as defined by Paley, 'An obligation 
to labor for the benefit of the master, without the contract 
or consent of the servant* It involves the deprivation 
of personal liberty, obligation of service at the discretion 
of another, and the transferable character of the authority 
and claim of service of the master. (2) The slave, accord- 
ing to this definition, is the property of his master. But 
property is merely the right of possession and use. The 
rights therein involved differ according to the nature of the 
thing possessed. A man has the right of property in his 
wife, his children, in his houses and land, his cattle and ser- 
vants. Property in a horse does not involve the right to 
treat it as a log of wood ; and property in man does not in- 
volve the right to use him as a brute. He can be used only 
as a rational, moral and immortal creature can, according to 

336 SLAVERY. [1836-4*. 

divine law, be rightfully used. All the rights conceded to 
him by the Word of God must be faithfully regarded (3) 
The master, therefore, is bound to provide for the intellec- 
tual and moral education of the slave. Every human being 
has the right to be taught to read the Word of God, and 
learn the way of salvation for himself. Secondly, the mas- 
ter is bound to respect the conjug^al rights of his slaves; and 
this forbids the separation of husbands and wives. Thirdly, 
he is bound to respect their parental rights, and this pre- 
vents the separation of parents and their minor children. 
Fourthly, he is bound to grive them a fair compensation for 
their labor, which supposes the right on the part of the 
slave to hold propert>'. Any laws inconsistent with these 
principles are unscriptural and unjust, and ought to be im- 
mediately abrogated. (4) The consequences of acting on 
these principles would be the sf>eedy and peaceful abroga- 
tion of slavery, the gradual elevation of the slaves to all Uie 
rights of free citizens. This is the ground taken in the art- 
icle of 1836. In the conclusion of that article it is said: 
' It may be objected that if the slaves are allowed so to im- 
prove as to become free men, the next step in their progress 
is that they will become citizens. We admit that it is so* 
The feudal serf first became a tenant, then a proprietor in- 
vested with political power. This is the natural progress of 
political society, and it should be allowed freely to expand 
itself, or it will work its own destruction.' 

" The great popular mistake on this subject — ^a mistake 
which produced incalculable evil — ^was confounding slave- 
holding with slave laws. Because a despotic monarch may 
make unjust and cruel laws, in order to keep his people in 
a state of degradation, that his power may be secured and 
rendered permanent, it does not follow that an absolute 
monarchy is 'a heinous crime in the sight of God and man/ 
In like manner, because the laws of a slave-holding State 
may be unscriptural and wicked, it does not follow that 
slave-holding is itself sinful." 


II. The articles on the " Rule of Faith," " Beman on the 
Atonement," " Bushnell on Christian Culture," and " Profes- 
sor Park's Sermon, entitled * The Theology of the Intellect 
and that of the Feelings,' " all of them attracted general at- 
tention, and built up his reputation as a sound theologian 
and an effective controversialist They were all reprinted in 
America and Great Britain in the volumes entitled *' Prince- 
ton Essays " and " Essays and Reviews." 

The article in review of Beman on the Atonement was 
published in Scotland under the title — "The Orthodox 
Doctrine regarding the Atonement vindicated by Charles 
Hodge, D. D., &c.," with a Recommendatory Preface by 
the Rev. Dr. Cunningham, Prof. McCrie, Drs. Candlish and 

In the Free Church Magazine^ 1846, there is a notice of 
that volume by Dr. W. M. Hetherington, as follows : " It 
would be difficult to mention another treatise of the same 
size in which so much useful information will be found, 
both in regard to the nature and to the extent of the Atone- 
ment Dr. Hodge is already most favorably known in this 
country by some theological works as remarkable for the 
profound learning they indicate as for the dignified simpli- 
city with which themes of sacred learning are discussed in 
them. One prevailing feature of his writings is the evidence 
they constantly supply that his orthodoxy is not merely a 
passive impression, but the attainment of a mind vigorously 
exercised in the search of truth. . This treatise gives a 
lucid summary of the most important points bearing on 
present controversies respecting the Atonement, is written 
in a strain of calm power and dignity, and successfully com- 
bats the sophistries through which so many authors attempt 
to refute the old and orthodox doctrine, not by fair argu- 
ments against it, but by an utter caricature of the doctrine 

III. His article on the "Claims of the Free Church 
of Scotland" was written in the spring of 1844, just after 


338 SUSTENTA TION. [1847. 

the first two visits of Dr. Wm. Cunningham to his house. 
It was regarded by that eminent Free-churchman himself 
as a faithful exposition of the principles of that body, and as 
an efficient plea for its moral and material support Upon 
his return to Scotland Dr. Cunningham read copious ex- 
tracts from this article, in connection with his report to the 
General Assembly. The moderator, Dr. Gordon, in thank- 
ing Dr. Cunningham and his colleagues in the commission 
said among other things: "I think he (Dr. C.) has pro- 
duced in the extracts which he has read from the living 
American divine, who, of all others of whom I have read, I 
do most honor and esteem, evidence that the feeling which 
he (Dr. C.) has awakened by the simple exposition of our 
principles is already working for good in America itself." 

IV. His article on "Civil Government" and the trans- 
cendently important principles he held as to the relation of 
the Church to the State, and of the State to the Christian 
Religion, will be more appropriately discussed when we 
come to his articles on the state of the country and of the 
Church, written during the civil war. 

V. His article on the "Theories of the Church," and 
that on the " Rights of Ruling Elders," form part of a 
series covering the entire department of ecclesiology, which, 
although written and delivered as lectures to his Seminary 
classes during the decade embraced in this chapter, were 
nevertheless, for the most part, not published until ten 
years afterwards, when they led to considerable discussion 
and to the exhibition of much diversity of opinion. 


VI. The article on the " Support of the Clergy," July, 
1847, was 21 review of "An Earnest Appeal "to the Free 
Church of Scotland on the subject of " Economics," by 
Thomas Chalmers, D. D. At the same time Dr. Hodge 
made his sermon as Moderator at the opening of the Gen- 
eral Assembly at Richmond, an earnest appeal to the 



American Church in behalf of the great principles fought 
for by Dr. Chalmers in Scotland, and subsequently by Dr. 
McCosh and Dr. Jacobus by means of the " Sustentation 
Scheme" in America. Dr. Hodge is thus proved to have 
been the first and the most persistent advocate of this most 
necessary reform in our ecclesiastical administration. Nine- 
teen years afterwards, in an article on " The Sustentation 
Fund," January, 1866, he reiterates this plea with increased 
force of argument and intensity of conviction. He defines 
a '* Sustentation Fund " to be — "A sum raised by annual 
contributions to carry out the two principles, first, that 
every minister of the gospel, devoted to his work, is enti- 
tled, by the command of Christ, to a competent support ; 
and secondfyy that the obligation to furnish that support 
rests upon the Church as a whole. That is, that the 
Church, in her organic unity, is bound to provide an ade- 
quate support for every man whom she ordains to the min- 
istry, and who is qualified and willing to devote himself to 
her service. The soundness of these principles we have en- 
deavored to establish." These principles he always held to 
be not only true, but of the greatest practical importance, 
and that their practical execution was especially demanded 
by the conditions of the American Presbyterian Church. 
He sympathized with all his heart with the gallant struggle 
to carry those principles into action by Dr. Jacobus and the 
Sustentation Committee, and he lamented the failure of that 
enterprise as a gceat ecclesiastical disaster. 

VII. In his articles on the General Assembly, the most 
important subjects of permanent interest discussed were the 
"Validity of the Baptism of the Roman Catholic Church,*' 
the " Quorum," and " Elder Questions,*' and the " Marriage 
of a Man with the Sister of his deceased Wife." The 
"Quorum" and " Elder Questions" will fall properly under 
the consideration of his artides on the Church and its offi- 
cers, which is reserved for a future page. As to the mar- 
riage of a man with the sister of his deceased wife, he ar- 

340 ROMISH BAPTISM, [184$. 

gued, both on the floor of the Assemblies of 1842 and 1847, 
and in his articles on the Assembly for 1842, 1843 ^^^ 1847, 
that such marriages are forbidden in Scripture, and there- 
fore unlawful for Christians, to be forbidden and made the 
occasion of discipline by the church courts ; but, on the 
other hand, that they are not invalid, and that the parties to 
them should not be separated and might, after a period of 
suspension, be restored to the communion of the church* 


The General Assembly which met at Cincinnati, Ohio, 
May 1845, suddenly fulminated by a vote of one hundred 
and sixty-nine to eight, nan liquet eight, the new and anti- 
Protestant doctrine that baptism administered by a Roman 
Catholic priest was not Christian Baptism. Dr. Hodge 
always lamented this as a great blunder, as well as an un- 
true decision of injurious consequence. In his article on 
" The General Assembly" for that year, and in his article 
"Is the Church of Rome part of the visible Church?'* 
published April, 1846, he vigorously combated that de- 
cision. He held that the papacy, the institution, not the 
person, is anti-Christ,* and that the order and teaching of 
the Romish Church is in many respects corrupted and 
overlaid by false and soul-destroying abuses and errors. 
Yet he held and believed that he proved (i) that the great 
body of people constituting the Roman Catholic Church do 
profess the essentials of the true Christian Veligion, whereby 
many of them bear the image of Christ, and are participants 
of His salvation. (2) Hence that that community, how- 
ever corrupt is a part of the visible Church on earth, the 
field with the wheat mixed with tares. (3) That the 
essentials as to " matter" and " form " of Christian Baptism 
are observed by the Catholic Priest, when he administers 
that sacrament (4) And hence it was to be recognized by 

* Systematic Theology, Vol. iii. pp. Si 9-823. 


all loyal to the great Head of the whole Church as Chris- 
tian Baptism. (5) That the Reformers and great Protestant 
theologians had universally and uniformly held and prac- 
tically recognized Romish Baptism to be Christian Baptism, 
irregular and deformed by superstitions, but still valid. 
(6) That this truly Protestant position had been held by 
the great body of the Protestant Churches to the present 

He was the author of the Answer to the invitation ad- 
dressed by Pius IX., in his Encyclical to all Protestants 
" to return to the one only fold," on the occasion of the 
Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, held in Rome, 1869- 
70. This response, signed officially by Drs. M. W. Jacobus 
and P. H. Fowler, the Moderators of the two General As- 
semblies of 1869, was certainly surpassed as to lofty dignity, 
knowledge, charity, steadfast and ecumenical orthodoxy, 
and power by none, and equaled by very few of the many 
answers on that occasion addressed by Protestants to the 
Head of the Catholic world. 

On the occasion of writing this address to the Pope he 
received the following letter from Dr. William Adams, now 
President of Union Theological Seminary, New York : 


New York, June 17th, 1869. 

My Dear Dr, Hodge : — I have received from Dr. Musgrave the 
manuscript of your reply to the Pope. It is admirable every way, I 
see not how it could be improved. You were right in Judging that 
objurgation was impertinent to the occasion. Every thing is put in 
the simple, pointed, dignified manner becoming a Christian scholar 
and theologian. 

You may be sure that you have done an excellent service in con- 
senting to prepare this paper. It will do good at home, in other 
churches besides that of Rome, and I beg you to accept my sincere 
thanks as one of the Nominating Committee. ****** 

'>A^th cordial esteem, 

Your friend and brother, 

William Adams. 

342 ROMISH BAPTISM. [1846. 

In August, 1872, he was asked by letter his opinion as to 
the propriety of granting tracts of land along a railroad for 
the purpose of building Roman Catholic churches. He 
answered: "Others say that inasmuch as the Roman Catho- 
lic Church teaches truth enough to save the souls of men 
(of which I have no doubt) ; inasmuch as it proclaims the 
divine authority of the Scriptures, the obligation of the 
decalogue, and the retributions of eternity ; and inasmuch 
as it calls upon men to worship God the Father, Son and 
Spirit, it is unspeakably better than no church at all. And, 
therefore, when the choice is between that and none, it is 
wise and right to encoun^ the establishment of churches 
under the control of Catholic priests. For myself, I take 
this view. The principle cannot be carried out that no 
church is to be encouraged which teaches error." * 

He closes his argument in the Princeton Review^ April, 
1846 : " It is said we give up too much to the Papists if we 
admit Romanists to be in the church. To this we answer 
— Every false position is a weak position. The cause 
of truth suffers in no way more than from identifying it 
with error, which is always done when its friends advocate 
it on false principles. When one says we favor intemper- 
ance unless we say that the use of intoxicating liquors 
is sinful; another, that we favor slavery unless we say 
slave-holding is a sin ; and a third, that we favor Pop^ery 
unless we say the Church of Rome is no church, they all, 
as it seems to us, make the same mistake and greatly injure 
the cause in which they are engaged. They give the adver- 
sary an advantage over them, and they fail to enlist the 
strength of their own side. It is a great mistake to sup- 
pose that Popery is aided by admitting what truth it does 
include. What gives it its power, what constitutes its pecu- 
liarly dangerous character, is that it is not pure infidelity, it 
is not the entire rejection of the gospel, but truth sur- 
rounded by enticing and destructive error.*' 

* FrtiiyteriaH, August loth, 1872. 

Mr. 48.] MODERA TOR. 343 

There is no more characteristic passage to be found in 
his whole writings. And in these opinions he agreed with 
all his brethren in Princeton, with the Reformers, the great 
theologians of the past and the Scotch theologians of to- 


He was a member for the first time of the General As- 
sembly of 1842, having been hitherto prevented from attend- 
ing by his lameness. He was again sent as a delegate to 
the General Assembly which met in the loth Presbyterian 
Church, Philadelphia, May^ 1846, when he was elected 
Moderator. He attended as a commissioner the next As- 
sembly in Richmond, May, 1847, and opened its sessions 
with a sermon in which he advocated the erection of a 
Board of Sustentation for the more uniform and systematic 
support of the clergy. 


His letters to his brother during this period, from 1840 
to 185 1, continued frequent and regular, and were filled 
with all the details of family life. All he thinks and feels, 
all his anxieties with respect to his children or the church 
or the country, all the symptoms of the children's suc- 
cessive sicknesses, all the events which marked the stages 
of their mental or physical growth are minutely recorded. 


Princeton, March 13, 1840. 

My Dear Brother : — My remark about my horrible poverty, in my 
last, was not intended as a hint. When very bad off, I shall go be- 
yond hinting. It is true, I had not a cent in the world, nor have had 
for some time. But then here is the Bank; and what is a Bank 
worth but to let people overdraw ? Ours is good-natured enough to 
let us suck out fives and tens through a straw ; a check for a hundred 
or two they might endorse " No Funds ! ** — ^but they would hardly in- 
sult a gentleman for five dollars. Still, this is ugly business, and I 
feel much better since I received your hundred dollars, for which. 


therefore, I am much obliged to you. I will give you an order on my 

publisher for payment. You surely need not open your eyes at a 

poor author ; for when was an author otherwise than poor, unless he 

wrote novels. 

Your affectionate brother, C. H. 


Princeton, April 28, 1S40. 

M — (a daughter visiting her uncle) tells me that you laughed 
much at my sending her two dollars. I can remember the time, old 
fellow, when the sight of two dollars would have made you laugh 
with a very different emotion. You do not know what it is to be a 
Presbyterian Abbe, with seven children. Only think of seven 
mouths, seven pair of feet, seven empty heads, and worse than all 
seven pairs of knees and elbows. Don't take this for a begging let- 
ter ; for Friday is the first of May, when I expect to be as rich as 

Croesus for a week. 

Your brother, C. H. 


Princeton, June 18, 1841. 

My Dear Brother: — The conduct of the House of Representatives, 
in Washington, is enough to put one out of conceit with Republican- 
ism. The Southern members act like a set of big boys, and the 
Northern ones are just as foolish. The fuss they make about the 
right of petition is just as unreasonable as the commotion about abo- 
lition. It has always, however, been so. Commotion, noise, non- 
sense, and at times violence are the price of liberty, and on the 
whole are better than the stagnation of despotism. Wise is the beau 

ideal of Southern gasconade. 

Your brother, C. H. 


Princeton, Sept. 17, 1841. 

My Dear Brother: — I thank you for sending the papers at this un- 
precedented crisis in our affairs. It seems to me there can be but 
one opinion either as to the President's conduct, or as to the duty of 
the Whigs. Mr. Ewing's letter contains irresistible evidence of its 
truth, and is confirmed by all kinds of collateral evidence. Assum- 
ing the truth of its statements, Mr. Tyler is not only a weak, but a 
dishonorable and dishonest man. Now that this humiliating fact has 
been disclosed, people begin to look at his past history. And the 


singular fact, which had escaped notice, that not one of the Virginia 
delegates at the Harrisburg Convention voted for his nomination to 
the Vice-Presidency shows that they knew more about him than 
others did. Still, it is probable that it was not until his head was 
turned by his being made President that his principles were found to 
be too weak to stand the temptations of that exalted station. Dr. 
Benjamin Rice told me that he remembers when he (Tyler) became 
Governor of Virginia, people lifted up their hands and said ** Think 
of John Tyler being Governor of Virginia ! '* His messages, espe- 
cially the first veto, show him to be a man of inferior mind, and his 
conduct to his Cabinet and his party show him to be mean and dis- 

It seems to me that if the Whigs would only act on moral instead 
of party principles, it would be a great blessing to the country and 
the best course for themselves. Let them give the President a fair 
hearing and every opportunity of clearing himself from the over- 
whelming charges of Mr. Ewing. If he can do it, then all is well. 
If he cannot, then let them say to him, " We are done with you. 
Not one of our party will accept or retain office under you. We will 
do what we can for the country, but we will not condescend to serve 
under you." If the other party would pick him out of the gutter 
let them do it. But I do not believe they would. On the con- 
trary, I believe he would be forced to resign in less than six months. 

Hiinking that this is the plain course of duty, I feel greatly morti- 
fied at the conduct of Mr. Webster. I am glad he retains his place 
for the time being, but his reasons for doing so condemn him. His 
saying that there was no sufficient reason for the resignation of the 
Cabinet, and by implication that his colleagues did wrong in giving 
up their places, shows that his state of mind on the whole subject is 
entirely different from that of his friends. I have sufficient con- 
fidence in the moral feelings of the community to be confident 
that if Mr. Webster joins himself with Tyler he will sink with him. 
The load of infamy which attaches to the latter is enough to weigh 
down all that associate themselves with his fortunes. I cannot have 
any respect for any man who accepts a place in the new Cabinet ; 
and shall be astonished if Mr. Legare or Judge Maclean accept their 

As to the charge against Mr. Ewing, of revealing Cabinet secrets, 
it seems to me to be entirely unfounded. The obligation to secrecy 
cannot extend to all cases. It is limited by the nature of the object 
for which that secrecy is enjoined. If a President should be plotting 
treason, his Cabinet are bound to disclose it. And if it is necessary 
to the vindication of the character of a Minister to relate what passed 


in the Cabinet, I am not sure that he has not a right to do it. But 
Mr. Ewing does not need the advantage of either of these grounds 
of defence. Mr. Tyler commissioned him and Mr. Webster to com- 
municate his views to Mr. Sergeant, and to Mr. Berrien and others. 
Mr. Ewing, therefore, has revealed no secret ; the main facts were 
communicated by the President's message. This seems to be a full 
vindication, without resorting to the example of the President 
himself, through whom Cabinet secrets are said to have found 
their way to Bennett's Herald/ Taking it altogether, the whole 
affair is the most extraordinary event in our history, and the issue, I 
fear, depends very much on Webster. If he separates himself from 
the Whigs, who will and ought to repudiate the President, on 
him will rest the responsibility of the schism in the Whig party. 
And the result will probably be defeat to them with certain dis- 
appointment and disgrace to him. 

Here is a letter of real politics, which, when connected with morals 
and the character and interests of the country, is a subject second 

only to religion in importance. 

Your brother, C. H. 


Princeton, Dec. 15, 1844. 

My Dear Brother : — ^You ask me for a dish of politics. I could 
only give you a plate of picked bones. The Whig party seems to 
have made a great mistake ; either they have not patriotism enough 
to give up personal objects for the general good, or, what is probably 
the case, they have not been able to identify themselves with the 
masses. In this country the Democratic party must always be the 
strongest, and it is only on extraordinary occasions, and for a short 
period, that the Whig, the Conservative, the Federal, or by whatever 
name the mass of the intelligence and property of the country may 
be called, can get the upper hand. Such an occasion occurred 
in 1840. The fruits of that triumph were lost mainly by the treachery 
of Tyler, partly by the passion and selfishness of the Whigs. I am 
afraid, when they found that Tyler was unfaithful, they determined 
to make his administration as unpopular and as disastrous as possi- 
ble. If the country, at the end of his term, is prosperous, there will 
be no crying necessity for a change of policy, and for Mr. Clay ; but 
it everything is going to ruin, as under Van Buren, then a change 
will be demanded. I fear this is the ground of their opposition to 
the Tariff, which passed by a bare majority, and especially of their 
refusal to adopt the exchequer bill of Tyler (1*. e,, of Webster). 
It seems evident that an addition of 1 15,000,000 to our currency, in 


the form of paper of equal value in all parts of the country, would 
be an inestimable benefit. But the Whigs refuse, and by doing so 
will break their own heads. 

Your brother, C. H. 


Princeton, March 26, 1844. 

My Dear Brother: — ^The papers make a great stir about Texas. I 
cannot believe it is possible to get two-thirds of the Senate to vote for 
the annexation. Should such a thing happen, it would be a great 
crime and a great calamity ; but I think the North ought to submit. 
We have agreed that any treaty made by two-thirds of the Senate 
shall be the law of the land, and we ought to abide' by the contract. 
After the annexation of Louisiana and Florida, the constitutional 
question must be considered fixed. The cases are not alike ; but 
they are not essentially different. 

I rejoice greatly that O'Connell has been convicted. If the law and 
justice would fully sustain the sentence, I think it would be a great 
good to give him a life estate in Australia. 

Your affectionate brother, 

Charles Hodge. 


Princeton, April 4, 1844. 

My Dear Brother : — ^There is, financially speaking, always a shal- 
low spot with me during the month of April. If my salary is paid, I 
can generally get over it ; if it is not, I am very apt to stick fast. As 
not the half of the salary due the ist of February last has been paid, 
I am in the latter predicament just now. I must either submit to the 
mortification of begging time — &c., or to that of borrowing from 
you. The latter, though something, is much the less trial of the two. 

I have yet to learn the art of paying without being paid. All this 

is a prelude to my saying that I wish you to lend me a couple 

of hundred dollars, or one, if convenient. If you have it not 

on hand, say so. For it is not a case of necessity, but of feeling. I 

must pay certain calls which have already come in ; but I can, on an 

emergency, get the money from the Bank, but that I, of course, do 

not like. 

Your brother, C. H. 



Princeton, April 22d, 1844. 

My Dear Brother : — I told you some time ago, in reply to what 
you said about Mr. Barnes* pamphlet — '* The Position of the Evan- 
gelical Party in the Episcopal Church," — that, judging from the ex- 
tracts which I had seen, I disapproved of its whole design and ten- 
dency. Since then I have read it, and my first impression has been 
confirmed. I wrote a notice, of a few pages length, of it in the Re- 
pertory, which has the full concurrence of all the gentlemen here, 
and which I hope you will read. That notice, I am sorry to say, has 
given immeasurable offence to the ultra-Presbyterians of Philadel- 
phia, and if you see the Presbyterian you will see two columns and a 
half of a reply to it. I am very sorry for this, as it evinces a very 
unnatural state of mind in the Philadelphia brethren. What the no- 
tice says they would all have said six months ago. And if a man 
whose feelings are so strongly Presbyterian as Dr. Miller approves 
of it, it is very plain that it is only a morbid state of mind that leads 
to this outcry. Mr. Hope, poor fellow, has, as he writes me, been al- 
most persecuted to death for it already. 

Your brother, C. H. 


Princeton, May 28, 1&44. 

My Dear Brother : — I have just been reading Bishop Hughes' 
smart, but not very prelatical letter to the Mayor of New York. He 
confounds two very different things : opposition to foreigners, as for- 
eigners, governing the country, and opposition to Papists, as Papists. 
It is true that most of these objectionable foreigners are Papists, but 
the opposition to them is as foreigners. It is also true .that they are 
mostly Irish, but the opposition is not to them as Irish. I think this 
whole struggle will do good, and that a majority of all parties will 
soon unite in calling for an alteration of our naturalization laws- 
Bishop Hughes artfully represents the American party as leagued to 
deny liberty of conscience, and to infringe on the rights of a particu- 
lar class of citizens. But what right have the paupers of Europe to 
be citizens of America ? We must take care of ourselves, or we shall 
have all our affairs under the control of the mob of foreigners who 
swarm our cities. 

We are all well as usual ; nearly through the pangs of house-clean- 
ing. It is with difficulty I have kept the invasion of tubs and buckets 

out of the study. 

Your affectionate brother, C. H. 



Princeton, June 20, 1844. 

My Dear Brother : — ^We returned day before yesterday from the 
North, having had a very pleasant journey of two weeks and five 
days. We went first to Newburgh, where we spent Saturday, Sun- 
day and part of Monday. Thence to Netherwood (the residence of 
James Lenox, Esq.,), where I remained till Wednesday, when I went 
to Poughkeepsie to attend the Synod (Dutch Reformed), as a dele- 
gate from the General Assembly, leaving Sarah, who was in bed with 
a sick head-ache. At the close of the week I returned to Nether- 
wood and remained until Tuesday, and then, agreeably to an invita- 
tion from the Rosevelts, took Sarah to Poughkeepsie and spent that 
day there. 

The country up the North river greatly exceeded our expectations, 
and Sarah was greatly delighted. Newburgh has a beautiful situa- 
tion, and the views in the neighborhood are extensive and pictu- 
resque in a high degree. Mr. Lenox's situation, Netherwood, is very 
delightful and very highly improved. He Is a man of very uncom- 
mon taste. His brother-in-law has a cottage on his place ; another 
brother-in-law, Mr. Sheefe, owns the next seat up the river, and Mr. 
Sheefe*s mother the one above that. The four families are so near 
and so united as to form a compact society for themselves. Pough- 
keepsie also surpassed our expectations. The view from College 
Hill is one of the finest in all that region of country. 

It is impossible that people could be kinder than we found them 
everywhere, at Newburgh, Netherwood, Poughkeepsie, Albany and 
New Haven. Your brother, C. H. 


Princeton, Dec. 16, 1844. 

My Dear Brother : — I believe that we have not exchanged lamen- 
tations over the result of the election. I feel more for Mr. Clay than 
for the country. For I presume the general policy of the Govern- 
ment will be substantially the same under Mr. Polk. Mr. Clay, how- 
ever, has finally lost the great object of his natural ambition, and 
lost it by the votes of foreigners and Catholics, aliens and enemies 
really of the country. In New York, the silly Abolitionists decided 
the State, and that again decided the country. The course which 
Tyler and Calhoun have been pursuing is so extreme that I hope it 
will lead to a split in their own ranks and induce the Northern and 
Western Democrats to unite in putting them effectually down. 

Your affectionate brother, C. H. 



Princeton* April 17, 1846. 

My Dear Brother : — ^I felt really alarmed at the speech of John 
Quincy Adams in the House, declaring his opinion not only that our 
title to Oregon was good to 54.40, but that we ought not to compro- 
mise on 49. Now, as he and every President since Jefferson has 
offered that compromise, it does appear to me a piece of pure wick- 
edness to refuse to accept that offer now ; to refuse to accede to our 
own terms, and that with the certainty that war must be the conse- 
quence of such refusal. Great Britain has not the power to give up 
die country beyond 49. The public sentiment of the nation and of 
the world would be so against it that it could not be done, any more 
than we could give up the country south of the Columbia, which 
England has offered over and over as the boundary. I greatly fear 
that, unless Providence over-rule the folly of our rulers, we are des- 
tined to the miseries of a wicked war. 

Your affectionate brother, C. H. 


Princeton, Dec. 25, 1846. 

My Dear Brother: — Give the love and gratulations appropriate to 
this season from all our circle to all yours. We are getting to be 
pretty old men, though we do not know it, and, I suppose, really en« 
joy life in the consciousness of useful and conscious exertion more 
than when we were younger. The kinds and sources of pleasure 
change as we advance in life, but the maturer are always of the 
higher grade, and therefore few men would be willing to go back and 
live life over again ; they would rather live onward and continue to 
grow in knowledge and in the power to do good. It is a great thing 
to be content to be less than others, provided we do our best. Self- 
depreciation is a more amiable, but scarcely a less hurtful ladling than 
self-exaltation, or rather self-glorification. 

Your brother C. H. 


Princeton, Dec. 29, 1847. 

My Dear Brother: — It is true, I am fifty years old, and that the 
meridian of life is past. The years that remain must be few and less 
fitted for exertion or usefulness. On the review of such a period, a 
painful feeling of having accomplished so little, of having acquired 
so much less than we see we might and ought to have done, is, per- 

in*. 49] CORRESPONDENCE. 35 1 

haps, stronger even than the feeling of gratitude for all the goodness 
and forbearance of God. I feel that almost all the usefulness of my 
life b to be crowded into the coming ten years, should I live so long. 
If I am to accomplish anything it must be within that period, and yet 
how much reason is there to fear that, should they be granted, they 
will slip by much as any preceding ten years have done. 

Your affectionate brother, C. H. 


Cincinnati, Jan. 7, 1847. 

My Dear Doctor Charles : — ^You had almost forgotten, I suppose, 
that the little man whom you first knew in the blue frock coat in 
Nassau Hall is still among the living. Once in a while I hear some-, 
thing of your own dear self, and then I feel a stirring up of things 
of bygone days — such as watching from the window of No. 18 your 
movement down the campus, cross the road and down the lane, to 
the white house with the little white fence in front, opposite to which 
lived the far-famed Sam Plum. Charley, d*ye mind the days we 
spent in the white house together ? (Mrs. Bache*s). Oh ! ho ! what 
times have passed o'er us since then I But, indeed, they have been 
times of mercy, such as my most sanguine hopes could not have im- 
agined. Here I am an old man, grey-headed, with nose spectacle 
bestrid, and a house full of men and women children ! What is still 
more wonderful, I am just about as fit for service as ever. * * * * 

I preach in the vicinity of my old stamping grounds. Lane Semi- 
nary, where I have as part of my audience some of the students 
from the Seminary, with several others from the families belonging 
to the Seminary Church. This looks a little like bearding the lion 
in his own den. It is rather amusing as I pass out on Sabbath 
morning from the city to meet Dr. Beecher coming in to supply the 
"ist Orthodox Congregational Society of Cincinnati,** and some- 
times Prof-Stowe. 

You remember our old redoubtable Vice-President Slack ! I have 
the felicity of seeing his ex^ship quite often. He has what he calls 
his Gothic mansion on one of the most elevated points about our 
city, very conspicuous indeed, most romantically difficult of access. 
He is pretty much after the old stamp, except as time has corrugated 
his squatty face. He sojourns on the heights in elevated retirement. 
He is a good old man, nevertheless, and loves to recount his Prince- 
ton glories. 
i Our old friend, Wm. M. Atkinson, spent a few days with us 


recently. We had quite a refreshing time of it. He is a huge body 
of divinity, beats me some twenty or thirty pounds. 

Your affectionate brother, 

Thos. J. Biggs. 

Bishop Johns wrote to "Charley" about the same time: 
" Biggs — ^Thomas J. ! I What would I not give to have 
you both here at once ! But I suppose that is out of the 
question." And again, in April of the next year, he 
writes : " I received a full and aflfectionate letter from Biggs. 
I am afraid he will not live long. This sudden revival 
of early feeling is ominous." 



In December, 1843, Doctor Hodge formed one of the 
most signal friendships of his life. The Rev. William Cun- 
ningham, D. D., afterwards Principal of the New College, 
Edinburgh, visited America at the head of a delegation of 
the Free Church of Scotland. He was then thirty-eight 
years of age, at the fullness of all his powers, recognized 
everywhere as beyond question the greatest logician, po- 
lemic and theologian among the leaders of the second 
heroic age of the Church of Christ in Scotland. He always 
recognized Charles Hodge, then just forty-six years old, as 
occupying precisely that position in the American Presby- 
terian Church of this age. The meeting and the rapid 
friendship generated between two men having so much in 
common, meeting for the first time and for a brief season, 
was very beautiful to witness and very memorable. A 
Princeton witness of that first meeting, quoted by Dr. 
Rainy in his life of Cunningham, wrote at the time : " You 
know Brother Hodge is one of the most reserved of men, 
nor is a first acquaintance with him generally very assuring 
or attractive to strangers. But I remarked with what 
warmth and cordiality he met Dr. Cunningham, as if he had 
met an old friend from whom he had been long separated. 


And it was so with Cunningham, too. The two greatest 
theologians of the age were at once friends and brothers. 
Tliey seemed at once to read and know each the other's 
great and noble mind." 

After Dr. Cunningham's lamented death, just eighteen 
years afterwards, Dr. Hodge wrote as follows: **He was 
twice (it was really three times) at Princeton, and on both 
occasions made my house his home. He was a man you 
knew well as soon as you knew him at all. He revealed 
himself at once, and secured at once the confidence and 
love of those in whom he felt confidence. I do not recol- 
lect of ever having met any one to whom I was so much 
drawn, and for whom I entertained so high a respect and so 
warm a regard as I did for him, on such a short acquaint* 
ance. . . His visit was one of those sunny spots on which, 
whenever I look back on my life, my eyes rest with de- 

Dr. Cunningham wrote to his wife at this time : "As I 
have not much public business till next week I have come 
out to spend a few days in Princeton. I have had great 
pleasure in the society of the theological professors here, 
who are all men eminent for their talents and learning, and 
are known in Britain by their writings. I am staying with 
Dr. Hodge, a very admirable and interesting man, whose 
wife is a great grand-daughter of Dr. Franklin." The 
compiler of these Memoirs was repeatedly assured in Scot- 
land that his father's pre-eminent position in the respect and 
confidence of the Scotch Presbyterian Churches dates from 
the period of Dr. Cunningham's return from his visit to 
America, and that it was characteristic of Dr. C to give free 
expression to his high estimate of him as a man and a theo- 
logian. Dr. Rainy affirms in his '* Life of William Cunning- 
ham, D. D.," p. 462, that the great Scotchman "felt for Dr. 
Hodge, of Princeton, a very great regard as a man, and in 
his theological opinions generally a greater confidence than 
in those of any (other) divine now living." 


354 ^^- WriUAM CUNNINGHAM. [1844. 

I can well remember those memorable days, the pleased 
excitement of our father, as he lay back upon his easy chair 
listening to Dr. Cunningham as he strode gesticulating 
through the study with his long arms laying down the 
principles and narrating the story of the great Free-Church 
Exodus, or when our father walked with him in the larger 
parlor, or once or twice, when the February sun shone clear 
in the paths around the house, laying down the principles 
and narrating the story of the great controversies, as to 
slavery, New England theology and voluntary societies, in 
which his own part had been not insignificant 


Princeton, March 21st, 1844. 

.... Dr. Bums preached a delightful sermon in our chapel last 
evening. I believe we are all disposed to let him abuse us and our 
domestic institutions as much as he pleases, if he will only preach the 
gospel as purely and spiritually as he did last night. 

I cherish the recollections of your visit with great pleasure and feel 
an interest in your success and welfare which is constantly increasing 
as my knowledge of you and your cause increases. 

I should be much gratified to hear from you at any time. As Dr. 

Miller has insisted on your going to his house when you again visit 

Princeton, I feel at liberty to beg that you will send to me any of your 

brethren who may join your deputation, should they come thus far 


With great affection and respect. 

Your friend and brother, 

Charles Hodge. 


Princeton, March 30, 1844. 

My Dear Sir: — We have had 500 extra copies of the article on 
" The Claims of the Free Church *' struck off. I send you a copy by 
this mail. If, after reading it, you think it likely to be useful, I will 
place at your disposal any portion of the 500 you wish. I can send 
them to Mr. Carter in New York, to abide your order. 

1 was greatly Interested in the copies of the Witness which you left 
with me. I think he has most effectually answered the Record, and 
I regret that we were misled into saying what we did in our January 


ninnber by the last named paper. Professor A. Alexander wishes me 
to subscribe to the Witruss^ and bcjgs me to inquire of you how pay- 
ment for it can most conveniently be made. Is there anybody in this 
country authorized to receive payment on its behalf, and who would 
order it for him ? 

I should be very glad to hear from you and learn how you get 
along among the "Yankees." I do not use the word in Mrs. 
Hodge's sense of the term. I know if they get their eyes open they 
wrill put us Old School Presbyterians to shame. I sincerely hope they 

The whole family join in the assurance of kind remembrance. 

Affectionately and respectfully, 

C. Hodge. 


Boston, 9th April, 1844, 

My Dear Sir: — I have received your two letters, and am much 
obliged to you for the accompanying papers. I am grieved to be 
under the necessity of informing you that, in consequence of letters 
which I received from Scotland by the last steamer, urging me most 
strenuously to be present at our own General Assembly, I have felt it 
to be my duty to resolve on leaving this country on the ist of May, 
and that, of course, I must leave Dr. Bums to go to Canada alone, 
and Mr. Lewis and Mr. Chalmers to attend your General Assembly. 
I greatly fear that I shall not be able to visit Princeton again. I in- 
tend to visit New Haven or Hartford on Sabbath next, Albany on the 
2 1 St, then make a run to Niagara, get to New York on Saturday the 
27th, and leave it for Boston on the 29th. So far as my own personal 
feelings and inclinations are concerned I would have been most happy 
to have spent two months more in this country, where I have been 
received with so much kindness and seen so much to interest and to 
gratify. I felt quite dull the other day after having taken my berth 
in the steamer, although I was going home. I will not soon forget the 
kindness I have received and the gratification I have experienced ; 
and the time I have spent in your society at Princeton will always 
occupy a prominent place in my recollection of America. 

I will henceforth consider myself entitled to call you my friend, and 
will be most happy to have occasional correspondence with you. I 
will consider it my duty to begin this correspondence and write to 
you soon after reaching home. I have read with great pleasure your 
article for the Repertory ^ and would like very much to see it circu- 
lated for the benefit of our cause. I would like very much to have a 


parcel of the articles addressed to me at Albany, to the care of Dr. 
Sprague. and I would like to have some of them to take home with 
me, as I am sure they will be read with great interest by my brethren. 
I fear that in other respects I must request you to take the trouble of 
disposing of them in the way you yourself may think best fitted to 
promote the object in view, except I would like a small parcel of them 
addressed to Mr. Chalmers, care of the Rev. Mr. Blagden, Old South 
Church, Boston. 

The cause has been taken up cordially here by the Congregation- 
alists and the Baptists. 1 don*t know what may be the result in a 
pecuniary point of view, but as 1 have not heard of any very laige 
subscriptions from individuals, I fear the sum total will not come to a 
great deal. 

Give kindest regards to Mrs. Hodge and all the members of your 
family, to Dr. Miller, to Di*. Alexander and his sons, and believe me, 
my dear sir. Very sincerely yours, 

Wm. Cunningham. 

In order that the allusions to the Abolitionists in this 
correspondence may be understood, it must be recollected 
that Dr. Hodge and the great mass of the American Christ- 
ians with whom Dr. Cunningham came in contact, were not 
pro-slavery men, "but held, as Dr. *R. J. Breckinridge told 
Dr. Cunningham in a letter, dated Nov., 1844: "(i) That 
slavery is a great evil, and ought to be somehow and some* 
time brought to an end. (2) That it Is not a sin^ in the 
proper sense of the word, and, therefore, cannot be a proper 
ground of expulsion from the Church." '* On the other 
hand," says Dr. Rainy, in his ' Life of Wm. Cunningham/ 
p. 221, " some of the American Abolitionists (' technically so 
called,' as Dr. Breckinridge says,) seeing some likelihood 
of troubled waters, came across to fish in them. That party 
included, as is very well known, a number of persons who 
were not particular in their choice of weapons. They villi- 
fied the Free Church as associating with slave-holders for 
the sake of pecuniary gain, and raised the cry of * Send 
back the money.' As their antecedents became known and 
their methods of warfare observed, they lost their influence 
and vanished again.'* 

i«T. 46.] CORRESPONDENCE, 357 


Edinburgh, 15th of July, 1844. 

My Dear Sir: — I arrived safely in Edinburgh on the i6th of May 
and found my wife and children in the enjoyment of good health, 
and the affairs of the Free Church in a very flourishing condition. 
We have had a very interesting and gratifying meeting of the Assem- 
bly. We are now delivered wholly from the unpleasant contentions 
with unchristian men, in which we had been so long engaged, and 
are, I think I may say, devoting ourselves with united energy and 
zeal to the improvement of the important facilities for the promotion 
of true religion, with which in providence we are favored. 

I regretted that I had not an opportunity of revising the Witness^ 
report of the statement I made about my visit to America. Report- 
ing here is not nearly so perfect as in London, and the report of what 
I said is neither very accurate nor complete. 

I succeeded in preventing our Assembly from doing anything on 
the subject of slavery, except appointing a committee to consider it, 
and I shall do what I can to get them to do as little as possible. I 
suppose I must submit to being branded by the Abolitionists as hav- 
ing been corrupted by the money and hospitality of slave-holders. 

I most earnestly wish, however, that the churches of the United 
States could be stirred up to do something more than they have been 
doing of late years in regard to slavery, at least to the extent of seek- 
ing the abolition of what all condemn, such as the prohibition of in- 
struction and the separation of families, for, although we generally 
profess here to hold anti-slavery principles, I believe that it is these 
atrocious slave laws and their immediate practical results that chiefly 
excite our indignation, not only against those who practice them, but 
against all who may be supposed to connive at or tolerate them. I 
would fain hope that the proceedings of the Methodist Conference in 
regard to Bishop Andrews, which I have just read in the Prtshyterian^ 
indicate a growing sense of the necessity of the churches bestirring 
themselves in this matter. Dr. Burns has, since his return, been lec- 
turing in different parts of the country upon his visit to America, and 
Upon the whole has not, I understand, been guilty of any very great 
indiscretion. He has usually introduced the subject of slavery, and 
told some stories of church members being sold, the husband sepa- 
rated from the wife, and the mother from her children. I will con. 
tinue to do what I can to preserve peace, as I am satisfied that no- 
thing we can do will have any beneficial effect, and because I cannot 
see that there rests upon us any obligation to testify upon the subject 
^respective of a testimony being likely to do good. 


By the kindness of a friend I have got the use of a very comfort- 
able and beautifully situated country house, nine miles to the south 
of Edinburgh, where I expect to have three months of uninterrupted 
study to prepare for the labors of our Theological Seminary in No- 
vember. I would fain hope that the decisive votes in your Assembly 
will put an end to your contentions about the Elder question, and 
leave you at leisure to prosecute the important objects you have takea 
up in regard to churches and schools. 

Just before leaving America I received a few copies from home of 
a book for young people, called '* Witnesses for the Truth,*' and I 
sent one to Mrs. Hodge through Mr. Carter, which I hope she has re- 

The Duke of Sutherland has yielded to the force of public opinion 
atnd gives us sites, and the Duke of Buccleugh, under the pretence 
that he thought the Lord's Supper would be desecrated by being ad- 
ministered in the public road, offered to the people of Canonbie per- 
mission to meet in a field on the occasion of the communion, which 
was last Lord's Day. We think he will scarcely venture to drive them 
back to the road again. 

No part of my statement gave more satisfaction to the General As- 
sembly than the extracts I read to them from your article. 

W. C. 

I would like very much to hear from you when you have a little 
leisure. Any thing addressed to me at Edinburgh will reach me. I 
will ever retain a grateful sense of the kindness I received from yoa, 
and a lively recollection of the pleasure I enjoyed in your society- 
Be so good as to present my kind remembrances to Mrs. Hodge and 
the young people, to Dr. Miller, to Dr. Alexander and his sons, to 
Dr. Carnahan, Rice and Maclean, and Messrs. Henry and Dod, and 
believe me to be sincerely and affectionately yours, 

Wm. Cunningham. 


Princeton, Sept. 13, 1844* 

My Dear Sir: — ^All your Princeton friends were very happy to hear 
of your safe return to your native land and of the cordial welcome 
everywhere extended to you. We have rejoiced in the abundant 
manifestations of the divine favor granted to the Free Church during 
the past year, and in the inviting prospect of usefulness which is 
spread out before her. 

Here there is little new or interesting. I am afraid that little will 
be done in behalf of the Free Church in virtue of the recommenda-* 


tion of our last Assembly. It was a mistake merely to pass resolu- 
tions expressing sympathy with your body and urging congregations 
which had not done anything to make a collection in aid of your 
funds. If a particular day had been appointed, and all the churches, 
without any distinction, whether they had done anything or not, 
called upon to make a collection on that day, I think something bet- 
ter might have come of it. However, you have a better dependence 
than the distant and feeble churches of America. 

We shall be happy to make the arrangements which you suggest 
with regard to periodicals, etc. 

We have all felt a good deal agrieved by the articles in the Wiine%i 
on American Slavery. It is very evident that they were not written 
by the editor of that paper ; but we are surprised at his publishing 
them. They are unjust, inaccurate, injurious to the American 
churches, and of evil tendency in all respects. If the Abolitionists 
of Great Britain wish to do us any good, let them first define what 
slavery is, making due discrimination between slave-holding and the 
varying laws by which, in different countries, slave-holding is rege- 
lated. And then let them prove that slave-holding, not the slave laws 
of this or that State, but slave-holding, is contrary to the Word of 
God. It cannot do us any good to tell us that it is wrong to be cruel, 
to be unjust, to separate husbands and wives, parents and children, 
or to keep servants in ignorance. Our churches do not sanction any 
of these things, though our laws often do. Instead of really arguing 
the question, and affecting the conscience through the understanding, 
such men as the writers in the Witness take up reports of this or that 
case of cruelty, and hold it up as an indication of the character of 
whole classes of men in this country. They might, of course, as well 
cite passages from the reports of the commissioners on your mines to 
show the character of the Free Church of Scotland. 

I know, my dear sir, how much superior you are to all such things, 
and I would not write thus to you if I did not know that you are well 
aware of the respect which we all have for your principles and con- 
duct in reference to this subject. But I really feel concerned for the 
effect such articles are likely to produce. It is the want of sense, as 
&iuch as the want of justice, manifested in such effusions and in the 
proceedings of some of your emancipation societies that tries our 
patience. I see Dr. Bums is very desirous, in his anti-slavery 
speeches, to bring to his support " his respected friend. Dr. Cunning- 
ham,*' as much as possible ; and to represent himself and you as 
standing on the same ground on this subject. In the estimation of 
good people here, there are few things less alike than Dr. Burns and 
"hb respected friend,'* and it will require hard pulling to get them 


together. I hope you have seen in the New York Gbserver a notice 
of the article in the Witness. That notice is from the pen of Dr. 
James W. Alexander, who lived many years in Virginia. 

I hope you will often write to me, or to some of your friends in 
Princeton. We shall never forget the pleasure we derived from your 
visit. Will you present my regards to Dr. Gordon, to whom I look 
up with the deepest respect I once (1828) had the pleasure of hear- 
ing him preach, but had not the advantage of an introduction to him 
during my short visit to Scotland. 

I see by the Witness that you are down on the Erastians with a 
heavy hand. They will think you have let your hair grow during. 
your visit to America. All your friends here, including all the mem- 
bers of my family, unite in assurances of affection and respect. 

Your friend and brother, 

Charles Hodge. 


Princeton, Jan. 29th, 1845. 

My Dear Sir : — ... I thank you sincerely for the number of the 
North British Review containing the article on the United States. 
All your friends in America feel under obligations to you for that' 
manly defence, and all the more that they see you suffer for it. I 
notice with pain the pecking of the Recorft, which is noticeable only 
as revealing the animus of the editor. High-churchmen are accused 
of loving the Church more than Christ or Christians, and the Record 
really seems to love aristocracy more than men. It can see no 
good, or rejoice in nothing good, where there are not kings and no- 
bles. I have never noticed an expression of satisfaction at the evi- 
dence of the power of the Gospel in this country, but a uniform dis- 
position to rejoice in all our infirmities and vices. ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ 

I rejoice to see that your New College meets with so much favor. 
We all cherish the recollection of your visit as something we can 
never let die out of our minds. I hope you will brighten the chain 
occasionally by letting us hear from you. Mrs. Hodge and my chil- 
dren beg that you will not forget them. ♦ ♦ * 

Very sincerely your friend and brother, 

Charles Hodgb. 


Edinburgh, 26th April, 1845. 

My Dear Sir : — I have to thank you for two letters, and to apolo- 
gize for not answering them sooner. For the last six months I have 


been occupied very thoroughly with the duties of a first session in our 
Theological Seminary. I had made very little written preparation 
before the beginning of the session, as for nearly five months I have, 
besides other duties, to compose each week three lectures of fifty 
minutes each. The session, however, is now over, and we have a 
vacation of six months. I sent you lately two numbers of the Wit-' 
neis containing a report of a discussion in our Presbytery on "Amer- 
ican Slavery," which has, I think, put down "Abolitionism** in its 
technical sense, so far as the Free Church is concerned. * ♦ * ♦ ♦ 

I read with much interest the article on "Abolitionism** in the 
Repertory, It contained some important truths, which, in this 
country, when judging of the American churches, we are far 
too apt to overlook. But I am not satisfied of the soundness 
of some of its principles. I cannot see how any human being can 
justly and validly lose his own personal, natural right to control his 
time and labor, unless the element either of his own consent or of penal 
infliction for a crime proven be brought in. I cannot but think that 
every man is entitled to escape from slavery if he can, an idea decidedly 
confirmed by the decisions of the Mosaic Law about runaway slaves, 
and as the master's right and the slave's obligation must be correla- 
tive, it would seem that the slave's right to run away disproves the 
master's right to retain him in slavery. But I have no doubt that 
where slavery exists and is established by law, individuals may inno- 
cently occupy the position of slave-holders, because in the actual cir- 
cumstances in which the community and they themselves and the 
slaves are placed the greatest benefit which it may be in their power 
to confer may be to purchase a slave and to exercise to somt extent 
the i>ower which the law may give them over him. And it is very 
certain that no power on earth is entitled, in the face of Ai>ostolic 
practice, to prescribe it as a law to the Church of Christ that they 
shall not admit slave-holders to ordinances or even to office in the 
Church. I think too much stress has been laid on both sides on a 
specific answer to the question " Is slave-holding sinful ?" With the 
views I entertain upon the subject I could answer this question either 
affirmatively or negatively, cum distinctione, according as it might be 
explained and applied. There is surely a class of cases which are 
intermediate between things indifferent and those which are in their 
own nature, and in all their circumstances, morally right or wrong. 

The country is involved in a great excitement at present in conse- 
quence of Sir Robert Peel's resolution to endow permanently the 
College at Maynooth for the educating Popish priests. He adverted 
the other night in the House of Commons to the possibility of a war 
with the United States as a reason for reconciliating the Irish Papists* 


Let us hope and pray that the Lord may avert so fearful a 

We have suffered a great loss in our Theological Seminary by the 
death of Dr. Welsh, at the age of fifty-one. He was Professor 
of Church History, and a man very highly esteemed and respected 
among us. He had published the first volume of a church history, 
which, however, is by no means a fair specimen of what the work 
was to have been had he been spared to complete it. His death will 
probably lead to some remodelling of our arrangements in the Sem- 
inary, and it is not altogether unlikely that I may be appointed to 
succeed him ; not^ however, as Professor of Church History, but of 
Historical and Polemic Theology. Dr. Chalmers continues to enjoy 
good health, though he does not now take much part in the manage- 
ment of the ordinary business of the church. His strength is failing 
a good deal, and he is very anxious now to retire from public life and 
active duties. He is not likely to continue to take the regular 
charge of a class in the Seminary fo^ more than one or two years 

I am going to visit Sutherland for a fortnight before the Assembly. 
The Duke of Sutherland, as I anticipated when in America, was 
shamed into giving sites for our churches ; but he resolved, since we 
had carried off the whole adult population, to try to bring back the 
young men to the establishment, and has refused to give us sites for 
Free Church schools. The people won't send their children to the 
establishment schools, and there are no others in that part of the 
country. As he made 24,000 pass a winter without churches, he has 
made their children pass two without school-houses. But he seems 
now to feel that he must yield on this point, too ; and I expect to be 
able to report to the Assembly that the matter has been adjusted. 

It will always give me the greatest pleasure to hear from you. I 
will write again (D, V.) after the Assembly. Give my kindest re- 
membrance to Mrs. Hodge and the members of your family, and to 
your colleagues, and believe me to be, my dear sir. 

Sincerely and affectionately yours, Wm. Cunningham. 


Princeton, January, 1846. 

My Dear Sir: — If my negligence in writing to you entails on me 
the penalty of not hearing from you I am severely though justly pun- 
ished. I beg you, however, not to let justice grow into severity and 
lead you to keep silence even after I have performed my epistolary 
duty. If writing is a disagreeable work to you, consider that reading 
is very agreeable to us. 

«. 48.] CORRESPONDENCE. 363 

Since I last wrote two things have occurred in our Church, the one 
a public and the other a more personal affair, which have been pecu- 
liarly interesting to me. The former is the decision of our General 
Assembly, pronouncing baptism as administered in the Romish 
Qiurch to be invalid. This decision took us all very much by sur- 
prise. I think a decided majority of our ministers, over fifty years 
of age, are opposed to the decision, and a large proportion of our 
more intelligent laymen. All the brethren connected with the Col- 
lege and Theological Seminary are in opposition, and if the Refier- 
iory still reaches you, you may have noticed in the number for July, 
1845, an argument against the decision.' * ♦ » I beg you to let me 
know your own views and what you take to be the sentiment of your 
church as to the decision of our Assembly. 

The other and more private event to which I alluded is the death 
of Mr. Dod, Professor of Mathematics in our College. I suspect you 
hardly saw enough of him to get an insight into the man. He was 
one of the most highly gifted of our ministers ; the best public de* 
hater, I think, in our church, and one of the best of our controver- 
sial writers. I greatly relied upon him in all times of emergency. 
He died on the 20th of November, after a week's illness. His 
death-bed experience was very remarkable. He had for some years 
been so absorbed in literary and professional pursuits that he ap* 
peared less before the public as a minister and a religious man than 
his friends wished ; and there was a latitude of remark and a freedom 
in speculation in which he was apt to indulge which produced an im- 
pression as to his Christian character which was not altogether fav- 
orable. His intimate friends, however, never doubted his piety, and 
when he came to die, which in his case was a slow process, contin- 
uing from Tuesday evening until Thursday afternoon, he evidenced a 
calm, intelligent. Scriptural faith, without any emotional excitement, 
which filled every one about him with surprise. He was just as com- 
pletely Albert B. Dod, in all his intellectual and social peculiarities, 
in his cheerfulness, even playfulness, in his clear and strong discri- 
minating sense, as when in perfect health. I had often known 
of men*s dying in peace or in triumph, but to see a man dying cheer- 
fully in the full possession of his intellect, in calm, unexcited confi- 
dence in Christ as his God and Saviour, was to me a perfectly novel 
sight. His death is the greatest loss I have ever sustained in the 
death of friends. 

I learn by letter just received from the Rev. Thomas McCrie, 
of Edinburgh, that some friends there think of republishing the Re- 
view of Beman on the Atonement, published in the Repertory, for 
January, 1845, In my answer to .his letter I vcntiured to suggest some 


reasons for thinking it better that the Review should appear without 
a name. You know a man can talk very "big** when he is speak- 
ing behind a curtain, and in the name of a whole class of men — the Old 
School party for instance — when he would feel rather foolish if the cur- 
tain were suddenly drawn up, and only one little fellow seen standing 
there. This, however, is only a personal aflair. I am willing you 
should do what you think is most likely to be useful. At all events, 
leave out the compliment to Dr. Cox in the last paragraph, about his 
00^ and }v6etc, which none but an American can understand. 

Mrs. Hodge and the whole family unite in begging you not to for- 
get them. Your friends in America have a great hankering after 
you, and despite of the claims of the Free Church, would be glad to 
get you permanently among us. The good people in this country 
have such a notion of Lord Palmerston's pugnacity that they are all 
rejoicing at the return of Sir Robert Peel to power. Can a greater 
sin be imagined than England and America going to war about Ore- 
gon ? I question whether Dr. Chalmers even knows where Oregon is. 

Your affectionate friend, 

Charles Hodge. 


On the 20th of November, 1845, the subject of this 
Memoir met one of the chief bereavements of his life. Pro- 
fessor Albert B. Dod had married his cousin, Miss Caroline 
S. Bayard and was, with the exception of his brother and 
Bishop Johns, the most intimate friend he ever had. As 
narrated above. Professor Dod spent several evenings every 
week in his friend s study, where he formed by far the most 
brilliant and inspiring of the remarkable set of conversa- 
tionalists who met there constantly for the discussion of all 
questions of interest to educated men. Nine years after his 
death Dr. Hodge wrote an account of him for Dr. Sprague's 
Annals, affirming : " I have not yet ceased to mourn his de- 
parture as a personal loss.*' 

He describes him as : — '* Rather above the ordinary stan- 
dard in height, somewhat inclined to stoop; rather square- 
shouldered ; but active and graceful in his movements and 
carriage. His head was unusually large; his forehead 
broad, but not high ; his eyebrows massive and projecting; 


his eyes hazel, brilliant and deep-seated ; his countenance 
intellectual and pleasing. His disposition was very cheerful 
and amiable, which rendered him with his extraordinary 
conversational powers, particularly agreeable as a com- 
panion. His reputation as a talker threatened at one time 
to eclipse his &me in higher departments. But this was 
only the sparkling of a really deep and rapidly moving 

*' He had a taste for literature and the fine arts, and con- 
siderable fertility of imagination, and was, I think, dis- 
posed to estimate these gifts at a higher value than his more 
solid mental qualities. To me, it always appeared that his 
understanding, his power of clear and quick discernment, 
of analysis and lucid statement, and of logical deduction, 
was the leading power of his mind, to which his reputation 
and usefulness were mainly due. 

" It was that gave him his success and power as a teacher. 
There was nothing that he could not make plain. He de- 
lighted in unfolding the rationale of all the processes of his 
department, and to elevate his pupils to the study of the 
philosophy of every subject which he taught. 

" To this clearness and discrimination of mind is also to 
be referred his fondness for metaphysics, and his skill in 
the discussion of subjects connected with that department 
Those of his writings which excited general attention are 
on topics of this character. His mind was ever on the alert, 
and teeming with thought and suggestions. It was a com- 
mon thing for him when he entered my study, to say :— 
' I was thinking, as I came along, of such and such a ques- 
tion,' announcing some problem in mental or moral science. 
Indeed, I do not know that I ever was acquainted with a 
man, who so constantly suggested important topics of con- 
versation, or kept the minds of his friends more on a stretch. 
His consciousness of power in debate, no doubt, contribtited 
to the formation of this habit, for the pleasure of discussion 
was in his case so great, fhat he would often start paradox- 


ical opinions, either for the sake of surprising his hearers, 
or exercising his skill in defending them. The talent to 
which I have referred, was conspicuously displayed in all 
public assemblies. Had his life been spared, I doubt not, 
he would have established for himself the reputation of one 
of the ablest debaters in our church. 

" His best and most effective sermons are distinguished 
by the same character of mind. His voice was melodious 
and his delivery free and untrammelled by his notes, which 
were generally written out in full. Though his preaching 
in the latter years of his life was generally addressed more 
to the understanding than to the affections, yet he had great 
emotional power, and could, when roused himself, control 
in an uncommon degree the feelings of his audience. 

"I regarded him as one of the most gifted men of our 
church. His having chosen an academical, instead of a 
pastoral career, kept him in a measure aloof from our eccle- 
siastical courts, and turned his attention to science rather 
than to theology. But I have a strong conviction that he had 
in him rich stores of undeveloped resources (he was only 41), 
which, had it pleased God to prolong his life, would have 
rendered him one of the most eminent and useful ministers 
of our church." 

As described above in Dr. Hodge's letter to Dr. Cun- 
ningham, Prof Dod's death-bed experience was very remark- 
able. All his peculiar intellectual and social traits and habits 
were in full play to the last When unexpectedly and 
instantly brought &ce to face with death, he took up every 
question of pressing personal interest and settled them in 
their order. First, his family, of wife and seven little children, 
unprovided for. These he committed to God in an act of 
absolute fiiith, which the heavenly Father has not disap- 
pointed. And this matter remained thus permanently dis- 
posed of Then he took up the relation of his own soul to 
God. "As soon as the object of faith was presented to him 
in the free, full and explicit declarations of Scripture, he 


seized it with a clearness and strength which left no doubt 
in his own mind whether he had faith or not. As promise 
after promise was repeated to him, he said with emotion : 
* I thank you for that/ * God bless you for that' * I know 
myself to be nothing and less than nothing, and God all in 
all. And Christ precious. I know no other God but him/ 
The text was then repeated: 'Whosoever belie veth that 
Jesus is the Son of God, is bom of God.' 'Thank you 
for that/ he replied, and attempted to raise his friend's hand 
to his lips." 

That friend was Dr. Hodge, who remained with him all 
the long period of his death struggle, and who wrote an 
account of it which he read at the funeral, and which was 
subsequently printed in a pamphlet. It was at this funeral 
that Dr. Hodge made one of his few but nevertheless in- 
tensely characteristic bursts of eloquence, described by Dr. 
Paxton in the last chapter of this book. 


Two years after this, in the late summer and autumn of 
1847, Dr. Hodge's immediate family began to have its first 
experience of the inevitable separations which await us all. 
Up to this time there had been no parting. Neither parent, 
nor either of the eight children had died. Their education 
also in school and college had been conducted together and 
at home. But now at once the eldest son went to India as 
a Missionary, and the eldest daughter went to Danville, 
Kentucky, as the wife of the Rev. Wm. M. Scott, Professor 
of Ancient Languages in Centre College, and afterwards 
Professor of Biblical Literature and Exegesis in the Theo- 
logical Seminary at Chicago. 

Such an experience makes an epoch in any family, leaving 
it changed forever. Our family was never completely 
regathered on earth again, for before the son returned from 
India, the Mother was making the beginnings of the home 
in heaven. The parting was the occasion of the utter pour- 


ing forth of the treasures of love of both parents' hearts. 
To us these are unspeakably precious, but they are too 
sacred to be given here. From this time for years our 
Father's letters to his brother had but one burden, his 
children and their welfare, and then the memory and the 
virtues and the love of their sainted Mother. He writes to 
his brother, September 14th, 1847, "To marry a daughter I 
find to be a very different thing from marrying a son. It is 
a complete sacrifice of self to the good of your child, and it 
is right it should be so, but it is most peculiarly painful. 
How little we know of anything but by experience. Whoever 
sympathizes with parents on the marriage of a daughter? 
Men congratulate me, when I can hardly help feeling they 
do it in designed mockery. Still we had M — . for two and 
twenty years, and that is a good deal, and though she is not 
now, and never again can be to us what she once was, she 
is still our precious child. I trust we shall be happy in her 

His never failing friend. Bishop Johns, wrote to him, 
Richmond, April 17th, 1848. "We rejoice with you in the 
intelligence of A.'s safe arrival and in his health and com- 
fort in his new field. Distance, dear Charles, is a small con- 
sideration. To have a child so devoted and employed should 
overtop all else. And to have a daughter wedded to a 
&ithful minister of the gospel, who will be her guide to 
heaven, as well as her affectionate companion by the way, 
is a privilege with which the heart of a Christian parent 
may well be contented. Forget oceans and miles in your 
gratitude. All unite in most affectionate regards to you 
and yours. In the beginning yet of our friendship, yours 
truly. J. Johns." Is not that beautiful ? They were past 
fifty years old, and in the twenty-eighth year of their minis* 
try, " and in the beginning yet of their friendship I" 

M. 52.] DBA TH OF HIS WIPE. 369 


During the summer of 1849 Mrs. Hodge had visited her 
daughter in Kentucky, and had returned in September, as 
her husband reported to his brother "wonderfully well, 
fatter and stronger than before her journey, and in excellent 
spirits/' She became ill however later in the same month 
with a disease which, in the judgment of her physicians, 
while involving crises of imminent danger, yet upon the 
whole admitted a strong expectation of ultimate recovery. 
His beloved brother visited their home as frequently as pos- 
sible during the first week of December, and contributed 
much to prolong life, and to sustain hope. The bereaved hus- 
band left this minute in his record book. '' On Tuesday, the 
1 8th of December, in the afternoon, she sank so low that we 
feared she could not live until sundown. She was sweetly 
humble and resigned. I asked her. Do you love the Lord 
Jesus ? She said : ' I hope so.' I asked, do you trust in 
him ? ' Entirely.' Is he precious to you ? ' Very.' She 
afterwards often answered the same questions By saying : 
* Inexpressibly.' ' He is my all in all.* She expressed the 
greatest penitence and self-condemnation in view of herself 
and life, but the most peaceful confidence whenever she 
thought of the blessed Saviour.*** Afterwards, towards the 
end of that week and the beginning of the next, she im- 
proved. During these days she frequently requested me to 
pray with her, and was never weary of the repetition of 
hymns, especially of the hymns " How sweet the name of 
Jesus sounds," and "J^sus, lover of my soul." But Monday 
night, at another violent crisis in her complaint, she began 
to sink, and about half past four o'clock on Christmas 
morning she softly and sweetly fell asleep in Jesus. She 
evinced throughout the most perfect composure and resig- 
nation. She said she knew she was dying. Spoke of her 
children, said she could not see them now and added : ' I 
give them to God.' She responded in full appropriating 
&ith to the promises of Scripture repeated in her hearing, 

370 DEATH OF HIS WIFE. \\%^. 

and over and over again expressed her full and entire con- 
fidence in Christ, and her overwhelming sense of his value 
and of the love of God in the gift of his dear Son. 

'^ Her death was calm, peaceful and holy. She was full 
of humility, faith and grateful, admiring love to God. Her 
children, save the eldest, were all about her. They all were 
renewedly g^ven by her to God, and around her sacred re- 
mains they all knelt in consecrating prayer to God." 

She had lived with her husband, his joy and crown, 
twenty-seven years and a half. She had borne for him 
eight children, three daughters and five sons, all of whom, 
by God*s singular mercy, lived to mature age, and have 
been gathered with their parents into the number of those 
who profess Christ. 

The sorrowing husband caused this inscription to be 
graven on her tomb : 





DECEMBER 25TH, 1 849, 












This is indeed the outpouring of a bereaved husband's 
heart But it is all true. And now, when, after twenty* 

Mt, 52.] D£A TH OF HIS WIFE. 3 7 1 

nine years, we, their children, lay our father by our mother's 
side and read this inscription on her tomb, we all say 


WiLLiAMSBURGH, March 19, 1850. 

My Dear Charles: — If all the letters which I have penned in 
thought had been forwarded you would know how much you have 
been in my mind. Yes, both sleeping and waking, I have been with 
you — ^not, indeed, as you now are ; for it requires an effort to realize 
that your house is not as I always, except at my last brief visit, joyed 
to find it — ^but as enlivened and cheered by the presence of the 
blessed one who has from the first been so identified with us that it 
seems impossible for me to think of either of you without seeing 
both. I am so willing to allow the illusion which the happy associa- 
tion of many past years produces, that I can scarcely bring myself to 
the conviction that my dear Charles is bereaved, and alone in his 
desolate home, and that I am no more to receive the cordial greeting 
and gaze on the bright countenance of Sarah. That one sentence 
in your letter, " since their blessed mother entered heaven," pressed 
for a while the truth upon my consciousness, and in my strong sym- 
pathies for my afflicted brother I found the experience of the time of 
my own like 'visitation very vividly renewed. Yes, dear Charles, 
they are together " in heaven," and may we but be successful in 
training to a meetness for the same mansions the precious children 
they have left us, the hour is not far off when we shall rather think 
of their sainted mothers as there than encounter the struggle of leav- 
ing them on earth. My solicitude for the spiritual welfare of my 
children increases as my opportunities of being useful to them short«> 
en, and this anxiety is, of course, more intense in the case of those 
who thus far have given no indications of the new birth into rights 
eousness. Nothing seems so strongly to stir up my feelings in prayer 
as the effort to intercede for them with God. But a few days before 
the receipt of your letter I was, I think, more than usually engaged 
in this way with tenderness toward them, but I fear small faith and 
hope. Is my almost "extremity" to prove "God's opportunity?" 
How wishfully I wait for further intelligence ! Oh, for more of that 
" great faith in the baptismal dedication of children, and of that be- 
lieving prayer,'* of which you speak ! The confidence is authorized, 
and in exercise, how great the comfort I 

I have written to my dear boy (in Princeton College) the overflow- 
ings of my heart for counsel. Should he be sufficiently interested to 

372 DEATH OF HIS WIFE. [1850. 

desire it, I have commended him to you as to a father, and it is to 
me cause of great thankfulness to know that he is so near one who 
will " naturally care for his state," and truly show him the way of 

Do let me hear from you, for I shall be anxious to learn something 
of the good work which I trust the Lord has begun in the College. 
How the tidings carry me back, as well they may, with gratitude and 
praise to the never-to-be-forgotten scenes of our own College course 
there. But for the gracious dispensation of those days, giving effect 
to parental instruction and example, what and where should / have 
been. Bless the Lord, O my soul ! 

I need not say, my dear Charles, that all here join me in love to 
you and yours. J. Johns. 

After this many months were almost absorbed by this 
great sorrow. In every way he gave it full course, dwell- 
ing upon it in his imagination, and indulging unrestrained 
the physical expression of it. He wrote to his brother on 
the 1 2th of November, 1850, the anniversary of his (the 
brother's) marriage in New York : 

"This is the I2th of November. During my days of 
happiness the anniversary of my marriage generally passed 
without special notice ; every day was as the day of our 
espousals. But now that day is invested with sacred inter- 
est As you are still happy, and pressed forward with the 
full tide of life, you may let this day pass with scarcely 
more than a few ejaculations of thanks to God for his good- 
ness. It is now one of my anniversaries. I know the his- 
tory of my Sarah for this day twenty-two years ago, and 
can recall her appearance as she then was distinctly before 
me. The night before we spent in New Brunswick. In the 
morning we went to New York in the steamboat We put 
up at Bunker's. I know the room we occupied. I know 
where Sarah sat at dinner, and what she ate. In the after- 
noon Miss Boyd came to aid her in dressing. I can see 
her as she sat by Margaret (his brother's bride) on the sofe 
in the evening, and how she smiled when I called her ' old 
Mrs. Hodge.' It is thus I can recall her by associating her 


With particular times and places. The general recollection 
is painfully vague ; these definite associations are poignantly 
vivid. And yet I assiduously cultivate them as part of the 
homage due her memory. No human being can tell, prior 
to experience, what it is to lose out of a family its head and 
heart, the source at once of its light and love." 

In December, 1850, his brother lost, by a rapid and un- 
controllable disease, his third son, James Ba}^ard, a beauti- 
ful and beloved Christian youth of seventeen years. After 
his return to Princeton from the funeral Dr. Hodge wrote : 


Princeton, Dec. 16, 1850. 

My Dear Brother : — ^You were kind in writing to me when God*s 
hand liad touched the apple of my eye, and you expressed what were 
no doubt wise and pious sentiments, but I felt you did not and could 
not understand the case, and that such counsels had but little power 
over a broken heart. I do not feel disposed, therefore, to say any- 
thing of the kind to you and sister Margaret. 

There is no help in such afflictions but in God. He alone can 
reach the heart. Earthly friends speak only to the outward ear. 
Their sympathy, I know, by experience, is consoling and gratifying. 
It is viewed as a tribute to the departed, an acknowledgment of the 
greatness of our loss, and is therefore to be valued and cherished. 
That sympathy you have from a very large circle, and prayers con- 
stant, numerous and fervent are going up to God in your behalf, and 
in behalf of your dear children. It was never meant that we should 
not sorrow after the most cherished objects of our affection. Our 
duty is to take care that we " sorrow after a godly sort," for " the sor- 
row of the world,** such sorrow as the world or worldly people have, 
"worketh death.*' Pious sorrow, that is, sorrow mingled with pious 
feeling, with resignation, confidence in God. hope in his mercy and 
love, is every way healthful to the soul ; while melancholy is irrelig- 
ious, and is a cancer to true peace and spiritual health. The great 
means of having our sorrow kept pure is to keep near to God, to feel 
assured of his love, that he orders all things well, and will make even 
our afflictions work out for us a far more exceeding and an eternal 
weight of glory. 

Christ is our God. When we speak of keeping near to God, we 
mean God in Christ, and God as reconciled and made propitious to 


us by his blood. And Christ is near to us, and dwells in us, and 
shows us His love, and works all grace in us by the Holy Spirit. The 
doctrine of the Trinity b not a mere speculative doctrine, it is an es- 
sential part of the Christian's practical faith, the truth on which he 
daily lives. If, therefore, God will graciously give you and Margaret 
the Holy Ghost, He will thereby give you Himself, and open to you 
the infinite sources of peace and consolation that are to be found in 
Him. To give our grief this pious character, I think it must be 
expressed, not hidden or kept in one's own bosom. At least, it seems 
to me much more consistent with Christian feeling to give proper ex- 
pression to our sorrow, and to talk of those whom God has taken to 
heaven, than to cast the pall of silence over all that concerns them. 

I was, therefore, truly rejoiced to find that dear M. had the heart 
to talk fi-eely of Bayard. As he cannot be forgotten, so he ought not 
to be remembered merely in silence. He and his death and his pre- 
sent blessedness can bear to be talked about among those who loved 
him and still long to manifest their affection for his memory. 

I began this letter with the intention of saying nothing that could 
be considered like counsel, but I fear I have run into this mistake- 
We cannot tell how what we say will affect the exquisite sensibilities 
of a bereaved heart, and therefore must hope that what we write will 
be taken as an expression of love, though it may be, as such expres- 
sions often are, more or less painful. 

Yotu: affectionate brother, 



Princeton, May 28, 1850. 

My Dear Brother : — I am sorry to hear that your fears respecting 
Mrs. Chauncey have proved so well founded. I feel for him, but there 
is no help but in God. If God comforts him he will be comforted, 
but vain are all human comforters. I will try to write to him, but my 
experience teaches me not how to write, but that letters of condo- 
lence, though not without their value, are powerless. I have re- 
ceived many and value them highly, not merely as expressions of 
kind feeling towards myself, but far more as evidence of regard for 
my blessed Sarah. Still, I have never read any of them a second 

1 feel also for you. I know how much you suffer from the loss of 
patients, not only from sympathy, but from a feeling of responsibility. 
You should remember, however, that it is appointed unto all men 
once to die, and that no degree of skill, and no assiduity of attention. 

Jn. so.] DISTURBED HEAL TH, 3 75 

can aTcct tbe shaft of deadu Yoa have gmt coiisolalk»s» as well as 
great trials. Haw often are yoa tbe means of saving life \ How often 
do patients and friends kx^ up to yoo as didr greatest benefactor I 
Yon cannot have this ezqnisite satisfaction without paying tbe tiibute 
of occasional socrow when all yoor efibits fa£L 

Your brother, C H. 


During this period, and for some years later, Dr. Hodge's 
health continued in an uncomfortable, though hardly in a 
precarious condition. In the siunmer of 1848 he met with 
an accident which proved to be the starting point of a long 
sequence of disturbances in his nervous and circuiatoiy 
systems. His letter to his brother on the occasion will ex- 
plain the case : 


Princeton, July 14th, 1848 — ^Friday. 

My Dear Brother : — I had made my arrangements to preach on 
Sunday next at Netherwood (Mr. Lenox*s place), and therefore was 
to leave home last evening for New York, so as to be able to take the 
morning boat up the North river for to-day. They had tea at six 
o'clock that I might be ready for the cars. While we were all at 
table something was said to produce a laugh, just as I had my cup at 
my mouth, and some of the tea got into my larynx, producing a vio- 
lent fit of coughing. I rose to leave the table, and took a step or two 
towards the door, and then I remember nothing until I saw the fam- 
ily around me in alarm raising me from the floor. They say I stag- 
gered to the wall, and fell, striking my head against the sofa. I re- 
member nothing of the staggering or falling, or of the blow. The 
unconsciousness was only for a moment, for as they raised me to a 
sitting posture 1 spoke, and asked what bad happened. I was aware 
I was coming out of unconsciousness, and had forgotten the anteced- 
ents. They told me I had choked, and then it all came back. They 
were all a good deal alarmed, and begged me not to leave home. 
The hack was at the door, and the whole occurrence seeming per- 
fectly intelligible, the spasm of the larynx producing suffocation, and 
that momentary congestion, I determined to go, taking Wistar with 
me to New York for company. When, however, I got to the depot I 
felt unwell and determined to return. 

We sent for Dr. Schanck. He took the same view of the matter 

376 DISTURBED HEALTH. [184ft. 

that I had done, and advised, what I had already ordered, a hot bath 
for the feet and cold water for the head. I thought he would have 
taken a little blood, and think it would have been better had he done 
so. I felt no inconvenience through the night, beyond a slight 
headache and a heaviness about the chest, inducing frequent sigh- 
ing. I feel well this morning, except this little headache. 

I am not free from concern about this dispensation, as I think it 
shows a great tenderness about the brain. I never could bear to 
have my head jarred, nor exposed to heat, especially in the back 
part of it. I am not certain, however, the difficulty is not in the chest, 
as I so frequently feel oppression there. 

I am so well that I expect to leave home at noon, so as to take the 
night boat up the river. The Lord our Skviour reigns, and we are in 
his hands, and not a hair of our heads can perish without his notice. 

Your brother, Charles Hodge. 

Again he writes to his brother, as soon as he returns to 
Princeton, on Wednesday, the 19th of July : 

My Dear Brother : — ^As Dr. Schanck advised my going up the 
North river, I left home on Friday morning, and reached Hampton, 
five miles above Newburgh, about half-past nine that evening. I had 
a very pleasant journey, and the fresh evening air on the river I 
thought did me good. I reached Mr. Lenox's the next morning 
about eight o'clock. My head has been gradually improving. On 
Saturday it ached constantly on the back or top, and I had a good 
deal of new nervous feeling — not giddiness but feeble ineroation, so 
that my step was unsteady, and at times I experienced the initial sen- 
sation of fainting. I kept quiet and did not attempt to preach on 
Sunday. Monday I felt better. I left Netherwood about noon yes- 
terday, in the day boat, stayed last night in New York, and reached 
home at noon to-day. I find that writing a few short letters is as 
much as my head will bear. 

I found your kind letter awaiting my return, and shall be careful to 
follow your directions. 

Your brother, C. H, 

The nervous disturbance occasioned by this accident was 
subsequently confirmed and aggravated by the severe and 
protracted emotional excitement he went through during 
the year, which followed the death of his wife. This eflfect 
was doubtless dependent upon the fullness of his habit 


of body, the constitutional changes, incident to his time 
of life, and the long confinement which had resulted 
from his lameness. For years he suffered from fulness and 
dizziness of the head, and constant restlessness. He was 
frequently bled and otherwise depleted, and necessarily lived 
bx more in the open air than at any other period of his life. 
Consequently from 1848 to about 1855 or '56 was his least 
productive period, so much so that it then often seemed as if 
he might fail to gather the complete harvest of his previous 
labors. It was now that he formed the habit of seeking 
recreation and of amusing the hours of his necessary rest 
by a moderate reading of novels, and by playing backgam- 
mon, and in the summer season croquet on the lawn before 
his study windows. 


Princeton, Jan. 25, 1849. 

My Dear Brother.^ — ^Were it not for what you say I should feel a 
good deal concerned about my head. That there has been* a great 
change since my attack last summer there is no doubt. And some- 
times the disturbance and pain are so great that I can do nothing. 
Often, after three or four hours* work, I am obliged to put by every- 
thing and go into the open air. All this is new and strange for me. 
I have been relieved in a measure by observing that the pain w^ 
partly external at times — ^that is, the scalp on the top of my head is 
tender to the touch. It may all be neuralgia, but it unfits me for the 

labor I could once sustain. 

Your brother, C. H. 


Princeton, June 18, 1851. 

My Dear Brother: — ^This is my wedding day. This day, and not 
far from this hour, twenty-nine years ago, my blessed Sarah gave me 
her hand in pledge of life-long love and devotion. That pledge she 
sacredly redeemed. For twenty-seven years God spared us to each 
other, and no man had ever more reason than I have had to rejoice 
in the unwavering affection of a most superior woman. My feelings 
now are in some respects very different from what they were this time 
last year, but in others they remain unchanged. No day has inter- 


vened that I have not often and literally shed tears to her memory; 
no week has passed that I have not been twice or oftener to her 
grave. And yet I think of her now with less of that dreadful sense 
of bereavement which then oppressed my spirit. I turn my heart to- 
wards her with much of the same feeling with which a Romanist, who 
stops short of idolatry, looks up to his patron saint. No one can 
know, prior to experience, the mystery of those affections which are 
interwoven with the whole tissue of our lives, and whose objects God 

has exalted to heaven. 

Your affectionate brother, C. H. . 


And now, within less than two years of one another, Dr. 
Hodge's two senior Colleagues were removed, leaving him 
to occupy the position of senior professor, with its attend- 
ant dignity and responsibility for twenty-seven years. Dr. 
Miller died January 7th, 1850, and Dr. Alexander died Oc- 
tober 22d, 1 85 1. 

It is natural that every institution which has attained to 
a history should possess away back in its past, if not a 
heroic, at least a golden age, when the remote fore&thers 
dwelt in a world of love and purity, not known to their de- 
generate sons. But the holy character and mutual love of 
the first three professors of Princeton Theological Seminary 
i^ not a myth, nor is it certified to us only by a dim tradi- 
tion. Many of their cotemporaries have left their written 
testimony, and many of us, their children and pupils, survive 
to testify of what we have known ourselves. For many 
years I witnessed, as a member of one of their families, 
their going in and out together, and since then I have had 
a wide experience of professors and of pastors, and I am 
certain, I have never seen any three who together approached 
these three in absolute singleness of mind, in simplicity 
and godly sincerity, in utter unselfishness and devotion to 
the common cause, each in honor preferring one another. 
Truth and candor was the atmosphere they breathed, 
loyalty, brave and sweet, was the spirit of their lives. 

Dr. Alexander bore testimony to Dr. Miller, that he had 


*' never known a man more entirely free from vainglory, 
envy and jealousy." His students regarded him as the most 
perfect illustration of the Christian graces they had ever 
seen. Dn Hodge often narrated how, * In the summer of 
1 8 19, Dr. Alexander delivered to the then Senior class a 
lecture, which sa impressed his pupils, that Dr. William 
Nevins said to his classmates that it was a shame they 
should enjoy such instructions and do nothing to secure 
the same advantage for others. He, therefore, proposed 
that we should endeavor to found a scholarship, to be called 
'The Scholarship of the Class of 18 19.' To this the class 
assented, and a committee was appointed to inform the 
Professors of our purpose. When the committee waited on 
Dr. Miller, Nevins with his characteristic naive frankness 
told him the whole story, and dwelt on the enthusiasm 
cherished by the students for Dr. Alexander. Dr. Miller 
having heard him through, expressed his pleasure in view 
of what the class had done, and then lifted his hand and 
said, ' My young friend, I solemly believe that Dr. Alexan- 
der is the greatest man who walks the earth I' When we 
left the Doctor's study, Nevins said to his associates on the 
Committee, ' Well, if Dr. Alexander be the greatest, Dr. 
Miller is surely the holiest that walks the earth ! ' We were 
boys then ; but this incident serves to show how Dr. Miller 
was regarded by his pupils." Dr. Hodge also says of Dr. 
Miller "Some men are good in one respect and not in 
another. — Dr. Miller was thoroughly good ; good in every 
respect, because he was good in principle. . . . The fact 
that for over thirty years he was intimately associated with 
colleagues to whom he never said an unkind word or ex- 
hibited an unkind feeling, is proof enough of his habitual 

In the last year of his life Dr. Miller wrote a letter to Dr. 
Henry A. Boardman of Philadelphia, which ought never to 
be read except through tears. Its existence is a proof of 
the singular fitvor with which God regarded the old Prince- 


ton. We preserve it, and again and again we publish it as 
an inestimable record of Crod's goodness to our Fathers, 
and of the religious character of the heritage they have 
left us. 


Princeton, Feb. 28, 1849. 

I thank you, my dear brother, for the kind expressions which you 
employ on the prospect of my retiring from office. I am, indeed, 
nearly worn out. Far advanced in my eightieth year, I have outlived 
all my relatives, and all my own expectations, and am compassed 
about with so many infirmities that I am persuaded a longer continu- 
ance in office would be in no respect just, either to the Seminary or 
myself. Yet, in looking forward to retirement from official labor, and 
especially to that day which is near at hand, when I must " put off 
this tabernacle,*' I desire to bless God for the humble hope which I 
am permitted to entertain, that I have so good a home to go to, where 
there will be no more infirmity, and especially no more sin ; but per- 
fect union and conformity to Him who, though He was rich, for our 
sakes became poor, that we through His poverty might be rich. 

I desire to unite with you, my dear brother, in thanksgiving to the 
great Head of the Church, that our beloved Seminary has been made 
so useful to our Zion, by training so large a portion of the ministry 
under the same teachers ; and I hope I have some sincere gratitude 
that I have been permitted to occupy a place, and take some humble 
part in this hallowed work. But I can truly say that the sentiment 
which most strongly and prominently occupies my mind is that of 
thankfulness that the Lord has been pleased to unite me with col- 
leagues so wise, so faithful, so much superior to myself, and so emi- 
nently adapted to be a blessing to the Church. I consider it as one 
of the greatest blessings of my life to be united with such men, and 
pre-eminently with my senior colleague, whose wisdom, prudence, 
learning and peculiar piety have served as an aid and guide to my- 
self, as well as to others. I desire to leave it on record, for the eye 
of intimate friendship, that in my own estimation my union with 
these beloved men has been the means of adding to my own respect- 
ability and my own usefulness far more than I could ever, humanly 
speaking, have attained, either alone or in association with almost 
any other men. I desire especially to feel thankful that I ever saw 
the face of my venerated senior colleague. He has been for thirty- 
six years, to me a counsellor, a guide, a prop and a stay, under God, 


to a degree which it would not be easy for me to estimate or acknow- 

The union in our Faculty has been complete. And the solid basis 
of the whole has been a perfect agreement on the part of all of us in 
an honest subscription to our doctrinal formularies. There has been 
no discrepance — no pulling in different directions. 

Hoping to see you in a few days, I am, my dear sir, your friend 

and brother in Christian bonds, 

Samuel Miller. 

In his article on the Memoir of Dr. A. Alexander, in the 
January No. of the Princeton Review for 1855, Dr. Hodge 
says: "Having incidentally mentioned the name of Dr. 
Miller, we maybe permitted to pause and in a sentence pay 
our humble tribute to that sainted man. He could be ap- 
preciated only by those who knew him intimately, who saw 
him day by day, and year in and year out, in all circum- 
stances suited to try and to reveal the true character. We 
have never heard any one who enjoyed such means of 
knowing him, speak of him otherwise than as one of the 
holiest of men. May the writer be further pardoned for ob- 
truding himself for a moment, so far as to say, that during 
twenty-nine years of intimate official association with these 
two venerated men, he never saw the slightest discourtesy, 
unkindness nor acerbity manifested by the one towards the 
other ; and that he never heard a disparaging remark from 
the one in reference to the other. Thank God, Princeton 
Seminary has a histoiy ! The past is safe. The memory 
of the two eminent men who were its first professors, 
and who gave it character, rest over it as a halo, and men 
will tread its halls for their sake with something of the 
feeling with which they visit the tombs of the good and 
the great." 

That Dr. Hodge was worthy by the endowments of Pro- 
vidence, and by the gifts of grace of his place in that circle 
of the first three professors, and to be associated with the 
colleagues he ardently loved and venerated, will be shown 
hereafter by the testimony of those surviving colleagues, 


who SO long cfelighted in him as their friend and academic 

The relation which Dr. Hodge sustained to Dr. Archibald 
Alexander has been plainly disclosed in the foregoing me- 
moranda. He was noticed as a school-boy, and made a 
companion of rides and of distant journeys. He was chosen 
as an assistant, and for two years made an inmate of the 
family. He was chosen as a colleague, and habitually and 
intimately consulted and counseled in all the public and 
private interests of either. He was chosen to be his suc- 
cessor in the chair of Didactic Theology. And now, when 
the aged saint came to die, his disciple and successor was 
summoned (October 12th, 185 1), to his side. Dr. Alexan* 
der held out his hand and called him his son. In another 
interview he transferred to him the account book of the 
scholarships, and told him what he wished to be done in 
respect to them, and handed him a white bone walking- 
stick, carved and presented to him by one of the chiefs of 
the Sandwich Islands, and said, "You must hand this to 
your successor in office, that it may be handed down as a 
kind of symbol of orthodoxy." When he dismissed him 
from the first interview he said, *' Now my dear son, &rewelL*' 

I saw my father when he returned from that interview, 
standing in his study in an agony of weeping, exclaiming, 
"It is all past, the glory of our Seminary has departed," 
At the funeral he walked with the sons, claiming to be a 
true son also. 


Princeton, Oct. 15, 1851. 

My Dear Brother: — ^We begin to be very much concerned about 
our dear venerated Doctor Alexander. Four weeks ago he was 
seized with a debilitating sickness, and although the violence of the 
attack has abated, his stomach seems to be giving out, his appetite is 
gone, so that food is unpleasant to him, and he is very feeble, 
should he live to April he will be eighty years old. Last week he 
drove out several times, and I thought he was getting welL On Sun- 


day afternoon he sent for me. I found him lying on the sofa in his 
study, and when I came near to him he put out his hand and said, 
" My dear son, I have a few things to say to you, to which I wish you 
to listen without making any reply.** He then went on to say " that 
those around him thought he was improving, but his own strong per- 
suasion was that his end was drawing nigh ; that he was going just 
as Mr. Samuel Bayard went, from utter failure of the stomach ; that 
he had thought much on the subject and had arrived at the conclu- 
sion that it was best for him to leave the world now. He had done 
his work. After eighty he had never known a man to be useful, and 
he did not think it desirable for him to live and drag on a few years 
more a burden to himself and others.'* He said, " I wish you to 
know my views of my case now, and 1 want to speak to you while I 
have strength. I consider it one of my greatest blessings that 1 have 
been able to bring you forward, and now, my dear son, farewell. 
You will not see me again.** I was, as you may suppose, greatly 
humbled and affected by this address from the man to whom I owe 
so much. I sank on my knees by him and kissed his hand. He told 
me to pray. I did so for a few sentences. He said, with emphasis, 
"Amen,** and again giving me his hand said, " farewell.** 

This is for your eye alone. Bum this letter. I should be deeply 
mortified that this record of the parental tenderness and partiality of 
the old gentleman should ever be seen. It is forty years next spring 
since I first, as a boy, attracted his notice.. He has ever since acted 
to me as a father, and God has given me grace to love and revere 
him as a child would such a father. I believe I have never offended 
him, or hurt his feelings. I cannot prevent this solemn interview 
having a very strong impression upon my feelings as to the prospect 
of his recovery, though I know he is often disposed to take gloomy 

Every thing is covered with gloom here now. It is a sad season 
of the year — the hour of desolation is drawing near again, — and the 
prospect of the patriarchal head of our Church and Seminary being 
taken away makes us feel very sad. The nearest circle to Dr. Alex- 
ander is his family, the next the Seminary, the next his thousand 
living former pupils, and next the ministers and members of the 
Church. He is the centre of all, and the same feeling, decreasing 
of course according to its diffusion, pervades the whole. 

Your brother, Charles Hodge. . 




DURING these years Dr. Hodge was active in the public 
counsels of the church. He became a member of the 
Board of Foreign Missions in 1846; and in 1868 he was 
elected President of that Board to succeed Dr. Spring, and 
acted as such until the reconstruction of the Boards, conse- 
quent upon the Reunion of the Presbyterian Church in 1870. 
Dr. EUinwood writes, "We regard your father as one of the 
very ablest and most earnest supporters of the cause of 
Foreign Missions we ever had in the Presbyterian Churdi." 
He preached the sermon before the Board in the Church oa 


University Place on Sabbath evening, May 7th, 1848, on 
Matt. 28 : 19, 20, on "the teaching office of the Church." 
It was afterwards published in the Report of that year, and 
was considered as a signal exposition of the fundamental 
principles on which Christian missions should be conducted. 
He was a member of the Board of Domestic Missions from 
about 1 840 to 1 870. 

He also acted as a member of the Board of Education, 
from 1 86 1, and as President of it from 1862 to the Recon- 
struction of the Board consequent on Reunion. He was 
made one of the Vice-Presidents of the Presbyterian His- 
torical Society in May 1852, and a Trustee of Princeton 
College in the place of the Rev. Dr. Samuel Miller, de- 
ceased in 1850. 


His work as a Trustee in the College, often taxed all 
the energies of his heart and will. Professor Lyman H. 
Atwater, D.D., writes of Dr. Hodge that "he took a 
foremost rank in the Board from the first, and wielded a 
commanding influence in its proceedings. His efforts were 
especially directed to filling vacancies in the professors' 
chairs with able incumbents and to increasing the corps of 
instructors as rapidly as funds for the purpose could be pro- 
cured, and in maintaining a due proportion in the relative 
strength of the different departments, especially in main- 
taining the importance of the languages and the humanities 
in competition with the pressure of the physical sciences." 

His Co-trustee, Dr. Wm. M. Paxton writes, "Considering 
the fact of Dr. Hodge's antecedents and associations, it is no 
wonder, that as a Trustee of the College for the long period 
of twenty-seven years, he should feel his whole life bound 
up in the interests of that institution. During the last twelve 
jrears, it has been my privilege to be associated with him as 
a member of that Board, and it was a pleasure to observe 
the fatherly — I might perhaps say the Patriarchal — interest 



he manifested in everything connected with the prosperity 
of the College. He understood its history, the questions 
of policy connected with its management, its dangers and 
the conditions of its prosperity as the younger members of 
the Board could not Hence he was always listened to with 
the profoundest attention, and his judgment in many cases 
of difficulty had great weight in deciding the action of the 
Board. There were two points about which he manifested 
special solicitude. The ist was the maintehance of the religious 
character of tlu College, It was founded for religious pur- 
poses. It was sustained by the prayers, activities and con- 
tributions of God's people as an institution for Christian 
education, and especially for the training of young men for 
the Christian Ministry. It has enjoyed throughout its 
history the blessing of God, in numerous and powerful 
revivals, and in the character and influence of t^e ministers 
and devout laymen educated in her halls. Dr. Hodge fre- 
quently referred to these facts and insisted that they never 
should be lost sight of in the settlement of any question 
of policy. He urged it upon the Board that they should 
make the religious character of the College the first great 
aim of its administration. 

" He appeared to apprehend as a definite possibility the 
operation of causes by which this seat of learning might 
be perverted from the purpose to which it had been con- 
secrated by so many prayers. 

" 2d. The other point which interested the mind of Dr. 
Hodge was the maintenance of a high grade of scholarship 
in the College, He had a dread of a little as well as of 
an unsanctified learning. The completion of his own edu- 
cation in Germany furnished him with the standard of the 
higher culture attained in the European universities. Hence 
he was anxious to advance prudently, but as rapidly as 
possible the standard of learning in our colleges as a pre- 
paration for all the diversified enterprises of American life. 

" But he especially desired to provide a remedy for the 


deficient classical culture, which has hitherto been so pain- 
fully prevalent among the graduates of our Colleges, 
who seek to enter the learned professions. His own ex- 
perience as a theological professor had discovered to him 
how many of the candidates for our ministry have great 
difficulty in reading the Greek of the New Testament and 
the simple Latin of Turretine's Institutes. I am glad to be 
able to express his views upon this subject, because it is one 
of the vital points connected with our present educational 
systems. If the furor for scientific courses and the study of 
the modern languages is to displace the study of the classics 
then we must look for a great change in the mental culture 
of the coming age. The purpose of education is to 
develop mental power. I believe that the experience of the 
past has shown that the best mental development is attained 
by the study of the classics and mathematics. Each of these 
studies has its peculiar influence, and it requires the balance 
of the two to produce the kind of development and culture 
in which grace, strength and efficiency are conjoined. We 
ought not to be too ready to forsake the methods of our 
Others, for ' there were giants in those days.' " 


During these years Dr. Hodge matured his methods of 
instruction. His exegetical exercises with the Junior classes 
continued throughout his life to be very much what they 
were before his change of professorship. Through successive 
jrears he accomplished the exposition of all the Pauline 
Epistles, except those to Timothy and Titus, but going most 
frequently over the doctrinal portions of Romans, i. Corin- 
thians, Galatians and Ephesians. An account of the main 
characteristics of his exegetical teaching will be given in a 
subsequent chapter by one of his ablest and most accom- 
plished pupils. At the period at which the present chapter 
commences, his theological lectures were fully written out, 
and were habitually read by him in a quiet manner. From 

388 METHODS OF TEACHmC. [1853. 

year to year they were rewritten, being thoroughly recast, 
and much enriched and extended, but his method of teach- 
ing for many years continued unchanged. The lecture was 
delivered on a topic on one day, and at another within the 
same week, the entire hour was devoted to his matchless 
cross-examination. He soon gave up in despair, his former 
most excellent method of requiring all to make up systems 
of theology for themselves in the form of written answers to 
questions covering the entire course, because by this time 
each student was possessed of a written copy of the lectures 
before they were read, and copied to the professor's ques- 
tions answers in his own words. Hence often the method 
became irksome alike to him and to his classes, for they 
sat reading with their eyes for the most part the same sen- 
tences they heard read from the desk. He often proposed 
to print his lectures that he might use them as a text-book, 
but was restrained by the counsel of his most trusted ad- 
visers among the Directors of the Seminary, who feared 
that if these lectures were given to the public, they would in 
ceasing to be the peculiar attribute of this Seminary, cease 
also to attract students to its classes. But in his last years, 
when his ''Systematic Theology" was the common property 
of the Church, and it was made the text-book in Princeton, 
as it was also in several other theological schools, he felt as 
if set free, and his power as a teacher greatly increased His 
great skill as a teacher found its fullest play in the exercise 
of his gift for questioning, and by that means of compelling 
the student to think, and to refute himself if wrong, or to 
develop his own thought into completeness if right He 
always maintained that the true method of teaching didactic 
theology, involves the use of the text-book, the living 
teacher, practice in writing, and an active drill in verbal 
questions and debates. 

The following paper originating from some of his most in- 
telligent students, and his own letter in response to a request 
to him by the Rev. Wm. S. Plumer, D.D., for suggestions 

jn. 55-] METHODS OF TEACHING. 389 

as to the method of conducting the instruction of classes in 
his branch, will explain themselves in the light of what I 
have just said. 

Princeton Theol. Sem., Feb. 19, 1853. 
Prof. Charles Hodge. 

Dear Sir: — The different classes of the Seminary, in meetin£fs 
held during the present week, resolved to request of you a Syllabus 
of your Lectures on Theology, to be printed for the use of the stu- 
dents ; and appointed committees to convey to you their request. 
We, the members of those committees, would respectfully submit the 
following as some of the reasons suggested as giving urgency and 
propriety to such requests. 

I. From the amount of matter and the condensed form of your 
lectures, notes taken in the class-room afford a very inadequate and 
unsatisfactory guide in the prosecution of our studies in theology. 
Most of your students, satisfied of this, have been constrained to re- 
sort to the use of manuscript copies of your lectures. 

3. These manuscript copies present to our minds several objec- 
tionable features. Copied by students, the manual labor is injurious 
to health and eyesight, and consumes important time that should be 
given to study and investigation. Transcribed by copyists, the ex- 
pense places them beyond the reach of the great majority of the stu- 
dents. Besides, they are the occasion of various abuses. Professing 
to be exact copies, they lead to the neglect of investigation and of 
the study of collateral works, so important in itself and so often re- 
commended by our Professor. Carried by students to different parts 
of the country, they tend, by their many errors, to create misappre- 
hension as to the doctrines taught in this Seminary, a result which 
we, in common with our Professors, greatly deprecate. 

3. A printed Syllabus, besides promoting original research and 
compelling more close and vigorous study, seems to us the proper 
corrective of such evils. Moreover, printed and not published, it 
can scarcely seem liable to objection, as the premature publication 
of a System of Theology ; but even this objection seems to be met 
by the consideration that it would avert the danger of a surreptitious 
publication from imperfect copies already so widely circulated. 

Such, sir, are some of the reasons which have induced this expres- 
sion of a desire presented now with entire unanimity, and (we feel 
assured) entertained for years by the students and graduates of the 

Hoping that this communication may not fail of its end, and trust- 


ing that in presenting it we may not appear presumptuous, or as ex- 
ceeding the propriety of our position. 
We remain, with very great respect. 

Truly yours, 

John £. Davidson, 
James M. Platt— /x/ CUuu 

Thomas R. Markham, 
£. D. JuNKiN— ^^ Class. 

£. Kempshall, 

P. A. Studdiford— 3<l Ckus. 


Princeton, N. J., July 25, 1854. 

r Rev, and Dear Brother : — I sincerely rejoice that Providence has 
opened for you a field of labor so congenial to your tastes, and 
which promises so much for your future usefulness and comfort. 

1 fear I shall not be able to make any suggestions such as you re- 
fer to in your letter of the 20th inst., which will be of much value to 
you. It may be the best thing I can do simply to recite my experi- 
ence, or the course which I pursued, when called to teach theology. 

For some years after I was assigned to the theological chair, Dr. 
Alexander continued to give his lectures, and I was simply the cate- 
chist That is, I catechised the class on the several subjects widiout 
reference to the Doctor's lectures. He was often lecturing on one 
subject while I was examining upon another. The two courses of in- 
struction were therefore independent of each other. 

The method I adopted in preparing for these exercises was to read 
everything I could command on the subject in hand, making notes 
of each author. From these notes I prepared a logical analysis of 
the topic under consideration, and that analysis was my guide in ex- 
amining the class. Of course all such examinations called fcM: ex- 
planations and remarks as we went along. 

When the whole department was thrown upon me I endeavored to 
unite the advantages of the three methods of lectures, catechetical 
examination und writing. I lectured regularly on the whole course, 
spent the next day of meeting the class in questioning them on the 
subject of the preceding lecture, and gave out a list of questions in 
writing, to which I urged them to write answers in extenso, I still 
think this a good plan, if it could be carried out as it was here for 
several years. The practical difficulties which have gradually ac- 
cumulated are these, which very much impair its value : 

Firstt The students taking notes of the lectures have come, in & 


succession of years, to have almost complete copies of them. I am 
subjected, therefore, to the embarrassment of reading lectures, copies 
of which many members of the class hold in their hands. This 1 find 
a great bore. How the difficulty is to be avoided I do not know. It 
is the same in other Seminaries. 

Secondly^ The students, instead of writing answers to the questions 
given to them, after studying and reflecting for themselves, in most 
cases simply transcribe the copies of the lectures which are handed 
down to them by the preceding classes. 

The result is that the interest in the lectures and in the written ex- 
ercise has greatly decreased, while that in the oral questioning re- 
mains. For several years no one has come to the lecture who could 
help it ; whereas the room is commonly crowded at the oral exami- 
nations. I am at a loss how to get over this difficulty. 

The two defects of my system of instruction of which I am most 
sensible are, firsts that the students are not rendered familiar with 
proof texts, so as to quote and recite them readily when called upon. 
I believe they have a real Scriptural foundation for their faith, but 
this they get rather by reading whole books of Scripture in their 
connection than by getting proof texts by heart. 

The second deficiency I had in mind is the lack of information as 
to theological works. 1 frequently lecture on a subject, question the 
class, and give out written questions and mention no author what- 
ever. It does not, somehow, come in my way, and when done, it is 
done of set purpose. 

Your question as to what books I have found most useful I really 
know not how to answer. I have read, generally, everything I could 
on each topic, orthodox and heterodox, and got what good I could 
from each. Turretine*s Institutes I regard as incomparably the best 
book as a whole on systematic theology, but on the siibjects of the 
attributes of God, Trinity, sin, atonement, grace, etc., the books, you 
know, are endless, and I have no such estimate of particular treatises 
as to lead me to point them out as especially important. At least, 
you need nothing of the kind from me. 

With sincere desire for your usefulness, success and happiness, I 

am, very tndy, your friend, 

Charles Hodge. 


On the eighth of July, 1852, he contracted his second 
marriage with Mrs. Mary Hunter Stockton, widow of the 
late Lieutenant Samuel Witham Stockton, of the United 


States Navy, and sister of Major General David Hunter and 
of Dr. I^wis B. Hunter, of the United States Arm)KiEind Navy. 
This noble Christian lady supported and brightened all his 
later life, and assiduously attended him with her tender 
ministrations until his eyes closed in death. She has been 
an admirable mother to his children, and head of his house- 
hold, uniting the family and completing the education and 
training of its younger members in a manner their own 
mother would not have desired to excel. She survived him 
for twenty months, presiding in his place in the large fem- 
ily circle, preserving with us the traditions and associations 
sacred to his memory, the object of the affection and g^ti- 
tude of all their children. Left by his death as a stricken 
deer, she had no desire to live. Through much pain, yet 
with unwavering faith, she went to rejoin him on the early 
morning of February 28th, 1880. 

On the occasion of their marriage Dr. Hodge wrote to 
his dearest friend, Bishop Johns : 


Princeton, August 27, 1852. 

My Dear yokns: — ^You would not have heard of my marriage from 
others before hearing of it from me had I known where to address 
you. It was only a month or two before the event that I could bring 
myself to inform my own children of my purpose. Other friends I 
intended to inform afterwards. I do not know that you remember 
Mary Hunter, the constant companion of Caroline Bayard (now Mrs. 
Dod). I have known her by sight since she was fifteen years old. 
For the last six or seven years she was a sister to Sarah, and therefore 
to me. She was familiarly known and greatly loved by all my chil- 
dren, who were almost as much at home in her house as in my own. 
She has come into my family as an old friend, every heait already 
her own, and we all feel her presence as a token and assurance ot 
God's favor. 

I told her what kind of a man you were, and she said, " Well, as 
I don't know him, I can't love him desperately yet ; as soon as I see 
him I'll do my best." Her best is very good, indeed ; so you may be 
sure of an affectionate greeting from her, as well as from your old 
friend, when you pay your promised visit. Dear John, do not let that 


visit be only for a day. Old friendship deserves more than that, and 
remember I spent ten days with you in Richmond as meek as a 
mouse, never answering to all your sharp things out of deference to 
your wife. It will greatly add to our pleasure if Mrs. Johns will come 
with you, and the girls also. Hope deferred, &c. 

I have already made the acquaintance of Mr. Peterkin, and have 
heard him preach. He has made an exceedingly pleasant impression 
on his church and on the community. Every one speaks well of him, 
and his people seem disposed to receive him with confidence and af- 
fection. There are some High-church persons among them who 
think he is below the mark in some things; but even they speak 
highly of him as a man and preacher. 

Your affectionate friend, 

Charles Hodge. 


During these years he continued to keep up his weekly 
correspondence with his brother. In the latter years of this 
period, from about 1856, his letters began sensibly to de- 
crease in frequency and length, until some years before the 
death of his brother, in February, 1873, they had ceased to 
be regular, and became occasional. The cause of this was, 
in part, increasing infirmity, resulting from advancing age 
on both sides, but especially the increasing defect of his 
brother's vision, which resulted in blindness so far entire as 
to prevent all reading or writing more than ten years before 
his decease. The following are given as specimens of this 
correspondence and of his political opinions : 


Princeton, July 8, 1850. 
My Dear Brother: — ****** I hear you are a Fillmore man. 
That is better than going for Buchanan. I am for Fremont. Not 
for the man, but for the platform. I would not vote for my father if 
he endorsed the Cincinnati resolutions ; and Fillmore has committed 
himself to worse nullification than South Carolina ever dreamt of. He 
has drawn a broader line between the North and South than was ever 
drawn before, and exalted the 300,000 slave-holders into an equiva- 
lent of the 20,000,000 of the free men, entitled to an equal share in 
the government of the country. I think the great danger to the 


country and to the cause of justice and good government is from the 
divisions and concessions of the North. If Ohio had done to Ken- 
tucky what Missouri has done to Kansas, the South would have risen 
as one man and redressed the grievance. And if the North had risen 
as one man and told the South that Kansas should have justice, we 

should have had no difficulty. 

Your brother, C. H, 


Princeton, Dec. 29, 1851. 

My Dear Brother : — ♦*♦♦** My view of the character of 
Louis Napoleon is not altered by recent events. He is a name and 
an instrument which able military men use for their own aggrandize- 
ment. The army in all ages has an esprit du corps which makes 
them a distinct class from the people, and when they are addressed 
as the elite of the nation, and invited by their official head to become 
the ruling power, it is rare indeed that they refuse, France seems to 
me like a great bear led about by a soldier and ridden by a monkey, 
— if it be not wrong to speak thus of rulers. What is to come of all 
this God only knows. The choice for Europe just now seems to be 
military despotism or socialistic anarchy, and, therefore, it b not won- 
derful that so many are willing to choose the former. Hungary 
seems to present the only prospect of rational liberty, because the 
Hungarians are a religious people, and their leaders are professed 
Christians. I am filled with admiration for Kossuth, and cannot but 
hope that God means him to be a great instrument for good. So far 
from regretting his coming to this country, I think his visit to Eng- 
land and America is likely to prove a turning point in the history of 
the world. He appears to be chosen and fitted to impress certain 
truths, before indistinctly recognized, as living principles in the minds 
of the people, which must hereafter control public policy. I think 
his principle of non-intervention, and the right of -all nations to pre- 
vent the violation of that principle, is so obviously true, and so 
beneficent, that it will command universal consent. In our case the 
question is not as to our right to intervene to prevent the aggression 
of Russia ; nor as to our duty to do so if we can do it effectively, but 
simply as to our power. A protest would do little, a war not much 
more. We are too far off. But if by union with other nations we could 
so intervene as to make our intervention effectual, then I diink the 
path, both of policy and duty, would be plain. 

You affectionate brother, C. H. 



Princeton, Feb. 16, 1852. 
My Dear Brother: — *♦***! feel provoked at the way Z- 

talks of Kossuth. It is just as absurd and arrogant to call him a 
humbug, as it would be to call Newton an 4diot, or Raphael a dauber. 

Z should remember other men have eyes and ears and sense as 

well as he. Kossuth is beyond question one of the greatest men of 
the age, whatever may be thought of his history or of his principles. 
And as to his principles, I do not believe there is one good and sen- 
sible man in a hundred who doubts their soundness. The great 
mistake is that people do not distinguish between the principles 
themselves and their application. It may be very unwise for us as a 
nation to interfere as he would have us do, but the right and duty to 
interfere in certain cases, when it can be done effectually and safely, 
is just as plain as that it is the right and duty of one man to interfere 
to prevent another man murdering his neighbor. There is in the 
February number of Dr. Van Rensselaer's " Presbyterian Magazine^ 
an article on '\Kossuth and his Mission *' which I think takes the right 

' As to Louis Napoleon, I am not prophet enough to say what is to 
happen. He has on his side four of the six classes into which the 
French population is divided : — ^the army, the priesthood, the peas- 
antry (who are governed by the priesthood), and the capitalists or 
business men. These constitute the vast majority of the people, and 
by the instinct of self-preservation cling to despotism as the necessary 
condition of order. The only class against him is that of professional 
men (lawyers, doctors, politicians) and the mechanics or working 
men of the towns. It is so clear to me that liberty can exist only on 
the foundation of intelligence and religion, that I have no hope for 
France, where the intelligent part of the population have no religion 
and the religious part no intelligence. It seems, however, almost 
incredible that such a nation can submit to be so insulted, abused, 
and down-trodden by such a pretender as Louis Napoleon. 

Your brother, 

Charles Hodge. 


Princeton, April 14, 1852. 

My Dear Brother: — Six weeks does indeed seem a long period of 

non-intercourse between you and me. It did not use to be so. But 

circumstances, habits, and powers alter even when, as doubtless is 

true in our case, the affections remain unchanged. It is painful, how- 


ever, that we should thus drift asunder as we grow older. I have been 
rejoiced several times to hear that you were and looked better than 
usual this winter, notwithstanding its leng^ and severity. 

You see from the papers that Senator Choate has been making a 
great speech in Trenton on the India rubber case. James Alexander 
told me that he met Chief justice Green of Trenton the other day, 
who told him that Choate was a great Princeton man — ^thathe thought 
the IMnceton Review the greatest quarterly review in the country ! .' ; 
and Princeton the great conservative influence, &c., &c. What do 
you think of that ? I did not know that our rays penetrated so fas 
into the hyperborean regions. 


Princeton, March 15, 1854. 

My Dear Brother: — On Sunday evening I went to Church fDr die 
first time in some months.* When near home I struck my foot 
against a stone and fell with great force on my lame limb. The jar 
was considerable, and has made the limb tender and painful, very 
much as it used to be. I rode out yesterday, but found the motion 
gave me the same kind of pain I used to suffer. I cannot now walk 
about the house without occasioning more pain than walking two 
miles occasioned before the fall. I am afraid the socket of the hip 
joint received a concussion which has made it irritable, though the 
blow and bruise were presumably below the knee. 

I feel somewhat concerned lest this accident may throw me back 
to my former state of lameness, though I hope it may be only a tem- 
porary inconvenience. I am, however, for the present as lame as I 
was in '43. I propose keeping as quiet as possible for a while, and to 
use cold water and rubbing. Last night I pushed the hydropathic 
system to the extent of wrapping my limb in a wet towel and then in 
flannel. It did no harm that I could perceive. It made the limb 
red, the pores of the skin seemed dilated and raised, and a little rub* 
bing was more effective than a good deal before. 

I shall be really sorry to be again laid up. I trust this may not be. 
Dr. Duff has again disappointed us. He is not to come for a month. 
This makes it doubtful whedier we shall see him at all. 


An old pupil, the Rev. Wm. C ., had consulted him 

on a case of discipline likely to come up on appeal to the 

* Sabbath morning and afternoon he worshipped in the Seminary, Chapel and 


General Assembly, involving the question of dancing and 
worldly amusements. As his former letter to the Rev. Mr. 

C . had been misunderstood and hence misrepresented, 

Dr. Hodge wrote again and very explicitly : 


Princeton, April ist, 1853. 

Dear Sir: — ♦ ♦ » I very. much regret that the matter is coming 
up. It is a very serious matter to transfer a local difficulty and agita- 
tion to the whole Church. If this controversy has done harm in your 
neighborhood, it will do harm in a much larger theatre. There are 
the same elements of disagreement in the Assembly that exist in your 

Again, it is very doubtful how the Assembly will decide. The 
question does not come up in the abstract, but in the concrete. It is 
not a principle to be decided, but a given case with all its circum- 
stances. The Assembly is a very uncertain place for such discussions 
and decisions. 

And once more, if I understand your letter, you are on very differ- 
ent ground from that which I meant to assume in my former letter to 
you, and from what would be sustained by the general sentiment of 
the Church in this part of the country. It is one thing to state gen- 
eral principles as to things indifferent and as to the power of the 
Church in reference to such matters, and a very different thing to de- 
cide upon the propriety or impropriety of indulging in such things. 
Dancing, card-playing and wine-drinking all belong to the same 
class. They are not in their essential nature sinful. But there may 
be a kind of dancing, a kind of card-playing and a kind of wine 
drinking in their nature evil ; and when not evil in themselves it may 
be very wrong for professors of religion to indulge in them. They 
are all so associated with frivolity and worldliness that no minister or 
church member in this part of the country can countenance them in 
any form without injuring his influence»and the cause of religion. I 
have never allowed my children to learn to dance, or to attend 
dances, or to be present where it was going on. I have directed 
them to leave the company and return home if it was unexpectedly 
introduced. But I understand that you have advocated the propriety 
of Church members dancing, and have even remained present where 
it was going on. This could not be done with impunity by any min- 
ister here any more than his playing cards or countenancing card- 
playing by his presence. 


I think, therefore, if the case comes up before the Assembly, how- 
ever irregular or unwise may have been the action of the session, the 
decision will not be in accordance with your wishes. 

I hope you will excuse my expressing myself so plainly on this sub- 
ject, but as my name has been mixed up in this business, and my for* 
mer letter to you quoted in reference to it, it is proper that you should 
understand exacdy how I regard the whole subject 

Very sincerely your friend, 

C. Hodge. 


A fellow-citizen and friendly neighbor applied to him to 
baptize his children in a case in which neither parent was a 
communicating member of the church, at the time when 
the Rev. Benjamin H. Rice, D.D., was pastor of the con- 
gregation. He refused, and in the following letter fully 
stated his views of duty in such a case. 


Princeton, N. J., April 4, 1843. 

My Dear Sir : — ^Your request that I should baptize your children 

presented a question of duty which I felt to be so important that I 

have delayed longer than would otherwise have been excusable in 

giving you an answer. On the one hand, the desire that you and 

Mrs. B express, of having your children recognized as members 

of the Christian Church, is not only natural but worthy of respect. 
On the other hand, the obligations which parents assume in present- 
ing their children for baptism are of the most serious nature. From 
the nature of the case, the parent professes faith in Christ ; he pro- 
fesses to believe all the doctrines which Christ taught, especially all 
those which are particularly brought to view in that ordinance — viz. : 
the fallen state of man, his need of pardon and sanctiHcation, the 
suitableness and sufficiency of the provision made in the gospel 
through the merit and Spirit of Christ for our salvation, and the right 
which Christ has to our confidence and obedience. Besides this, it 
results from the nature of the ordinance in question that the parent not 
only professes his faith in Christ, but promises to live in obedience to all 
his commands. This is included in professing himself to be a Christ- 
ian ; and the Bible as well as our own reason teaches that all who pdr- 
take of the ordinances of the Christian Church do thereby profess to be 


Christians, just as those who offered a Jewish sacrifice in the temple 
professed the Jewish religion. While, therefore, the desire to have 
our children baptized is natural and proper, we ought to feel that the 
profession and promises that we of necessity make when we present 
them to God are so solemn and comprehensive that they cannot be 
properly made unless we are sincere in our faith, and determined, by 
the grace of God, to be faithful to our engagements. I make these 
remarks not only because I wish you to feel that you, as parents, 
would incur before God and his Church very serious responsibilities 
in having your children baptized, but also that no minister could, in 
this view of the case, conscientiously administer the ordinance unless 
the parents (or one of them) were prepared intelligently to make the 
profession and incur the responsibility which it necessarily involves. 

What the minister is bound to consider as a profession entitling the 
parent to have his children baptized is, as you know, a question on 
which the ministers of our Church are much divided. I doubt not 
the majority take the same view of the case as Dr. Rice. I feel, how- 
ever, that I am precluded by a previous consideration from the right 
of deciding that question for myself, or at least acting on that deci- 
sion. I do not stand in the relation of pastor to this people ; Dr. 
Rice does ; he has been made the overseer of this flock ; I have not. 
He, therefore, is responsible for the administration of the word and 
ordinances to this people, and other ministers have no right to inter- 
fere with his charge. I feel, therefore that I have no right to comply 
with your request. I am sure, therefore, you will readily excuse me, 
which you would do the more readily if you knew the pain it has 
given me to come to this decision. 

I cannot conclude this letter without begging you and Mrs. B 

not to let this matter rest here. The benefits and blessings connected 
with infant baptism are so great that no parent has the right to debar 
his children from them. We are bound to give our children to God 
in the way which He has appointed, and to secure for them the bless- 
ings of that covenant which He has formed with His people. We are 
therefore bound, as we desire the salvation of our children, to do 
whatever on our part is necessary to secure for them, according to the 
rules of His church, the great benefit of being devoted to God by the 
ordinance of baptism. 

May I ask you to show this letter to Mrs. B , for whom I enter- 
tain the sincerest respect, that she may see that I decline a compli- 
ance with your request only from a sense of duty, and that I consider 
this a question which neither she nor you can safely allow to rest as 
it now is. Very sincerely your friend, 

Charles Hodge. 



In the early part of this decade, Dr. Hodge, together 
with Dr. Joseph Addison Alexander, formed a plan for the 
joint production of a critical Commentary of the whole New 
Testament, based on the Greek Text, in a series of volumes 
of an approximately uniform size. 

Dr. Hodge published his Commentary on Ephesians in 
1856, that on First Corinthians in 1857, and that on Second 
Corinthians in 1859. 


Besides these volumes he wrote during this decade the 
following articles in the Princeton Review. 

1852. The General Assembly. 

1853. Idea of the Church. — ^The General Assembly. — 
Visibility of the Church. 

1854. Beecher's Great Conflict. — Dr. SchafTs Apostolic 
Church. — ^The Church of England on Presbyterian Orders. 
— ^The Education Question. — ^The General Assembly. 

1855. Memoir of Dr. Archibald Alexander. — Bishop 
M'llvaine on the Church. — Presbyterian Litui^ies. — ^The 
General Assembly. 

1856. The Church Review on the Permanency of the 
Apostolic Office. — ^The Princeton Review & Cousin's Philo- 
sophy. — ^The General Assembly of 1856. — ^The Church, its 

1857. Free Agency. — The General Assembly. — ^The 
American Bible Society and its New Standard. — Inspiration. 

1858. The Church. — Membership of Infants. — ^The Ge- 
neral Assembly. — ^Adoption of the Confession of Faith. — 
The Revised Book of Discipline. 

1859. The Unity of Mankind. — Demission of the Minis- 
try. — ^The General Assembly. — Sunday Laws. 

i860. What is Christianity? — ^The First and Second 
Adam. — ^The General Assembly. — Presbyterianism. 


This list of bare titles shows that he was now at the very 
summit of his life, making the most effective demonstration 
of his powers, and pouring forth the richest fruits of his 
labors as a student and thinker. The list is so rich in 
volume and variety that space is available only for a very 
cursory notice of those articles which possess special or 
most permanent significance. 

I. The Articles on the annual General Assemblies con- 
tain matters of various and paramount interest. Dr. Hodge 
was himself a member of the Assemblies of 1854 in Buffalo 
and of i860 in Rochester, and took a prominent part in the 
debates of both of them. He has left in these articles for- 
cible expression of his opinion on the following among 
other subjects. 

1. In the General Assembly of 1853, there were two. 
questions debated as to the Board of Domestic Missions, 
{a) The relation of the Board to the Presbyteries, and 
(^) Whether the Board is only a Missionary and not also a 
Sustentation organization. Dr. Hodge maintained as to the 
first question, that the Board and not the Presbytery is to 
be judge in every case as to its own ability to grant the aid 
asked, and on the other hand the Presbytery and not the 
Board is the only judge in every case whether the particular 
church concerned deserves the aid sought. He also main- 
tained as to the second <\\x^sX\on that it is anti-scriptural, inex- 
pedient, and contrary to historical fact to hold that the 
Presbyterian Board of Home Missions is only a missionary 
organization, that on all these grounds it is proved to be 
also the organ of the church for sustaining weak churches, 
and that practicedly it is the prerogative of the Presbytery 
and not of the Board to decide whether the particular weak 
church deserves any longer to receive aid or not 


2. In the Assemblies of 1854 and i860. There were great 
debates on the question whether the Boards as then or- 



ganized were consistent with the principles of New Testa- 
ment Presbyterianism. Dr. Thomwell and others argued 
the negative, and Dr. Hodge and others the affirmative. 
The principles maintained on both sides are reported by 
Dr. Hodge in his Article on 'Presbyterianism' in the Prmce- 
ton Review, July, i860. **The theory, as propounded by 
Dr. Thomwell in his first speech, was understood to embrace 
the following principles : (i). That the form of government 
for the church, and its modes of action, are prescribed in 
the word of God, not merely as to its general principles, but 
in all its details, as completely as the system of faith or the 
moral law; and therefore everything for which we cannot 
produce a ' Thus saith the Lord,' is unscriptural and un- 

I "(2). Consequently the church has no more right to 
create a new office, organ, or organization for the exercise 
of her prerogatives or the execution of her prescribed work, 
than she has to create a new article of faith or to add a new 
command to the Decalogue. 

"(3). That the church cannot delegate her powers. She 
must exercise them herself, and through officers and organs 
prescribed in the Scriptures. She has no more right to act 
by a vicar, than Congress has to delegate its l^islative 
power, or a Christian to pray by proxy. 

"(4). That all executive, legislative and judicial power in 
the Church is in the hands of the clergy, that is, of pres- 
byters, who have the same ordination and office, although 
diflfering in functions. 

" 5. That all power in the Church is joint and not several. 
That is, it can be exercised only by church courts, and not 
in any case by individual officers. 

"In opposition to this general scheme the 'Brother 
from Princeton' propounded the following general prin- 

"(i). That all the attributes and prerogatives of the 
church arise from the indwelling of the Holy Spirit, and 


consequently where He dwells, there are those attributes 
and prerogatives. 

"(2). That as the Spirit dwells not in the clergy only, 
but in the people of Grod, all power is in sensu primo, in the 

"(3). That in the exercise of these prerogatives, the 
church is to be governed by principles laid down in the 
word of God, which determine, within certain limits, her 
officers and modes of organization ; but that beyond those 
prescribed principles and in fidelity to them, the church has 
a wide discretion in the choice of methods, organs and 

" (4). That the fundamental principles of our Presbyterian 
system are firsts the parity of our clergy ; second, the right 
of the people to a substantive part in the government of the 
church ; third, the unity of the church, in such sense that a 
small part is subject to a larger, and a larger to the whole." 

If every thing relating to the government and action of 
the church is laid down in detail in the word of Grod, so 
that it is unlawful to employ any organs or agencies not 
therein enjoined ; then the Boards are clearly unlawful ; if it 
is not so, the having them or not having them is a mat^r 
of expediency. 

Dr. Hodge proceeded to prove that their continuance 
was expedient, because they did not differ in principle, but 
only in the accident of numbers from Committees, and be- 
cause they were in fact established, had worked well, and 
in some form not radically different from that in existence, 
they were practically essential to the work of a church so 
large and so circumstanced as our own. The Assembly of 
i860, the last one in which the Northern and Southern Old 
School Church acted together, decided in fevor of the 
ground advocated by Dr. Hodge, by a majority of 234 
to 56. 

404 COMMISSIONS, [1854-5. 


3. The question of the constitutional right of our ecclesi- 
astical courts to appoint commissions to try and decide 
judicial cases was debated in the Assemblies of 1854 and 
1855. It was argued against the right that no court, civil 
or ecclesiastical, can delegate its powers. Dr. Hodge argued 
earnestly for the right, because: "There is no delegation of 
powers involved in the appointment of a commission. A 
quorum of a Presbytery is the Presbytery; a quorum of a 
Synod is the Synod ; and a quorum of the Assembly is the 
Assembly. In like manner, inasmuch as a commission 
must embrace at least a quorum of the appointing body, a 
commission is not of the nature of a committee with pow- 
ers, but it is the appointing body itself, adjourned to meet at 
a certain time and place, for the transaction of a specific 
business — ^with the understanding expressed or implied that 
while the whole body may convene, certain members are 
required to attend. * * * It is well known that our 
ecclesiastical courts have oflen appointed such bodies, and 
that the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland an- 
nually appoints a commission, to which all unfinished busi- 
ness is referred. * * * It is, therefore, a mere question 
of expediency. Something must be done to relieve the As- 
sembly of the pressure of judicial business. The appoint- 
ment of a commission is a long tried and approved method 
of relief, and we hope it will be ultimately adopted, not 
only by the Assembly, but by Synods and Presbyteries." 


4. In 1847 it had been brought to the notice of the Board 
of Managers of the American Bible Society that there ex- 
isted a great number of "discrepancies between our differ- 
ent editions of the English Bible ; also between our editions 
and those issued by the British and Foreign Bible Society." 
Hence the Board of Managers, in 1848, directed the Com- 
mittee on Versions to collate copies of all the standard 


editions for the purpose of correcting the discrepancies al- 
leged to exist, relating principally to " orthography, capital 
letters, words in italics, and punctuation." The Committee 
on Versions, however, transcended in practice these perfectly 
legitimate and wise directions of the Board of Managers, 
and made changes affecting the sense of the text, and es- 
pecially sweeping changes in the headings of chapters, on 
the ground that they were no part of the inspired Word of 
God. This work of the committee was practically accepted 
by the Board, and large editions of the altered Bibles were 
printed and put in circulation. When this was realized by 
the Christian public, such general alarm and indignation was 
expressed that the Bible Society receded from their hastily 
and only half designedly assumed position, and peace and 
confidence was restored. The General Assemblies of 1857 
and *8 considered the matter. A strong condemnatory reso- 
lution, presented by Dr. R. J. Breckinridge, was passed 
unanimously by the General Assembly of 1 858. Dr. Hodge 
argued with great energy on the same side, in his articles on 
" The General Assembly" in the Princeton Review for July, 
1857 and 1858, and on "The American Bible Society and 
its New Standard Edition of the English Version," July, 
1857. The principles upon which this earnest opposition 
was urged were (a) The Bible Society, as the agent of the 
Churches, is the mere publisher and not the editor of the 
version, with discretionary powers, (b) According to the 
sense of the contracting parties, the Bible Society was en- 
trusted by the Churches with the duty of publishing the 
standard edition of King James* version, as printed in 181 1, 
as then furnished with headings, marginal notes and refer- 
ences. "The contract, therefore, to circulate the Scriptures, 
without notes or comments^ must be understood to mean 
without any other notes or comments than those already in- 
corporated in the standard editions of the English Bible." 
In this sense it was understood and acquiesced in by all 
Protestant denominations. Thus, while the Board had the 


right and duty of ascertaining the standard, the assumption 

of the right to change it in any particular was unwarranted 


and most dangerous, and must be prevented from exercise at 
once, without regard to the character of the changes actual- 
ly proposed While "the £ict that these changes (actually 
made), in almost all instances, eliminated the evangelical 
element from these headings, tended greatly to increase dis- 
satisfaction and alarm." 


5. In the General Assembly of 1858, the Rev. Dr. R. J. 
Breckinridge offered a resolution directing the Board of 
Publication to nominate men subsequently to be appointed 
to work under the direction of future Assemblies in prepar- 
ing a Church Commentary on the whole Bible, adopting the 
standard King James version, in the sense of the constant 
faith of the Word of God, as that is briefly set forth in the 
standard of the Westminster Assembly. This was referred 
to the next Assembly, and finally abandoned. 

Dr. Hodge exposed the weakness of the scheme very 
freely. He argued (a) That it was unprecedented, and 
would be destructive of all liberty for any Church to pro- 
vide an authoritative explanation of all the Scriptures in 
detail, (b) That the men do not exist who are competent 
for such a task, (c) That while the Confession of Faith is 
the rule controlling among us ministerial communion, it has 
never been made the rule for the interpretation of Scripture, 
(d) Even as to the Confession of Faith agreement is not 
perfect " We could not hold together a week if we made 
the adoption of all its professions a condition of ministerial 
communion." "Who is to tell us the Church's sense of the 
Confession? It is notorious that as to that point we are 
not agreed. In the second place, even as to the points in 
which the sense of the Confession is plain, there is want of 
entire concurrence in its reception, and what is the main 
point, there is no such thing as the sense of the West- 


minster Confession as to the true interpretation of thous- 
ands of passages of Scripture. The standard is an imagin- 
ary one. What does the Confession teach of the dark say- 
ings of Hosea, &c.?" 

These paragraphs made a great sensation, and the old 
school newspapers generally condemned them as teaching 
the loose view that the standards were subscribed by the 
intrants to the ministry of the Presbyterian Church only for 
substance of doctrine. That is, in the sense of evangelical 
Christianity in general. Dr. Hodge, therefore, published 
an article on the " Adoption of the Confession of Faith," in 
the October number of the Princeton Feview, of the same 
year, in which he defends what he said in July, and fully 
states his whole position on the subject of creed subscrip- 
tion.* The difficulty with the statements just quoted is that 
they present only that one-half of the subject which was 
related to the question then in debate. In the October 
article he maintains (a) That subscription binds in the sense 
of the animus imponentis — 1. e., not the mind of the mode- 
rator, or Presbytery ordaining the candidate, but the mind 
or intention of the whole denomination. (b)That to the ques- 
tion, What does the Presbyterian Church understand the 
candidate to profess when he " receives and adopts the Con- 
fession of Faith of this Church as containing the system of 
doctrine taught in the Holy Scriptures?" three answers 
have been given. First — That " system of doctrine " means 
"substance of doctrine." Second — That he who affirms it 
adopts every proposition contained in the Confession as 
part of his own faith. Each of these answers he discards 
for different reasons. Third — ^That the phrase "system of 
doctrine " is to be intelligently and honestly taken in its 
fixed historical sense. It presupposes belief in all those 
truths which are common to all Christians, and those com- 
mon to all evangelical Protestants, and embraces in addi- 
tion all those special doctrines by which the Reformed or 
Calvinistic Churches are distinguished from the Lutherans 


and Arminians and other Protestants. This system is well 
known, and easily ascertainable; it is clearly taught in the 
Confession, and is professed by all who adopt this as the 
standard of their faith. 

6. The General Assembly of 1857 appointed a committee, 
of which Dr. Thornwell was chairman and Dr. Hodge a 
member, to revise the Book of Discipline. Dr. Hodge at- 
tended to all the meetings of this committee, and wrote his 
views extensively as to the changes proposed, in an article 
published in the Princeton Review, entitled " The Revised 
Book of Discipline," October, 1858. He regarded the 
changes in general as wisely made, and objected only to the 
change in the affirmations made with regard to the relation 
of the baptized members of the Church to its discipline. 
He accepted the language adopted on that subject a5 sus- 
ceptible of a good sense, but preferred the language of the 
old book. He referred the coldness with which the work 
of the committee was received to a strong aversion to 
change on the part of the Church, and expressed his belief 
that "the time is not distant when a verdict will be rendered 
with great unanimity in favor of the majority of the altera- 
tions proposed by the Committee of Revision." 



7. The late admirable Dr. Van Rensselaer, when Secre- 
tary of the Board of Education, attempted to introduce a 
permanent system of parochial and presbyterial schools and 
synodical academies. This was met by a violent opposition 
from two opposite quarters. First, Dr. Thornwell and 
those who agreed with him that the Church's commission 
confines it to the preaching of the gospel, in the technical 
sense of that word, of course objected that the Church had 
no right to give secular education even to her own children; 
Secondly, The rationalistic and infidel supporters of a 


purely secular education opposed it as fiinatical and as in- 
terfering with the system of State schools. 

Dr. Hodge earnestly advocated the system in his Articles 
on the "General Assembly" for 1854 and 1856, and in 
an Article entitled the " Education Question " July, 1854. 
He there maintains with great force of conviction the 
following principles, {d) The absolute necessity of popular 
education. (^) That this education should be religious ; that 
religion should be a regular part of the course of instruction 
in all our non-professional educational institutions. The 
new doctrine that secular education should be entirely 
separated from religion he declared to be first " a virtual 
renunciation of allegiance to God, as destructive to society, 
and as certainly involving the final overthrow of the whole 
system of public education ;" and second^ absolutely imprac- 
ticable, since true or false doctrines as to God and his 
relation to us and the world must go along with all know- 
ledge ; and thirds destructive, because the attempt to exclude 
religion must tend to teach atheism either sceptical, virtual, 
or practical. (^). That the doctrine that our state schools 
must teach no religion, because the state has no religious 
character, he pronounces to be false as a fact, and absurd as 
an opinion. " Christianity is the common and supreme law 
of the land from the necessity of the case, because it is the 
religion of those who constitute the country." *' Our real 
statesmen^ our highest judges, our chief magistrates and 
founders of government and the ornaments of our country, 
have with one voice and in various forms acknowledged that 
Christianity is the law of the land." It is a matter of history, 
and a matter of fact as to the existing state of the law, of the 
institutions, customs, and convictions of the vast majority 
of the people. (^/.) That if the people are to be educated, 
the state must teach ; if the state teaches at all, she must 
teach religion ; if she teaches religion, it must under the 
past and present state of facts teach Protestant Christianity. 
\e), The responsibility of providing education for the people 


rests, co-ordinately upon parents, the state and the church. 
As to the right and obligation of the Church to teach, it 
evidently springs from its nature. It was originally com- 
missioned "to disciple all nations, baptizing them, teaching 
them." This has from the beginning been the uniform 
&ith and practice of the Church of all denominations and 
£^es, and the more conspicuously in the periods of her 
greatest spiritual enlightenment and faithfulness, (y) " That 
in the existing state of our country the Church can no more 
resign the work of education exclusively to the state, than 
the state can leave it exclusively to parents or the Church. 
The work cannot be accomplished, in the way she is bound 
to see it accomplished, without her efficient co-operation." 
(^) "That in the performance of this great duty, the 
Church cannot rely on the separate agency of her members, 
but is bound to act collectively, or in her organized capacity." 
In answer to a letter of inquiry addressed to him by the 
Rev. Morris Sutphen, D.D., of New York, Dr. Hodge wrote 
the following letter on this subject, April loth, iSdg, 


Princeton, N. J., April 10, 1869. 

My Dear Sir: — I am not aware that my views have undei]g^one 
any change on the education question. I still believe that the Church 
is bound to see to it that all within her influence, especially her own 
children, have a relig^ious education ; to which end parish or church 
schools are indispensable. 2. What is the duty of Presbyterians is 
the duty of other denominations or churches. 3. That in such a het- 
erogeneous and liberty-abusing population as we have in this coun- 
try, church schools cannot reach the masses sufficiendy, and there- 
fore State schools are a necessity. 4. That church or denominational 
schools are entitled to a share of the school fund of the State, pro- 
portioned to the number of children they educate ; the State having " 
the right to see that its standard of secular education is come up to. 
And, to finish my creed, 5. I would let none but the educated in 
the schools established and approved by the State — ^vote. 

I do not remember anything I have written on this subject I had 
forgotten the address of 1847, to which you refer. 

Your friend, &c., Charles Hodge. 


When a society was formed and memorials signed in 
order to move the Houses of Congress to send down the 
following clause to the States as an amendment to the Con- 
stitution of the United States — : " Humbly acknowledging 
Almighty God as the source of all authority and power in 
civil government, the Lord Jesus Christ as the Ruler among 
the nations, and His revealed will as of supreme authority, in 
order to constitute a Christian government, &c., &c/* — : Dr. 
Hodge, on every proper occasion, signified his approval, and 
publicly subscribed his name to the following sentence. — : 
" We cordially approve of the object of the foregoing me- 
morial, and desire to do all that we lawfully can to pro- 
mote it." 


II. His Articles on " Free Agency," " Inspiration," "the 
Church membership of infants " and " Demission of the 
Ministry " are all in his most effective style of theological 
discussion, and have been repeated and expanded^ but 
hardly excelled in the corresponding chapters of his Syste- 
matic Theology. Dr. McGuffey, late professor of meta- 
physics in the University of Virginia, told the writer that 
he regarded the former of this list as a most clear and able 
exposition of its subject, and habitually referred his classes 
to it. It was written in the first instance as a lecture, and 
was as such the very first lecture he read to his classes, 
when commencing to lecture in the department of Didactic 

In his article, " Demission of the Ministry," he earnestly 
argued the right and the propriety of providing a way of 
honorable retreat for the many honest Christian men who 
have become ministers while destitute of the qualifications 
for usefulness and success. The growing number of these 
nominal ministers out of office, and often completely secula- 
rized in character and reputation, and their frequent predo- 
minance in our church courts, is coming to be recognised 


as the greatest evil and danger in our American Presbyte- 


III. In the Article on "Presbyterian Liturgies," July, 
1855, he expresses the following opinions, (i). That the use 
of Litui^es is neither a peculiarity nor a natural adjunct of 
^iscopacy. "They were introduced into all Protestant 
Churches at the time of the Reformation, and in the greater 
number of them they continue to the present day." (2). He 
exhibits the reasons which justified Presbyterians in resisting 
the imposition of the English Prayer Book, which have led 
in Scotland and America to the general disuse of Liturgies 
altogether. (3). He declares it to be his opinion, that their 
total neglect has been injurious, especially in the imperfect 
and diverse manners in which the sacraments and the special 
rites of the church, such as marriage, ordination, burial, &c., 
are performed. (4). "These two conditions being supposed, 
first that the book should be compiled and not written ; 
and second, that its use should be optional — we are strongly 
of opinion, that it would answer a most important end." 

IV. The article entitled, " Princeton Review and Cousin's 
Philosophy," April, 1856, should be read by every one de- 
siring to see all the sides of Dr. Hodge's character. Profes- 
sors Dod and James W. Alexander had together written 
the article on Transcendendalism in 1839. It attracted great 
admiration, and was several times reprinted by parties entirely 
disconnected with Princeton, both in New England and 
Great Britain. 

In 1856, Caleb S. Henry, D. D., the translator of the 
Lectures of Cousin on Locke, one of the works reviewed 
in that article, in the preface to his " Elements of Psycho- 
logy" fills many pages with coarse vituperation, and impu- 
tation of the basest motives against the authors, one of 
whom. Dr. Hodge's intimate friend, had been eleven years 
dead. Dr. H. is often said to have been like the apostle 


John : if any one will read this vindication of the memory 
of his dead friend, they will nevertheless see that like his 
Saviour he knew how to address the "Fools and blind" and 
the " Generation of vipers/' 


V. In the April number of the Review for 1855 
Dr. Hodge had prepared a short article under the title of 
" Bishop Mcllvaine on the Church/' to show that his old 
friend and classmate, although a decided Episcopalian, held 
the same evangelical and Protestant doctrine of the 
"Church" as he himself had taught, and which many of his 
Old school and New-school Presbyterian " brethren in the 
ignorance of their reactionary zeal " denounced as too low- 
church, and as virtually giving away of everything to the 

In May, 1855, he delivered the first annual address before 
the Presbyterian Historical Society, in which he laid down 
the essential general principles of Presbyterian Church or- 
ganization. In October, of the same year, the Church Re- 
view and Register^ a high-church quarterly review of New 
Haven, reviewed that lecture, and set over against it an ai^u- 
ment purporting to come from the pen of Bishop Mcllvaine, 
maintaining the permanency of the Apostolic office. In 
his January number of the Princeton Reznew, Dr. Hodge 
answered and refuted this argument in an article entitled 
" The Church Review on the Permanency of the Apostolic 
Office." In April, 1854, he published an article entitled 
"The Church of England and Presbyterian Orders" in which 
he exhibits the historical argument of the Rev. Wm. Goode, 
in support of the position that the founders and great theo- 
logians of the Church of England while maintaining the 
expediency or even the divine right of Episcopacy, had 
never considered it essential to the being of the Church. 

The following interesting correspondence sprang up on 


the occasion of his response to Bishop Mcllvaine's argu- 
ment in &vor of the perpetuity of the Apostolic office. 


Princeton, Dec 18, 185s- 
Dear Charles : — I addrcst you in this afiectionale collie style not 
only because my heart dictates it, but also because I fear, if I did not 
do so now, I may not be able to do it at all. It may be that the Janu- 
ary number of the PrinciUm Review may indispose you to recognize 
me as your old friend, though I hope not 

In May last I was called upon to deliver an address before the 
Presbyterian Historical Society on the question, What is Presbyterian- 
ism ? a copy of which I send you. That address was made the 
subject of criticism in the Church Review, New Haven, Conn. The 
Reviewerxvalut^A of discussing the argument in the address, republish- 
ed m exUnso your sermon on the permanency of the Apostolic office ; 
which he called upon me to examine. I have made the attempt to 
examine your argument, and have endeavored to treat you as a friend 
and advocate of evangelical truth, while I treated your ar^ment as 
a Presbyterian. I really and honestly think there is nothing in my 
review of your sermon which ought to lessen our personal friendship. 
But as things seem so differently when viewed from different positions, 
you may think otherwise. I should be exceedingly pained should 
this be the case, for much as I feel pained and aggrieved at the posi- 
tions assumed in your sermon, I feel nothing but affection and 
respect towards you. Indeed 1 cannot but hope you will regard my 
review as 1 do,- a mere act of self-defence. Granting all I say, you 
are untouched in your ministerial and even your episcopal standing. 
But granting what you say, 1 am no minister, and if a Christian, am in 
a state of rebellion against one who has a divine right to my submis- 
sion to him as the bishop of New Jersey. It is not reasonable to expect 
that Presbyterians can silently submit to these claims of Episcopacy. 
So long as they emanated only from professed Anglicans or High- 
Church-men, I, for one, cared little about them. But when I found 
to my surprise that they had been advocated by one of your high 
character as an evangelical Christian, I felt bound, when specially by 
name called upon, to say what I have said in reference to the whole 

I hope you will feel toward me while reading my review, as I felt 
toward you after reading your sermon. 

Affectionately your friend, 

CHARI.BS Hodge. 



Cincinnati, Dec. 22, 1855. 

My Dear Charles : — I have just received your kind and affectionate 
letter of the i8th, and am much obliged to you for such kind desire 
and pains to prevent any evil influence on our long established friend- 
ship from a review of my sermon, which I doubt not your sense of 
duty has prompted. And by the way, I a little suspect that a part of 
the animus of the re-print in the Church Review was to bring me into 
such relations with my Presbyterian brethren and friends as would 
wean me from my affectionate feelings towards all of them who love 
Christ as my brethren, and especially towards some of whom I have 
the superadded regard as dear friends. 

I cannot say my dear Charles, what I shall feel when I read the 
review, but believing you would aim only at the truth and not at me, 
I will hope and expect so to receive it, that iove shall not be the suf- 
ferer, however other feelings may be. From what you say I infer 
that you have not understood my mind in the sermon, but have inter- 
preted the bearing on non-Episcopal ministers and churches as I do 
not. I do not perceive that the sermon contains anything in advance 
of the usual low-church doctrine prevailing in our Church. It teaches 
Apostolical Succession, just as I understand real Presbyterians to teach 
it, namely, that a cerUUnpart of the authority committed to the 
Apostles was intended to continue in the ministry to the end of the 
world, and, has continued — such for example as the power of ordina- 
tion. The difference between the Episcopalian and the Presbyterian 
being that the latter hold the descent to have been in the line of Pres- 
byters, the former in the line of diocesan Bishops. The Apostolical 
succession is held in my opinion as much in one Church as the other 
— the difference between the so holding and high-churchmanship in 
both, being when it is not held in such a sense as to exclude by the 
inferences drawn from it all other ministers than its own from validity 
and reality, nor other Churches from being real Churches of Christ 
whatever it may think of their defective conformity to the Apostolic 
pattern. Such Apostolic succession is vastly removed from that of 
Romanism and Puseyism, which not only makes a ministry so de- 
scended, essential to the being of the Church, and essential to the 
reality of all sacraments, but makes the communication of saving 
grace essentially dependent on the sacraments of that succession — 
and thus it is the exclusive succession of the gifts of the Spirit as 
well as of a certain office. 

My sermon was written in '39, some sixteen years ago. How far I 
should now enter into all its details I cannot say, for it is very long 


since I have given my mind to that line of subject. But when I 
preached it, as.ever since, I considered it as a simple maintenance 
of an alleged fact, with a studied abstinence from all attack or reflec- 
tion on other churches, and as leaving me at full liberty to believe in 
and acknowledge other churches as real churches, and their ministers 
as real ministers of Christ, often greatly blessed of the Spirit. I did 
not consider, nor do I now. Episcopal ordination essential to the being 
of the ministry or sacraments, any more than to the Church, though I 
do consider it essential to the full order and model of the primitive 
church. So you think of Presbyterian ordination. 

While I thus vindicate the position of the sermon, I do not mean to 
intimate that under present feelings I should take such a track of 
thought again on a similar occasion. It is one thing to maintain cer- 
tain doctrines, and another to give them a certain relative position. 
My mind is so off from the exUmalism of the Church, in the higher 
estimate of the invisible and eternal, so much more on the everlasting 
ties of the Church Catholic, than upon the temporary and distinctive 
(features ?) of the Church Episcopal, that I sometimes fear I am too 
much losing sight of the one in the mountain shadow of the other. 

Farewell Charles. Let us be one in Christ, How soon the seen and 
UmfioraiyfiW have passed to us and the unseen and eternal be our all. 
In Christ no condemnation. It is faith not orders or ministers that 
place us in Christ. May that uniting grace abound in us more and 
more ; then we shall have a place in the Father's house where all in 
Christ of whatever name or form of religion on earth shall be the one 
household of love and peace and holiness made perfect. 

Yours very affectionately, 


Charles P. M'Ilvaine. 

P. S. — I wish you would read my sermon on the " Church of Christ 
in its essential being," the third in my volume " The Truth and Life." 
As the volume was noticed in the Princeton Review, I suppose it is 
within your reach. I do not know how much you have seen of the 
sermon copied in the Church Review, as I do not know how much of 
it they copied — ^the merely argumentative part on Episcopacy, or 
more. I have therefore hunted up an old copy and send it, hoping 
you will read it enough to see that I preached on that occasion on 
something else than outward order. Please observe the note on page 
15 and the lines marked on page 28. 



Princeton, Dec. 29, 1855. 

My Dear Charles : — ^Yoiir letter touched me so, I wished my 're- 
view in Guinea. The Church Review said, " We give the argu- 
ment of the sermon, notes and all, without alteration. Even the 
italics are preserved.'* I find they began with page 10 of the pamph- 
let and ended with page 27, omitting the introduction and conclusion. 
So far as the argument is concerned they gave all they professed to 
do, but as far as the impression of the sermon goes, it was of course 

I very much regret that it did not occur to me to omit all reference 
to you as author of the sermon and review it as an argument of the 
Church Review, as the Editor so fully and strongly adopted it. Still 
I hope no harm will be done. It has not in the least diminished my 
affection for you, nor my high estimate of your services in the cause 
of our common Master. I was taken by surprise to find that you had 
written in favor of the permanence of the Apostolic office, and had 
endeavored to prove that bishops are the official successors of the 
Apostles, i, e, that they are Apostles. I knew that this is the alpha 
and omega of the Romish system, that no man could hold to the per- 
petuity of the Apostleship, in the ordinary sense of the term, without 
destroying the ground under his feet as a Protestant. I think so still. 
I think there is no hope for us, for you or for me, for Episcopalians 
or for Presbyterians, if the perpetuity of the Apostleship be con- 
ceded. I know that some have used that language, meaning that the 
office of ministry is perpetual, and others, as you have done, mean- 
ing that prelacy is perpetual. But this cannot help the matter. Let 
it once be granted that the Aposdeship is permanent, then Rome can 
prove, what nine-tenths of Christians have always believed, viz : the 
Apostleship in its essential nature includes infallibility and supreme 
authority. If you have a perpetual Apostleship, you have according 
to the common judgment of Christendom an infallible Church. 

You are therefore just as much interested as I am in proving that 
the Apostleship is not permanent. Dear Charles, I beg you to forgive 
me in advance if there is anything in my review which wounds your 
feelings. Of you I have spoken in the terms which you would expect. 
Of the arguments for the perpetuity of the Apostolic office, I have 
spoken as you would yourself speak of the divine right of the patri- 
archs and popes. I believe the argument for the latter is much 
stronger from Scripture than for the former, and I believe further that 
if the doctrines of your sermon can be established it is all over with 
Protestantism and Evangelical religion. You say beautifully and 



truly in your letter that you are far more interested in what is spiritaal 
and internal than in what is external. This question, however, touches 
the very heart of the gospel, and therefore I am sure you will excuse 
the zeal with which I have written. 

Your sermon on the " Being of the Church/' I have not only read, 
but made the subject of review, and the occasion of setting myself 
right with some of my Presbyterian brethren, who thought that the 
articles which I had printed on the Idea of the Church were unsound 
because they made too little of the external Church. I hope you will 
receive the copy of my address sent with my former letter, for it will 
enable you to understand the ground I occupy. 
With all my old confidence and affection, 

Very truly yours, Charles Hodge. 



VI. In 1845 ^^^ '6> ii^ consequence of the declining 
health of his venerable colleague. Dr. Miller, Dr. Hodge 
began to prepare his lectures on the nature and constitution 
and officers of the Christian Church. Some of the most 
important of these were published as articles, from time to 
time, in the Princeton Review, His whole mind on these 
subjects has been fully set forth in the articles on the Gen- 
eral Assemblies of different years, on the ** Rights of Ruling 
Elders," 1843; "Theories of the Church," 1846; "Idea of 
the Church," and "Visibility of the Church," 1853; "The 
Church its Perpetuity," 1856; and " Presbyterianism," i860. 
These articles attracted a vast deal of attention and hostile 
criticism both in this country and Scotland, with respect to 
the positions assumed on two points. These are, firsts as 
to the extent and minuteness of the binding directions for 
church organization and government set down in the Word 
of God and second ^ as to the nature of the office of Ruling 

As to the first point, he taught the following principles : 
1st — ^The Church of Christ, to which all the promises of 
Scripture belong is, in its essential nature not a visible or- 
ganized society of men^ but the whole body of the elect, 

iET. 45-^2.] THE CHURCH, 419 

who exist either in heaven or on earth, or who are to 
come into existence in the future. 2d — That the visible 
church which exists as an organized society on earth is not 
a diflferent body from the above, but is the same body as far 
as at any part of the world's history its members may be 
recognized as such by one another. And that the marks 
by which the members of this body are to be recognised, 
and on the ground of which they and their children are 
to be presumed to be members, and treated as such by all 
other Christians, are competent knowledge and credible pro- 
fession of the true fcuth, and a corresponding life. 3d — 
That it is the duty of all communities of such mutually re- 
cognised members of the true spiritual church to form or- 
ganized societies, with constitutions, officers, laws and sac- 
raments. 4th — ^That the New Testament does not prescribe 
in detail any precise form of church organization, nor can 
any existing ecclesiastical organization claim divine author- 
ity for the particular form or elements of its constitution. 
5th — But the New Testament does teach by precept and 
example certain general principles of church organization, 
and these are universally and perpetually binding on all 
Christian communities y«r^ divino. These are: (i) " The 
right of the people to take part in the government of the 
church. Hence the divine right of the office of Ruling 
Elders, who appear in all church courts as representatives 
of the people. (2) The appointment and perpetual continu- 
ance of Presbyters as ministers of the Word and sacra- 
ments, with authority to rule, teach and ordain, as the high- 
est permanent officers of the Church. (3) The unity of the 
Church, or the subjection of a smaller to a larger part, and 
of a larger part to the whole.*' — Presbyterian, April 21, 
1855. That within the limits of these principles Christ had 
left his Church free to do His work under the guidance of 
His providence and Spirit, in the manner found to be most 
effective under the changing conditions of time and place. 
The second point of his doctrine which was criticised re- 


lated to the nature of the office of Ruling Elders. He 
taught in this respect (i) That Christ committed the gov- 
ernment of the Church to the people or communicants 
themselves, in connection with the Presbyters or preachers 
and pastors. (2) That the people generally exercised their 
power through representatives chosen by themselves, and 
that these "representatives of the people" are our Rulii^ 
Elders. (3) This view of the office establishes it as jure 
divino, and exalts its honor and usefulness. (4) That it is 
everywhere asserted and assumed in our standards and in 
those of the Mother Church of Scotland (5) That the 
rival theory of the nature of the office, which made the 
ministers and elders one order, is subversive of Presbyter- 
ianism. It provides for no representation of the lay de- 
ment. The right of a minister to preach and rule is inher- 
ent in his office. In all ages of the world the clergy have 
formed a class by themselves. The rival view is latent 
Episcopacy, making one presbyter the permanent president 
over his colleagues of the session, endowed with the supreme 
power of administering the sacraments. Our form of gov- 
ernment groups elders and deacons together, provides for 
the ordination of the minister by the laying on of hands of 
the Presbytery, and on the other hand directs that a single 
minister shall set apart an elder or deacon indifferently to 
either office, by the proposition of a list of questions, by the 
vote of the people to be represented, and by prayer. 

These views, as they were gradually unfolded, were, 
doubtless, misapprehended by many, and were certainly 
violently attacked and misrepresented in the newspapers 
and some of the church courts of that time. It would, 
however, seem that they have been substantially accepted 
as sound by the church at large, from the overwhelming 
vote on his side on occasion of his great debate with Dr. 
Thomwell on the Boards of the Church, in the Greneral As- 
sembly, in Rochester, i860; from the publication and con- 
tinued circulation by the Presbyterian Board of Publication 

.BT. 570 RULING ELDERS. 42 1 

of his address on "What is Presbyterianism?" of 1855, and 
its republication with emphatic approbation by the strictest 
Presbyterians of Scotland; and from the reception recently 
gfiven to the volume on " Church Polity." 


Princeton, June 20, 1851. 

My Dear Sir : — I do not know that I can point you to the law in 
the book which contemplates just such a case as that presented in 
your letter, but I think the principles which regulate it are perfectly 

Aji elder is a representative of the people of some particular con- 
gregation, selected and appointed by them to act in their behalf in 
some judicatory of the church. He can act as such representative 
only when duly elected for that purpose. He has no power over any 
congregation except in virtue of their delegation of it to him. If he 
is divested of it by resignation, deposition, or dismission, he cannot 
resume it again any more than a Governor of a State could resume 
his office, after resignation or dismissal. If Governor Fort should 
resign his office to go to England and become a subject of Queen 
Victoria, not even a Philadelphia lawyer would have the face to 
maintain he could on his return (before his term would have expired) 
resume the chair again. 

The sense in which the office of ruling elder is said to be perpetual 
is, that after the church has once ascertained to her satisfaction that 
a man possesses the requisite gifts for that office, and has solemnly 
testified to that fact by his ordination, there is no need of ever repeat- 
ing that service. The man is declared to belong to the class of 
elders, 1. e. of those to whom the Spirit has given the gift of ruling, 
and from whom any congregation may select their rulers. The 
reason why this public sanction to the possession of the necessary 
gift is required, is because the whole church is one. A congrega- 
tional church may select whom it pleases for deacons or elders, be- 
cause their ftmctions do not extend beyond the limits of the congre- 
gation. But with us an elder in a particular church may be a mem- 
ber of Presbytery, Synod or General Assembly, rule over the whole 
church, and therefore the whole has the right to prescribe the quali- 
fications for the office, and the mode in which their possession in any 
case shall be ascertained and authenticated ; and when this has once 
been done, the church is satisfied, the man is always an elder ; any 
congregation may call him to exercise that office over them. But he 
cannot exercise it without such call, any more than a minister can 


act as pastor of a given congregation without a call. If you^were to 

resign your present post, turn Episcopalian, and then come back to 

Trenton, who would say you could without re-election have a right 

to resume your office ? I suspect if your head was not so full of law* 

before the gospel had a chance to enter it, you never could have had 

any doubt upon such a case. You see the advantage of having only 

one profession. You men of two trainings always see double. 

Your friend, 

Charles Hodge. 


Princeton, April 13, 1855. 

My Dear Sir: — ^The only objections which I ever heard against the 
doctrine of the Church as presented in the Repertory are : i. That 
it left the visible church without authority, its organization being alto- 
gether discretionary, so that we had no jus divinum ground for any 
part of our system. In other words, that we held Stillingfleet's doc- 
trine — " Government of God, the form of man." This was the idea 

presented in 's published letter ; this is the objection I heard from 

here, and from other quarters. And Professor Green has just 

told me that this was the only form in which he had ever heard the 
objection. To this, therefore, I directed my explanation, and showed 
that our doctrine as to the nature of the Church did not suppose its 
organization to be undetermined or indifferent, and that for myself 
I fully believed that the discretion of the Church as to its organization 
was limited to details, the essential principles relating to it being pre- 
ceptively enjoyed. I did not go further because I was not aware 
that the objection went further, and because there is not the least 
shadow of ground for the objection in any other form. 

In my lectures I endeavored to prove : i. That there is no form 
of church organization laid down in Scripture as essential to the be- 
ing of the Church — against Papists and the High-Church party of 

2. There is no plan of church organization prescribed in all its de- 
tails, so as to leave the church no discretion in the matter — against 
the Seceders and Brownists and some High-Church Presbyterians. 

3. That there are certain principles relating to the organization of 
the church which were obligatory as matters of divine precept, as e, 
g, [i) The right of the people to take part in the government of the 
church, and hence the divine right of the office of ruling elders as 
the representatives of the people. (2) The appointment of Presby- 

* Dr. Hall was in the first instance trained for the bar. 


ters as rulers, teachers and ordainers, as the highest permanent office 
in the church — against the claims of prelacy, asserting the parity of 
the ministry. (3) That the church is one, and therefore each part is 
subject to the larger part and to the whole. Hence the right of re- 
view and control, the right of appeal and the authority of church 
courts as laid down in the Westminster Confession. This is against 
the Brownists and Independents and Congregadonalists. 

It would have been very easy to include this statemei^t in the article 
just published (" Bishop Mcllvaine on the Church **) had I been 
aware of the nature of the objections made to the former articles. 
This only shows the impropriety of attacking a man in the dark, 
making general charges of error without letting him know what the 
errors are. These principles, however, have been so often and in so 
many ways presented in the Repertory^ and some of them in the 
pamplilet signed " Geneva,** which you had such a hand in getting 
printed, that I cannot feel called on to assert them anew. I do not 
think it would be becoming in me to come out with them now. It 
seems like answering publicly charges unnecessarily as they have 
never been publicly made. 

2. The only other objection is the one referring to the relation of 
infants to the church, which I hope has been sufficiently met* 

Thanking you for your kindness in this whole matter, I am 

Affectionately yours, 

Charles Hodge. 

P. S. — Since writing the above letter, it has occurred to me that the 
accompanying paper might be printed as a note to the paragraph on 
p. 355, in the event of the republication of the article. 

I perhaps know less about the state of feeling on this subject than 
others. I have heard of objections from various quarters, but on the 
other hand I have received such strong expressions of approbation 
of the articles from many unexpected sources, that I have not been 
led to suppose that there were any extensive misgivings on the sub- 
ject. If there are it might be well to reprint the article in the last 
number as a pamphlet with the note« 


Princeton, April 20, 1858. 

My Dear Sir: — I see the I^esbyterian contains your note and my 
answer. I think I am done now. I have said all I have to say, and 
those who are not satisfied must seek satisfaction from other sources. 
* * * It is humiliating to find that doctrines and views which are 
presented in almost every system of Protestant theology and in every 


work against Popery should through sheer ignorance, and a kind of 
instinct of High-Churchism — the working of what Bunyan calls " the 
Pope in the belly '* — ^be denied by Presbyterians — and they think 
they are thereby serving the truth ! Your friend, 

Charles Hodge. 

In the Witness, of Edinburgh, February 29th, i860, in 
the absence and without the knowledge of the editor, an 
article entitled the "True Idea of the Church," in which J. 
A. Wylie expresses his contempt for the articles on the 
church by Charles Hodge, republished in Scotland, with a 
preface by Dr. Wm. Hanna. 

The same paper, on the 3d of March, contained a letter 
from Principal William Cunningham. 

To the Editor of the Witness. 

Edinburgh, 29th Feb., i86a 

Dear Sir: — I hope you will allow me to record in your columns a 
protest against the style and tone exhibited in an article in to-day*s 
Witness, with reference to Dr. Hodge, of Princeton. Most people, I 
presume, are aware that he is one of the ablest and most influential 
expounders and defenders of Calvinism in the present day, and ad- 
mirably accomplished in almost every department of theological lit- 
erature. There is no living man entitled to treat him in the very pe- 
culiar style in which the author of the article referred to has thought 
proper to indulge. When he alleges that Dr. Hodge " wanders in 
darkness, and never for five minutes on end keeps clear of contra- 
diction,** that " in his pamphlet the contradictions are more numer- 
ous than the pages," &c., &c., he is propounding what is simply ab- 
surd — so absurd, indeed, as to be incredible. I indicate no opinion 
as to the subject of controversy which the article discusses. 

I remain yours truly, ♦ 

Wm. Cunningham 

In his letter dated Edinburgh July, 1844, a part of which 
has been already given, Dr. Cunningham had said, *' I re- 
ceived the pamphlet on the Eldership, and am much obliged 

* Extracted from the WUness by Alex. M. Sutherland, Student, Nev College, 


to you for it ^ I have never been able to make up my mind 
fully as to the precise grounds on which the office and 
functions of the ruling elder ought to be maintained and 
defended. For some time before I went to America I had 
come to lean pretty strongly to the view that all ecclesias- 
tical office-bearers were presbyters, and that there were suf- 
ficiently clear indications in Scripture that there were two 
distinct classes of those presbyters, viz. ministers and ruling 
elders ; though not insensible to the difficulty attaching to 
this theory from the consideration that it bXrXy implies that 
wherever presbyters or bishops are spoken of in Scripture 
ruling elders are included. I have been a good deal shaken 
in my attachment to this theory by the views I have heard 
from you, but I have not yet been able to abandon it 
entirely. If I am spared till next summer I must examine 
it with more care." 


Edinburgh, Oct. 16, 1852. 

My Dear Dr, Hodge: — * ♦ ♦ I have noticed with much interest 
what you have been doing and suffering of late years in domestic, 
official and literary matters. The removal of your two venerable 
colleagues was well fitted to produce solemn reflection, and must 
have occasioned to you no little anxiety. I am glad to think that the 
arrangements ultimately made in the Seminary in consequence of 
Dr. Miller's death, were such as you approved and desired, and I 
would fain hope that those which have resulted from Dr. Alexander's 
death may turn out equally satisfactory. 

We have been much interested in and pleased with the way in 
which you have been fighting the battles of the faith against Drs. 
Bushnell and Park. It seems to be still as necessary now as ever to 
be contending for the great truths, that the Bible is fitted and intend- 
ed to be a rule of faith, and that it really means what it says ; for it 
is really at bottom against these fundamental principles, these prin- 
cipia tkeologica, that the views of Bushnell and Park are directed. I 
have been a good deal struck of late with the importance of giving 
prominence in the training of candidates for the ministry, especially 
under the head of the History of Dogpina, to the illustration of the 
fairness and rationality of the process by which the right use of the 


Bible has produced, and of course still sanctions, the^substance of the 
common orthodox formula employed in the statement of the funda- 
mental doctrines of Christian theology. This appears to me of much 
importance for guarding young men against some of the influences 
which are in this present day most apt to mislead them. 

We continue to enjoy in the Free church a large measure of out- 
ward prosperity, and we are improving, I think, to some extent, the 
opportunities of usefulness which the Lord has set before us. The 
chief difficulties that have sprung up among us, and that still threaten 
somewhat our peace and usefulness, are connected with our arrange- 
ments about theological education. There had grown up among 
many of our brethren, through the latent influence, I fear, of a class 
of motives of a somewhat low and unworthy description, a desire to 
multiply theological seminaries beyond what, as it seemed to me, our 
circumstances and means require or admit of, and to the manifest 
detriment of theological education. This has led to some very un- 
pleasant and somewhat dangerous discussions, and is likely, I fear, 
to lead to more. I sometimes feel perplexed as to the course I ought 
to pursue in the matter. I have hitherto been able to prevent any 
actual step being taken in the way of college extension, as we call it, 
but I do not see very clearly how long and how far the opposition to 
it ought to be carried. One painful and dangerous feature of the 
case is that while many of the ministers are in favor of college ex- 
tension, the eldership, except where mere local feelings come into 
operation, are generally opposed to it. 

We had some fear that we should be called upon to preach, as Dr. 
Erskine, who succeeded Dr. Witherspoon as leader of the evangelical 
party of the Church of Scotland, did about eighty years ago, upon 
the question, " Shall we go to war with our American brethren?" 
But it is to be hoped that all danger of a result so disastrous as a war 
between the United States and Britain is overpast There are not a 
few amongst us who have serious apprehensions of a continental 
crusade against Protestantism and freedom. And if Britain should 
be compelled in self-defence to fight against Popery and arbitrary 
power, we would confidently expect the sympathy and assistance of 
the United States. It has been alleged that Lord Palmerston had re- 
solved, if he had continued in office, that in the event of the foreign 
troops not being soon withdrawn from the States of the Church, he 
would have taken possession of Sicily and established a constitu- 
tional government there. And I do not regard it as a thing very un- 
likely, or very much to be deprecated, that we may see a combined 
British and American fleet sweeping the Mediterranean, protecting 
Sardinia and liberating all the rest of Italy. 


I made a tour, lately, of a month on the Continent, visiting the 
principal towns of Holland and Belgium, the Rhine as far as Stras- 
burgh, and Paris. My colleague. Dr. Buchanan, was with me, and 
we enjoyed it vastly. But on my return I found my youngest child — 
a girl of 18 months— dead, though not buried, and another child — a 
boy of 6 years — dying. The boy lived five days after my return, and 
his whole deportment was of a kind fitted to encourage the hope that 
the Lord was graciously dealing with his soul to prepare him for 
heaven. It has been a very painful trial, but I trust we have been 
enabled to say, " The Lord gave, and the Lord hath taken away ; 
blessed be the name of the Lord." 

I am glad to see that your vacation has been extended to sixteen 
weeks. Would you not think of visiting the Old World again, and 
giving a few weeks to Scotland ? There are many here who would 
rejoice to see your face in the fiesh. There are few things that would 
afford me more pleasure. I hope you will forgive my negligence and 
procrastination and write to me soon. 

Present my kindest regards to the members of your family, to your 
colleagues in the Seminary and College, so far as I know them, and 
believe me to be, my dear Dr. Hodge, 

Your affectionate friend, 

Wm. Cunningham. 

In July, 1857, Dr. Cunningham published in the British 
and Foreign Evangelical Review an elaborate review of the 
volume entitled " Essays and Reviews," by Charles Hodge, 
published that year by Robert Carter & Brothers. In con- 
nection with an analysis and estimate of the contents of the 
volume, Dr. Cunningham says: "Our readers are well 
aware that Dr. Hodge is the senior Professor at Princeton, 
the oldest and most important theological seminary of the 
Old-School Presbyterian Church in the United States — a 
Church which constitutes the most numerous and the most 
influential Presbyterian body in the world. He was chiefly 
known in this country by his Commentary on Paul's Epis- 
tle to the Romans, until some of his articles in the Prince- 
ton Review were republished among us. The recent publi- 
cation of his Commentaries on the Epistle to the Ephesians 
and on the First Epistle to the Corinthians, and the collec- 
tion into one volume of his leading Essays and Reviews, 


have made him well known in this country, and have done 
much to promote the diffusion of sound theology. He is 
now recognized by general consent as one of the very first 
theologians of the present day. He has a very fine com- 
bination of the different qualities that go to constitute a 
great theologian, both as to mental capacities and endow- 
ments, and as to acquired knowledge and habits. His tal- 
ents and attainments seem to fit him equally for the critical 
and exact interpretation of Scriptural statements, and for 
the didactic and polemic exposition of leading doctrines. 
He seems to be about equally at home in the writings of 
the great systematic divines of the seventeenth century and 
in those of the most distinguished continental divines of 
the present day. While solid ability and extensive erudi- 
tion are the most obvious and fundamental characteristics 
of his writings, he exhibits also a play of &ncyand a power 
of sarcasm, which, though rarely indulged, and kept much 
under restraint, do contribute not a little to make them more 
interesting and more effective. 

" But it is more important to advert to the place which Dr. 
Hodge occupies, and the services which he has rendered as 
an expounder and defender of theological doctrine. And 
here the substance of what we have to say is, that he has 
rendered invaluable serxaces to the cause of sound Christian 
doctrine by the talent and erudition, the manliness and the 
effectiveness, the moderation and the firmness, with which 
he has maintained and defended the Calvinistic system of 
theology against the assaults of every description of op« 

" * * * ^fJ^ regret that we have not space to quote any 
portion of the article upon the question, * Is the Church of 
Rome a part of the Visible Church?" About ten or twelve 
years ago, the General Assembly of the Old-School Pres- 
byterian Church decided that the Church of Rome is not 
a part of the visible Church; that consequently Romish 
baptism is invalid, and that converts from the Church of 


Rome ought to be rebaptized. Dr. Hodge and his col- 
leagues at Princeton did not approve of this decision, but 
adhered to the opposite view, which had been held by the 
Reformers, and by the great body of Protestant divines ever 
since the Reformation. The grounds of their opposition 
to the deliverance of the General Assembly are set forth in 
this article. It is characterized by its author's usual ability 
and thorough knowledge of the subject, and, we are per* 
suaded, fully establishes its leading position. It is to be re- 
gretted that the General Assembly of so respectable and 
influential a body should have ventured to give such a de- 
liverance, in opposition to the whole Protestant Churches, 
and to their own most distinguished divines. 

"We have room now only to express our profound re- 
spect and admiration for Dr. Hodge as a theologian, our 
deep sense of the magnitude of the services he has ren- 
dered to the Church of Christ and the cause of sound doc- 
trine, and our earnest desire and hope that he may be long 
spared to discharge the important public duties to which in 
providence he has been called, and for the efficient perform- 
ance of which he has been so richly furnished by the Head 
of the Church." 

Dr. Wm. Walker, of Dysart, Scotland, sends me the fol- 
lowing through my good friend, Dr. Robt. Watts, of Belfast: 

" By the way, I can give you an anecdote, whose authen- 
ticity I can vouch for, because the man himself told me. 

'' One of our students, an accomplished fellow, took it 
into his head that he would like to go to Princeton. But 
he was anxious not on that account to lose a year. So he 
consulted Cunningham, putting to him the question, whether 
he thought a session there would count, 

'"Count!' said Cunningham, taking a snuff* and speaking 
in that curious fiilsetto voice which he sometimes used 
when he wanted to be emphatic. * Of course it would 
My only difficulty is this: whether a session there under 
Hodge should not count two.' 

I }> 



Princeton, August 24, 1857. 

My Dear Sir: — I am very much in your debt for your letter, your 
address and your review. I have no means of payment, and mast 
compound and pay only a shilling in the pound. I rejoice very 
much in the success with which you have opposed the course of the 
North British Review, Mr. Isaac Taylor has evidently got out of 
his depth. It is often the case that a man of genius and general 
learning makes shipwreck when he enters on purely professional 
subjects, the logical relations of which he has never studied. He never 
could have written as he did had he seen how entirely subversive of 
the authority of the Bible his views on inspiration and other matters 
necessarily were. Dr. Chalmers* fame is part of the heritage of 
Presbyterianism, and your vindication of his memory is a service for 
which all Presbyterians must feel grateful. 

The degree of Doctor in Divinity was conferred in June last by the 
College of New Jersey on Professor Lorimer, and announced in our 
papers. I presume President MacLean communicated officially with 
Dr. Lorimer on the subject. He promised to do so, and therefore I 
did not think it necessary to trouble either him or Dr. McCrie with a 
separate letter. It was owing to an oversight on my part that the de- 
gree was not conferred at a previous meeting of the Board in De- 

I do not know what to say, my dear sir, in reference to your friend- 
ly exaggeration of the merits of my essays. If your review shall 
have the effect of commending the views which they advocate to the 
favorable regard of our younger theologians, I shall rejoice. I have 
had but one object in my professional career and as a writer, and 
that is to state and to vindicate the doctrines of the Reformed Church. 
I have never advanced a new idea, and have never aimed to im- 
prove on the doctrines of our fathers. Having become satisfied that 
the system of doctrines taught in the symbols of the Reformed 
Churches is taught in the Bible, I have endeavored to sustain it, and 
am willing to believe even where I cannot understand. I wish to ex- 
press the special gratification I have derived from your approbation 
of the views expressed in the articles on the Church. I feel this the 
more because many of our brethren in this country have expressed 
great dissatisfaction with those articles. I am persuaded, however, 
that they contain nothing more than the common Protestant doctrine 
on the subject. I have a course of lectures in the rough on the na- 
ture, attributes, prerogatives and organization of the church, and it 
has been a favorite object with me to prepare them for the press. But 


I do not see any immediate prospect of my being able to do so, as 
they must be entirely rewritten and enlarged. 

I am ashamed to send you a letter all about myself; but if you will 
pay me by writing me one equally egotistical I will forgive myself. 
My summer vacation, which I hoped to turn to good account in 
writing, has been broken up by my having to leave home repeatedly 
to attend a sick daughter-in-law, with whom Mrs. Hodge has been 
obliged to spend the whole summer. 

With great respect and affection, your friend, 

Charles Hodge. 



Richmond, Jan. 23, 1849. 

Dear Charles: — ♦****♦ But that notice of the "Apostolical 
Constitutions*'!* Part of it is too funny. Have you read it? I 
thought I would have shaken out of my chair as I ran my eyes over 
the writer's demonstration that of all others Ptesbyterianism comes 
nearest the platform exhibited in said Constitutions ! Well if the 
honest soul finds the model up there, it would be a pity to deprive 
him of the satisfaction, and indeed the process is so amusingly down- 
right, that I could hardly help slapping the good fellow on the back, 
and exclaiming * Well done, my hearty ! * I hope for my sake 
" he has a* few more of the same sort left." 

I have not cut the leaves of the VI article,! and don*t think I shall. 

They say I am too favorably inclined toward that kind already, and 

I have no idea of coming under further suspicion. I shall read no 

more on that side till I get hold of your book.t which if the duration 

of pregnancy be any indication of the bulk of the thing to be bom, 

will certainly be as much as I can stagger under for the rest of my 

days. Yours truly, 

J. Johns. 


Princeton, Jan. 17, 1854. 

My Dear yohn : — I knew an excellent man, a pastor of a Presby- 
terian Church, who, whenever he was conscious of having neglected 

* An article entitled "Apostolical Constitntions." — Princeton Revitw. 

f Review of Dr. Miller's " Manual of Presbytery." January, 1849. 

X A book on " The Church'' which Dr. Hodge began but never completed. 


his duty and gone into the pulpit without preparation, took to scold- 
ing the people. You are one of the same sort Your conscience has 
been upbraiding you all this time for your shameful n^lect of me last 
fall, when you were weeks and months within two hours ride, and 
never came near me ; and now you relieve yourself by a good scold. 
I hope you feel better ; and as it is very unpleasant, as you know, to 
be mad at oneself, I trust you will behave better another time. I 
inquired of you when that sham trial was going on from every stray 
Episcopalian I could meet, sent messages to you, provided the messen* 
ger should fall in with you, but I did not know where to address you. 
I knew you did not stay in Camden, and I knew not where you staid 
in New York. And when I heard you had at last gone home without 
stopping, 1 was so mad I could hardly have spoken to you in the 

I am glad you are going to resign the Presidency.* One office is 
enough. You will never find relief, however, until you get back to 
primitive episcopacy, when a diocese was no larger than a parish. An 
ancient province, half as large as Virginia, then had 300 bishops. I 
wish they could make you bishop of Alexandria, (Va)., and be done 
with it ; and then you could stay at home like an honest man. 

I am glad, too, to hear that your boys are settled tQ their own and 
your satisfaction. Give my love to Nancy and ask her to come and 
make us a visit, and try the effect of a northern winter. I do not be- 
lieve in Williamsburg, and rejoice you are going to leave it. 

What a dreadful scene of protracted suffering the wreck of the San 
Francisco must have exhibited. The Doctor's (his broths) brother- 
in-law, Mr. Woolsey Aspinwall, was one of the passengers. He is 
threatened with a pulmonary complaint and was going to Valparaiso 
for his health. He was one of those taken off by the Kilby, and was 
for two weeks aboard that vessel, crowded beyond measure, without 
a change of clothes, with scarcely anything to eat, and little water, 
and all the time in imminent peril. He is now in New York dread- 
fully exhausted, but likely to do well. 

I sympathize with you in your building troubles. Get a good book 

(as I am told it is) written by a very foolish man. Prof. F , the 

phrenologist, on octagon houses. I have seen some plans of his 
which were striking, not only from their effect, but for the wonderful 
facilities and roominess, which that form allows of, at a moderate 
expense. Nutman of Philadelphia furnished R. S., my next neigh- 
bor, a plan of a Gothic cottage, which cost some $14000, and has liter- 
ally two parlors and two chambers, and no more, except a square 

• Of WiUiam and Mary's College, Va. 


room of eight by ten feet over the entry. This house, where I live, has 
four rooms on the first floor and five on the second, three finished 
rooms in the attic, besides three finished rooms in the basement, and 
cost less than $5000 thirty years ago. Build either an octagon or a 
square house, and eschew anything pointed unless you mean to build 
a palace. 

Mrs. Hodge and myself will (D. V.) return your and Mrs. Johns* 
visit right off when we get it. How can we do it before we get it ? 
Answer that ! 

With much love to all about you, yours as young as ever while 

writing to you. God bless you, dear John. 

Charles Hodge. 


Malvern, August 31st, 1855. 

Dear Charles : — I did not recognize the hand-writing on the envel- 
ope. Perhaps this was owing to the diminution of visual discernment 
which comes with the infirmities of age^ or from want of practice 
arising from lack of opportunity, which I deprecate. When I stripped 
the pamphlet, Nannie was sitting by me, and as soon as she saw the 
title on its cover, "What is Presbyterianism ? "* she exclaimed, 
•' How uninteresting \ '* We both supposed it to be a new issue from 
the Protestant Episcopal Sunday School Union, and probably like 
the " Presbyterian in search of the Church,** the parthian production 
from some deserter from your own ranks. Under this impression it 
was very near going unread, and unopened to add to the pile reserv- 
ed for the fire. Happily it was rescued by the curling of the cover, 
as I held it in my hand disclosing the entry on the blank leaf, a line 
more precious to me than all the valliable publications of the Presby- 
terian Board, this pamphlet itself included. I cannot describe to you 
the sudden revulsion produced by this discovery. I will not say that I 
read the essay through without taking breath, but certainly I allowed 
nothing to interfere till I finished its perusal, for I was prepared to 
find that under your skilful showing the subject of the treatise could 
present attractions not commonly apprehended. And now if we were 
only together, how I should like to hold the picture in my hand and 
answer you by my simple comments. As the great gratification of 
being with you is denied me, I must briefly report my impressions, 
just to indicate how far an honest Prelatist and a conscientious Pres- 
byterian may agree. And to begin at the end: — 

* Delivered before the Presbyterian Historical Society, and published by the 
Board of Publication. 



1. Your condemnation of Congregationalist is quite to our mind. 

2. Your advocacy of the " rights of the people with subjection to 
legitimate authority/* is our doctrine out and out, though in the 
arrangements for the exercise of the popular element, we dififer, yet 
that element pervades our ecclesiastical system from the appointment 
of parish officers and ministers, up to canonical enactments, and to 
the consecration of bishops. Nothing is done without the concur- 
rence of the Laity. On this point we adopt your great principle, but 
cannot acquiesce in your exclusive claims. 

3. In your opinion with regard to the limitations of the Apostolic 
office to the Apostles themselves, that it was not to be perpetual in 
the Church, this as you are aware was the view of the leading divines 
of the Church of England down to the days of Laud, and in the 
standards of that Church there is not a line to sustain what you con- 
trovert so ably. Those who maintain the contrary are alone respon* 
sible for their error. 

4. I do not think you have distinguished as clearly as I wished 
you had done between the Church of England and the Anglican 
party in that Church. Common readers would be apt to regard them 
as one and the same, and to impute to the body, the sentiments of a 
faction. Have you made the faction the body, and the Church a 
scarcely observable caudal appendage ? 

5. With regard to exclusive claims you will not forget that as far as 
Protestants are concerned, Cartwright & Co., are entitled to the dis- 
covery. It was expressly combated by Hooker and others, see 
**Goode*s Vindication." 

6. That the Apostolic office was not permanent does not prove that 
they did not appoint an order in the Church properly Episcopal. For 
although it would not be easy to prove that they did so from Scripture 
alone, yet connected with ancient authors, on whose testimony as to 
facts we all rely, and which it seems impossible to dispose of on any 
other theory, the fact was so, see " Litton on the Church." 

7. It strikes me that our Presbyterian brethren have fallen into the 
Romish error of suppressing what was an Apostolic order, then split- 
ting another to supply its place ; abolishing the Episcopate proper, 
and then dividing the office of Presbyter. On this point of the 
Ruling-Eldership, I was struck with the adroitness of the essay. 

8. What have you done with the office usually styled the Dea- 
conate ? 

But you are tired, and my paper only leaves room to say that my 
daughters join me in most affectionate regards to your family and 
self. With unchanged and unchangeable love, your brother, 

J. Johns. 



He suffered the great sorrow, in which a wide public 
sympathized, occasioned by the quickly succeeding deaths 
of his life-long and intimate friends, the illustrious brothers, 
Drs. James W. and Joseph Addison Alexander. The 
elder brother died on the 31st of July, 1859, at the Red 
Sweet Springs in the mountains of his native Virginia. 
His biographical memorial is principally the two volumes 
of letters, the record of his correspondence of forty years 
with his bosom friend, the Rev. John Hall, D. D., of Tren- 
ton, N. J. With reference to the publication of these 
remarkable volumes the following letters of Dr. Hodge 
to Dr. John Hall remain: 

Princeton, Sept. 28, 1859. 

My Dear Sir: — ^There is, I presume, no difference of opinion 
among the friends of our beloved friend, Dr. J. W. Alexander, that 
some work commemorative of the man and his character should be 
prepared. There is, I think, just as little difference in judgment that 
you and you only are the proper person to perform this sacred duty. 
I need not state the reasons of this judgment. Your life-long inti- 
mate association with him, and your possession of the fullest record 
of his thought and feelings, are enough to determine this point. His 
brother Addison tells me that you have written to urge him to under- 
take this task. I sincerely believe that he cannot do it. You know 
as well as I do that what is painful to him in the way of mental or 
literary effort, becomes impossible. His feelings are in such a state 
that I am persuaded he could not turn his mind to this work. It 
would be like busying himself for months about the funeral of his 
brother. It is best for him and his usefulness to have his mind occu- 
pied with other things. I do trust, therefore, that you will yield to 
the judgment and wishes of those most interested and best qualified 
to judge, and consent to begin the work without delay. This is a 
point I think of much importance. Whatever is done should be 
done at once. The interest, the usefulness and success of any book 
which may be written would be the greater the sooner it is in the 
hands of the public. 

The only real question in this matter, is, what kind of work should 
be prepared ? As to this point Dr. Addison Alexander and myself 
fiiUy agree. It ought not to be a memoir of his life ; not a biography. 

436 DEATH OF DR. J, fV. ALEXANDER. [i86ai 

The materials for such a work are too few ; and to make a biography 
in name while the letters are relied upon to give interest and impoit- 
ance to the work, is, 1 think, sure to fail ; for it will be neither one 
thing nor the other. What would be most interesting, most instruc- 
tive, most useful and most truly an exhibition of the man, would be 
a volume or volumes containing your correspondence with him from 
beginning to end, your letters and his. This would be a unique 
work. It would be a literary, a theological, a religious and a conver- 
sational history of the past forty years. Your letters are as important 
in such a work as his, and needed for the explanation of his. You 
could give your name or not. I would give it. But you might entitle 
the book " The correspondence of Dr. J. W. A. and one of 

his Friends from i8 to i8 .'* These letters are yours. You 

only can revise them. You only can say what should and what 
should not be published. Do give this suggestion a favorable hear- 
ing. It is entitled to serious consideration. No mere feeling of re- 
luctance to bringing your own letters before the public should lead 
you to deprive the world of a work which would be of such peculiar 
interest and value. Your affectionate friend, 

Charles Hodge. 


Princeton, Jan. 17th, i860. 

My Dear Sir : — I had entirely lost sight of the fact that Dr. James 
Alexander was ever the Editor of the Princeton Review, or that after 
1 829 it ever had an Editor. It was conducted by an association of gen- 
tlemen in Princeton and its vicinity from 1829 until after the death of 
Dr. Archibald Alexander. That imprint continued to be used until 
1840, when, although the association continued, reference to it was 
not made on the title page. Dr Addison tells me he knows that his 
brother acted as editor in 1830, and thinks he continued to do so 
when he went to Philadelphia. 

The sixty page article on Transcendentalism was written by Drs. 
James and Dod — the former writing the first thirty pages, a survey 
of the German aspect of the case, and the latter the critique on Cousin. 
The article on the Modern Form of Infidelity, relating to the discus- 
sion between Ripley and Norton, was written by me. The whole of 
the Transcendental article and a good part of the other were printed 
in a pamphlet, under the auspices of Professor Norton. I have seen 
the pamphlet but have not now a copy of it. 

Why do you strike out the playful parts of his letters ? 

Your friend, Charles Hodge. 

You are too free with your stamps. Does Uncle Sam supply you ? 

iBT.62.] DEATH OF DR. y. A. ALEXANDER. 437 

On Saturday afternoon, the 28th of January, i860, his 
life-long friend and most eminent colleague, Dr. Joseph 
Addison Alexander, died. In consideration of Dr. Alex- 
ander's unparalleled learning and genius, of the fact that he 
was cut off in the flower of his days — in his 5 2d year, — at 
the very beginning of what promised to be a harvest pro- 
portionate to his extraordinary season of preparatory culti- 
vation, and the feet that the event was, to the apprehension 
of his friends, very sudden, his death was the most disas- 
trous blow the institutions of Princeton ever experienced. 
In a letter to the writer. Dr. Hodge declared that, with the 
exception of the death of his wife, the death of Professor 
Alexander was the greatest sorrow of his life. 

On the afternoon of the Sabbath which succeeded, he 
broke down from excess of emotion while attempting to 
read the words, "Let not your heart be troubled," and 
transferred the reading to Dr. Green. Afterwards he spoke 
at length of his friend, concluding thus: "In all my inter- 
course with men, though it has been limited, both in this 
country and Europe, I never met with one having such a 
combination of wonderful gifts. The grace of God most to 
be admired was that, though of necessity perfectly familiar 
with all the forms of error held by the enemies of the 
truth, and especially the most insidious one of criticism, 
he had a most simple, child-like faith in the Scriptures, and 
the deepest reverence for the Word of God. Above all, 
his crowning glory was his spirituality and devoted piety. 
We cannot properly estimate our loss till we think of what 
he was, and what he would have been, for he was only fifty- 
two years old, and the next ten years is the best period of 
such a man's life." 

He wrote to Dr. John C. Backus, of Baltimore, January 
30, i860: 

"The public papers will have informed you of the dread- 
ful blow which has fallen on us, by which we are almost 
overwhelmed. You cannot tell how we feel. It is awful. 

438 DEA TH OF DR. J. A. ALEXANDER, [i860. 

All our treasure seems suddenly sunk in the bosom of the 
sea. Do pray for us, and for the Seminary. We have lost 
the greatest and one of the best men I ever knew." 


Theol. Seminary. Feb. 16, i860. 

My Dear Brother : — I cannot describe to you the interest with 
which I have read your letter, nor the thoroughness of the sympathy 
with which I have entered into your case. My heart bled for you 
from the very beginning, for 1 knew precisely how you felt under the 
severe bereavement. My own mind was so greatly shocked that 
for successive days and nights I could think of nothing but the irre- 
parable loss which the church had sustained. It was not my good 
fortune to be personally known to the deceased ; but I admired his 
genius, his learning, his piety and eloquence. I was proud of him as 
a product of the Presbyterian Church in America, and he had not a 
friend on earth who felt a heartier satisfaction in the growing brill« 
iancy of his name. His commentaries on Acts and Mark I regarded 
as models, as nearly perfection in their kind as human skill could 
make them, and I have been in the habit, not only of recommenc- 
ing them, but of insisting on my classes procuring and studying thenu 
Then his modesty was equal to his worth. So free from vanity, from 
ostentation, from parade and pretensions. 

But my dear brother, God reigns. Let us rejoice that we have 
this bright and beautiful light so long among us. It was given in 
grace, and it was removed not without wisdom and mercy. We must 
all soon follow. I feel the ties constantly snapping which bind me 
to earth. Many of the friends and companions of my youth are 
going ; darling objects of domestic affection have been, one by one, 
removed ; cherished schemes have been blasted, fond hopes crushed, 
the world has lost its charms, and I stand like a pilgrim with my staff 
in my hand ready to depart when the Master shall give the word. I 
feel that all is vanity but Christ and His Kingdom, The dead are 
the blessed ones. We are the ones to be pitied. My brother, pray 
for me that I may be faithful. To be found in Christ a loving, thriv- 
ing member, that is all I ask, all that I desire. 

I have written currenU caiamo just as I feel. Excuse my freedom. 
Make my kindest regards to Dr. McGill. The Lord bless you all ! 

Most truly, 

J. H. Thornwell. 



This supreme loss occasioned the necessity for a consid- 
erable change in the faculty. No one man could fill Dr. 
Alexander's place. The different plans discussed by the 
Directors, and proposed for reference to the impending 
General Assembly, are stated in the following letter: 


Princeton, March